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Publication numberUS1187127 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 13, 1916
Filing dateFeb 21, 1913
Priority dateFeb 21, 1913
Publication numberUS 1187127 A, US 1187127A, US-A-1187127, US1187127 A, US1187127A
InventorsChristian Berger
Original AssigneeSubmarine Wireless Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Submarine signaling apparatus.
US 1187127 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



l 1 87, 1 j27 Patented Julie 13., 1916.


st: l In ventr:

UNITED sra'rns Parana orateur.



Specification of Letters Patent. Patented June 13, 1916,

Application filed February 21,1913. Serial No. 749,829.

ed certain new and useful Improvements in ubmarine Signaling Apparatus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing. y, y

My4 invention relates to a receiving apparatus or instrument, more particularly, as

,will hereinafter appear, for vthepurposesv of submarine signaling wherein signal vibrations Aare transmitted through .the water from one vessel or sending point to the receiving point or vessel. V

Generally speaking, the objects hereof are to improve the construction of and to 1ncrease' the eiciency of submarine signal receiving apparatus, and' to simplify the same and increase its convenience.

Another object hereof is t0 provide a 'superior microphone mounting adapted to be located in a perforation below the Water line in the shell of a vessel.

Another object hereof is to afford a supe-l rior receiving instrument by which the vibrations detected byv the microphone are rendered sensible to the operator.

Other objects hereof will appear in the i -hereinafter following description, or will be y apparent-to those skilled in the art of submarine signaling.

To the attainment of the above lreferred to objects the present inventlon consists 1n the novel features of construction, arrangement, combination and operation described 4or illustrated'in the accompanying description and drawings.

I will first describe one form of apparatus embodying my invrention and will thereafter point out the novel features in the claims.

In the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof Figure 1 in a diagrammatic way shows a plan view of an apparatus embodying my improvements. Fig. 2 is a detached View of the receiving` instrument shown partly in central cross section.

2a is an enlarged detail of `a portion of Fig. 2. Fig. 3 shows in central cross section the mountings of the sensitive device or microphone which is to detect the Vibrations in Fig;

.the water, the microphone box being shown in exterior view. Fig. 4 shows a similar cross section of the microphone box, an ordinary form of microphone button being shown therein in exterior view.

VSimilar reference characters designate corresponding parts in the several figures of drawings.

Floating or otherwise immersed in the water 11 of the ocean or other body of water is shown in Fig. 1 the shell 12 of a signal sending ship or station, in which for convenience sonorous vibrations may be created by an instrument such as the vibrating wire or strip 13. The signal receiving station 14 may be a vessel traveling in the direction of the arrow, ithaving an immersed shell or preferably two immersed shells, 15 on the port side and 16 on the starboard side.

In the shell 15 may be mounted at 17 amicrophone or other sensitive device preferably of the type adapted to vary the resistance in an electric circuit for rendering the received signals perceptible; and a second such microphone may be mounted at 18 in the shell 16.' The microphones detect the 'vibrations received from the distant point and the operator receives them by any convenient instrument, preferably by a receiver located at 19 adapted to be held -to the ear as an ordinary telephone receiver.

.The diagram of electric connections is so set that the operator is listening for the vibrations received at 17, and the circuit iS as follows: A branch wire 20 extends to the microphone at 17 from a wire 21 which in turn is connected to the switch arm 22 of a switch 23,' and thence through the contact 24 and wire 25 to the receiver 19, the circuit being completed by wires 26 and 27 from the receiver to battery 28, and by wire 29 to the switch-arm 30 of a switch 31 thence through the contact 32 and wire 33 to the microphone at 17. A sonorous disturbance of the microphone at 17 causes variations in the electric current passing therethrough whichl are rendered audible by the receiving instrument 19.

lThe switch 31 enables the operator to throw either microphone into connection.

1S, the latter having a branch wire 34 and a wire 36 corresponding to the wires 2O and 33 for microphone 17.

For 'the purpose of illustrating that in some cases a transformer or eliminator may be introduced between the microphone and the receiving instrument, I have shown the following further connections: The switch 9.3 has a contact 37 and when the switch arm 22 is thrown thereto the circuit from the microphone 17 will no longer pass to the receiving instrument 19, but will pass l through wire 38 to the primary coil 39 of the transformer, thence. completing the cir cuit through connections 27 to 33 inclusive as before. Combined with the transformer primary is a secondary 40 connected by wire 41 with switch arm 42 which will be closed so as to touch the Contact 43, which latter is connected by wire 44 with the receiver 19, the wire 26 thence completing the secondary circuit.

