US 1181205 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. N. ARNOLD.
APPLICATION men JULY 9.1914.
Patented May 2, 1916.
FREDRICK N. ARNOLD, 0F BUFFALO, NEW YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented May 2, 119116.
, Application filed July 9, 1914. Serial No. 849,902.
This invention relates more particularly to apparatus for use in hydrogenizlng fats and oils, although the apparatus is not limited to such use but is also adapted for mix- .ing liquids or other substances with a gas 01' vapor.
The objectsof this invention are to provide an apparatus of this kind WhlCh w1ll insure a rapid and thorough mixing of a liquid either with or without solid material contained therein, with a gas or vapor, as, for example, in the reduction of fatty aclds and glycerids or other reduceable materials with hydrogen or other reducing gas or vapor, or in the saponification ofglycei-ids to fatty acids and glycerin.
In hydrogenizing fats and .oils it has been found that the mere passing of the hydrogen-through the fat or oil does not cause the gas to be readily absorbed, and
that a -more-intimate mixing will greatly reduce the time required to produce the desired reduction. The apparatus disclosed is particularly desirable for producing the required intimate mixture and greatly reduces the time required for hydrogenizing fats and oils.
In the accompanying drawings: ligure 1 is a central sectional elevation of an apparatus embodying the. invention.- Fig. 2 is a sectional plan view thereof on line 2-2, Fig. 1.
A represents a closed tank or receptacle of suitable construction adapted to contain the materials to be mixed. The tank shown is cylindrical and is mounted in upright position on suitable supports or legs a and is provided with a manhole a and with admission or discharge pipes a a forthe liquid and a pipe a for the admission of the gas or vapor. The pipe a is provided with a valve (4 leading to the atmosphere, and a valve a controlling the admission of gas or vapor to the tank from a supply pipe a. All of these parts may be of any suitable or usual construction.
The mixing of the liquid with the gasor -vapor is accomplished in the apparatus of movement thereof.
shown by imparting a rotary motion to the liquid in the lower portion of the tank and causing the whirling liquid to be thrown upwardly into the space above the body of liquid which is occupied by the gas or vapor. by means of blades or deflectors which depend into the liquid. The liquid is preferably thrown violently against the top of the tank so that it is broken up and descends through the gas space in a shower, spray or mist, thus causing all portions of the liquid to come into intimate contact with the gas. In the construction shown for this purpose, a whirling motion is imparted to the liquid by means of paddles or agitators B B projecting laterally from a vertical rotary shaft 6, which extends into the tank preferably through a suitable stufling box I) on the top of the tank. This shaft is preferably suspended from a suitable support I)". by means of a bearing 6 so that no bearing for the shaft is required in the tank. The
lower portion of the shaft is centered in the tank and steadied by means of a suitable guide bracket 6 secured to the bottom of the tank. Movement may be imparted to the shaft in any suitable manner, for example by means of bevel gears 12 I) connecting the mixing shaft with a drive shaft 7).
The paddlesrmay be or any suitable construction, those shown being substantially flat and inclined with regard to. the direction One paddle B is preferably located adjacent to the upper surface of the liquid and the'other paddle B is arranged near the bottom of the tank where it serves to move theliquid from the bottom of the tank upwardly.
The whirling liquid which partially fills the tank is deflected upwardly through the gas or vapor in thetank by means of a plurality of deflectors or blades C, secured in the tank, for example to the side walls thereof. The lower ends of the deflectors extend into the liquid and are inclined from the vertical, so that the deflector will scoo up the liquid which will flow upwardly a lon the deflectors, and if the liquid in the tan is whirled with suflicient speed, the liquid will be dashed against the top of the tankwalls of the tank, each deflector is inclined at its upper portion in the direction of movement of the liquid in the tank, at an angle to a radial line of the tank so that the deflectors tend to cause the liquid to flow toward the center of the tank.
It is frequently necessary to heat the liquid to be acted upon, for which purpose coils D, for steam or other heating medium, are provided inside of the tank. The heating medium enters the coil through a valve (Z and leaves the coil through a valve (1 and suitable pipe connections. Any other means for heating the material to be mixed may be employed.
E represents a safety valve mounted on the tank to prevent the gas in the tank from attaining an excessive pressure, and E represents a pressure gage whereby the pressure within the tank can be determined.
The two paddles B B serve not only to give the liquid a whirling motion, but also to thoroughly mix or agitate the same so that all parts of the liquid will be exposed to the action of the gas.
The apparatus is particularly desirable for use in hydrogenizing fats and oils, since by operating the paddles at a fairly high rate of speed, the liquid will be pro ected violently against the top of the tank by the blades C and will be broken up into a spray or mist. Fats and oils treated in this manner absorb hydrogen much more rapidly than by discharging a stream of oil or fat from a nozzle through the gas. In the use of the apparatus for hydrogenizing fats. oils or the like, the liquid to be hydrogenized is admitted to the tank through either of the ipes a a until the tank is approximately half full of liquid. The valves in the pipes at a are then closed and hydrogen may be admitted to the tank until the desired pressure is obtained. If desired, air may be removed from the tank so that very little air remains in the tank with the hydrogen. After the liquid has been heated to the desired temperature, the operation of the paddles is commenced. Hydrogen may be admitted to the tank as required. The pipe a is preferably employed for drawing off the hydrogenized liquid and a small quantity of liquid is left in the bottom of the tank, so that most of the catalyzer remains in the tank. Other means for removingthe air from the tank before admitting the hydrogen may be employed.
I claim as my invention:
1. An apparatus for hydrogenizing fats and oils, comprising a tank adapted to contain the fats and oils and hydrogen, a plurality of radially extending paddles adapted to be rotated for imparting a whirling motion to said fats and oils while in liquid condition, said paddles being inclined upwardly and rearwardlywith regard to the direction of movement thereof, stationary deflectors arranged on the walls of said tank and extending into the fats and oils. said deflectors being inclined upwardly and forwardly with regard to the direction of movement of the liquid for causing portions of the liquid fats and oils to beprojected upwardly against the cover and to descend through the gas in said tank in finely divided form, and means for admitting hydrogen to thetank during the operation of the apparatus.
2. An apparatus for hydrogenizing fats or oils. comprising a closed tank adapted to contain'said fats or oils. means for admitting hydrogen to said tank. means for applying heat to the fats or oils in the tank. a rotary shaft extending into said tank. paddles connected to said shaft and arranged near the upper and lower surfaces of the body of the fats or oils to impart a rotary motion to the fats or oils. and stationary deflectors arranged on the walls of the tank and extending into the body of said fats or oils. said deflectors being inclined upwardly and forwardly with regard to the direction of movement of the fats or oils for causing portions thereof to flow upwardly on said deflectors and to be projected upwardly against the cover and to descend through the hydrogen.
\Vitness my hand. this 7th day of July,
FREDRICK N. ARNOLD.
F. E. PROCHNOW, A. L. MCGEE.