One important feature of improvement herein, which I claim not only in combina tion but as an article of manufacture, is a vibratable diaphragm consisting of the comparatively thin middle portion or membrane and, surrounding it, the integral thick rim, periphery or flange. Such a vibratable diaphragm, which would be useful in various acoustic apparatuses, for example a receiving instrument, I preferably construct by procuring a metallic plate or disk of substantial thickness and then cutting or machining out the middle or interior area thereof to the desired thinness, for example from one-half to one millimeter.

I have herein illustrated employment of this improvement both in the receiving instrument 19 and in the microphone box at 17. There are several important ad 'antages in the novel diaphragm thereof. lThe integral character of. the vibrating membrane and the peripheral flange, which is of substantial thickness and weight, gives the diaphragm great strength to resist Wear and injury. It moreover possesses high efficiency and I have discovered that supea rior acoustic effects are secured. A high frequency of vibration is satisfactorily attained which is of' importance for an apparatus of the class referred to. For example, I may attain from one to three thousand vibrations per, second with this diaph ragni. The improvement also affords a superior mode of mounting and detaching the diaphragm, since it can be very conveniently 11nd effectively secured in place by its flange, which may be generally cylindrical. and which may, if desired, be provided with screw threads or the like for locking it in position or for securing other parts that are to be combined with it. Such a diaphragm, for example, is easily constituted as the front wall of microphone box.

In cases where afvibratable diaphragm is to be employed in an immersed location this improvement enables a nonleaking connection to be readily'made. Moreover, there being no joints or perforations or exterior screw heads, there is minimum liability to fracture, and a perfectly smooth Hush exterior is attainable so as to avoid vibratory disturbances from the movement of the water. There is no such galvanic action as would exist With a soldered membrane. The diaphragm possesses strength to resist considerable underwvvat'er Apressure notwith standing its actual thinness; and I find that the strength is increased by the presence of the centralintegral projection or teat shown for the attachment of the microphone.

Coming now to the receiving instrument 19 it is shown as possessing the usual casing 51 and magnet 52, and it also contains a diaphragm 53 of the character above de scribed having 1an integral thick periphery or flange 54 extended laterally of the plane of the diaphragm, anda rim 5,5 by which it may be secured in place by any desired clamping means as rin 56.

Another important feature of improvement hereof is the provision within the marginal clamping device 56, and Within the integral flange 54, of a means or device contacting the thin portion of the diaphragm for distending the diaphragm for purposes that will appear. In 'employing the Word distending I do so in a broad sense including a stretching of the membrane, or putting it under special strain or tension, which may be accomplished, for example, by pressing laterally or actually deflecting or bending the membrane from its normal plane, resulting in a tightening or stiffening of the diaphragm.

I find that with this improvement I am i enabled to employ an electric current of high intensity and streng-th in the magnet coils ofthe receiver 19, which' increases the polarization of the magnets and thereby magnifies the action of the device so as to increase the perceptible effect of the microphone connected to the receiver. Moreover, this improvement enables a simple series circuit of the microphone, the battery and the receiventhere being no need of the cur rent eliminations effected by a transformer. Indeed, a current. may be used of such strength as would permanently deflect or distort an ordinary diaphragm. This device, which would he applicable to various sorts of receivers, I find also possesses a certain damping effect against low or irregular vibrations so that it materially assists in eliminating disturbing sound' and thereby renders the system more sensitive and gives f phragm and its effect upon the action thereof to suit the circumstances.

A distending device 'in accordance with this invention and, for convenience, combined with the ear piece of the receiver, may

lbe vdesigned and constructed as shown at 57, Figs. 2 and 2e. The piece 57 may be adjustablyA secured in place by its screw threaded portion 58, shown engaging corre- 57 is shown in the foim of an annular rib or bead 59 of a diameter slightly less than that, of the diaphragm flange. Screwing the piece 57 forciblyinto place causes the contact rim or bead 59 to press laterally against the diaphragm so as to somewhat deflect the middle portion of the diaphragm out of the plane of its margin, thereby vdistending the diaphragm in accordance with this invention: The lccking, or threaded engagement, between the distending device and the diaphragm flange is of importance as insuring a permanent relation between the diaphragm and device when adjusted. The piece 57 may have an outward extension 60 affording an ear opening. It will be noticed that I' have secured the advantageous effect due to close proximity of the ear piece and the diaphragm by which the audible effect is magnied, owing to the air vortex produced through the opening 60 when the diaphragm vibrates.

Another important feature of improvement hereof is the disclosed construction by -whicli the microphone is mounted in a below water perforation in the shell ofthe vessel. By suchconstruction the receiving diaphragm, which is immersed `in direct contact with the water, is rendered `at its front side Hush and even with the exterior of the vessel.. Neither protuberance nor recessI is lpossible as the diaphragm is exactly maintained in proper position and therefore all rush or whistle of the water is eliminated so that the signaling operations are not disturbed from that cause. This advantageous result is shown as attained by means of the integrally flanged diaphragm the many advantages of which, above recited, pertain to its use in this manner. The structure shows the receiving diaphragm constituted as part of a microphone box capable of being separately handled and attached and detached.

Thereby it is rendered simple and easy to mount or remount or replace the box in cases of damage or disorder. The disclosed construction enables and shows complete sound insulation of the microphone box, so that no disturbing vibrations traveling through the shell of the shipmay be' communicated by way of the microphone to the listening operator. The sound deadening separator or packing also'serves. to exclude water so that the microphone box eflectually closes the perforation in the ships side. Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, the shell 15 is shown as perforated at 63 by a preferably circular aperture. In the forward interior is the microphone or button 64. The front wall or receiving diaphragm 65 may be a part of the microphone' or may directly carry the button at its rear surface. Herein I will refer to the immersed or water side of the apparatus as the front or forward side and I will use the terms outwardly and inwardly with reference to the axis of the apparatus. The front wall or diaphragm 65 is a constituent part of the microphone box 66 shown in ex- 80 terior view in Fig. 3 and in cross section in Fig. 4.

The microphone box may be mounted and dismounted without taking it apart. The mountings thereof may be as follows: I prefer first to bring the shell' 15 to a standard thickness bysecuring thereto an annular disk or liner 67, rivets 68 being shown to secure it, and a circular perforation is then bored through shell and disk. A cylindrical piece 69 is then secured in such way as to afford a front fiange or rim flush with the shell 15. This member 69 is preferably a cylindrical sleeve or lining fitting within the perforation and having an interior flange at 70 for securing it to the disk 67 by bolts 71, a packing 72 being inserted between them. The lining 69 also has a'front flange or rim 73 flush with the shell 15 and with the front wall 65 of the microphone box. A 100 cover or safety cap 7G may be secured to the shell at the rear side not only for the protection of the apparatus but as an additional precaution in preventing leakage; this cover having bolts 77 for securing it in place and 105 having preferably a stufhng box 78 for the passage of the wire or wires 20 and 23 by which the microphone is placed in circuit with the receiving instrument 19.

In attaching the microphone box it cooperate-s with the parts before described by reason of its general cylindrical shape and an outward flange opposed to the flange 73. The microphone box front wall is the diaphragm G5 having the thin vibratable inem 115 brano portion and the thick heavy integral flange 79 at the periphery, which, as welLas the central teat 80, project rearwardly. This diaphragm is permanently secured by the screw threads on its flange 79 to the for.- 120 ward endof the barrel 81 of the microphone box.

.ably attached directly at the diaphragm, or

even carried by it as shown. For convenience, I prefer to employ amicrophone button such as 64 aztached at or secured to the diaphragm.

Formed on the cylindrical barrel 81 of the microphone box is the outward annular flange 89.. This forms an eliicient means, coperating with flange 73, for accurately positioning the microphone boxf It will be noted that the flange 79 of diaphragm 65 is not sufficiently large to contact the flange 73 of the lining G9. Neither is the outward flangelSQ sufhciently large to Contact the cylindrical portion of the lining 69.

ln order to properly center the microphone box, thus keeping it free from metallie contact, and in order also to secure its proper position with the vibratable diaphragm flush with the shell 15, I have provided a separator 83 composed of sound deadening material such as rubber of appreciable plasticity, which is shown in the form of an annular packing or washer so that it also serves to preclude leakage. This separator 83 is located between the inward .flange 73 and the outward flange 82 and it is preferably of such dimension as to enable it to be preliminarily secured upon the microphone box as shown in Fig. 4.

A convenient means for securing the microphone box in place or pressing it to its seat consists of any suitable locking lmeans adapted to press forwardly, and I prefer-to insert a second sound deadening separator or packing 84' between the microphone box and the locking device. Thereby the microphone box is wholly insulated from sonorous contact with the shell 15. To securely lock the parts in place a screw ring or sleeve 85 may be employed which engages threads on the lining piece 69 so that the ring may be screwed forwardly to impose a heavy pressure upon the separators 83 and 84. -As shown the separators are confined and the pressure thereby forces them into intimate contact with all surrounding parts so that the microphone box is securely and accurately locked in properly centered position.

Microphone box 6G may be conveniently .closed on all four sides.` To this end a rear` piece or wall 87 is shown which is formed with an interior recess 88 containing an annular lining or support 89 for the shank 90 of the microphone button 64, The piece 89 may be either a sliding bearing or elastic material as rubber, so that the microphone button, which is supported and attached at its forward end to the diaphragm, may be yieldingly supported at its rearward end yet in such manner as to permit relative movement so that any violent movement of thc diaphragm G5 is allowed for and breakage prevented.

The rear wall 87 of the microphone box may have a screw cap and stuffing box 91 for the wires il() and 33. The stuffing boxes 91 and 7 8 may, for convenience, be of a type an apparatus attaining the objects and ad-` vantages before referred to, and other advantages will be obvious to those skilled in the art.

Since many features and details may be variedVV without departing from the principles of the improvements hereof, "f do not wish to be restricted to any features or details excepting asset forth in the appended claims.

Vhat I claim is:

l. A Asubmarine signal receiving apparatus comprising, in combination with the shell of' a vessel perforated below the water line, a microphone box having as a front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted to directly contact the water, said diaphragm having an integral inwardly extending flange by which it is connected as a part ofv said box, and means for mounting said box in the shell perforation with said front wall, flush with the shell so as to preserve the continuity of the shell exterior surface.

2. A submarine signal receiving apparatus comprising, in combination, with the shell of a vessel perforated below the water line, a microphone box having as a front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted to directly contact the water, said box having an outward flange, an annular member securedto said shell affording an inward flange, said two flanges having their opposed surfaces substantially parallel to each other and to the exterior surface of the shell, a sound deadening separator between said flanges, and means for securing the box in its seat ice with its receiving diaphragm flush with the shell.

3. A submarine si nal receiving apparatus comprising, in com ination with the shell of a vessel perforated below the water line, a microphone box having `as a front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted to directly contact the water, said box having an outward flange, an annular sound deadening separator on each side -of said iiange, and

means'for securing the box to its seat by right-angled pressure upon said separators.

4. A submarine signal receiving apparatus comprising, in combination with the shell of a vessel perforated below the water line, a microphone box having as a front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted` to directly contact the water, said box having an outward flange located rearward of said diaphragm,

an annular lining piece within said perforation formed with a front flange flush with the shell, an annular sound deadcning separator between said two flanges, a second sound deadening separator to the rear of said box Adeadening separator to the rear of said box flange, and a securing device adapted to maintain said box on its seat by pressure on said second separator, said device consisting of a screw threaded ring engaged with said lining piece.

6. A submarine signal receiving apparatus comprising, in combination with the shell of a vessel perforated below the water line, a'

microphone box of cylindrical shape havlng.

as a'front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted vto directly contact the water, and having an outward flange to the rear of said dia-V phragm, a cylindrical lining sleeve within said .perforation having a front annular 'flange flush with the shell and a rear liange secured to the shell, an annular separator between said sleeve front flange and said box flange, said separator and flanges .so constructed that said diaphragm is flush with said front 'flange and said sleeve and box are out of contact, a second annular separator located at the rear of said box flange,

a screw sleeve engaging within said lining sleeve adapted t'o press forward on said second separator to put both separators under compression and secure the box in place, said screw sleeve constructed not to contact saidbox, and an inner cap piece covering said box and secured to the shell.

7 A submarine signal receiving apparatus comprising, in combination with -the shell of a vessel perforated below the water line, a microphone box having as a front wall a receiving diaphragm adapted to directly contact the water, said diaphragm consisting of a united vibratable plate and a peripheral inwardly extending flange, said box having anoutward flange located rearward of said diaphragm, an annular lining piece within said perforation Aformed with a front flan e fiush with the shell, an annular sound dea# ening separator between said two flanges, a second sound deadening separator to the rear of said box flange, and a securing device adapted to maintain said box on its seat by pressure on said second separator.

In testimony whereof I have aflixed my signature in presence of two witnesses.



Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4388502 *Dec 14, 1981Jun 14, 1983The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The National Aeronautics And Space AdministrationAdapter for mounting a microphone flush with the external surface of the skin of a pressurized aircraft
U.S. Classification181/140, 367/149, 367/174
Cooperative ClassificationG10K11/004