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Publication numberUS1193716 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 8, 1916
Filing dateAug 13, 1915
Publication numberUS 1193716 A, US 1193716A, US-A-1193716, US1193716 A, US1193716A
InventorsB. Purssell
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Assigjtob to clabejijcb v
US 1193716 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

CHUCK. 'APPLICATION msn Aue.13. 191s.

' Patented Aug. 8, 1916.




Application filed August 13,

To ZZ 'fr/tom 'it may concer/a:

Be it known that i, JAMES innssnnr., a citizen ot the United States, residing at Dorchester, Boston, in the county of Suitolk land State of l\iassacl1usettshave invented certain new and useful Improvements in Chucks: and l do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear7 and exact descrip tion of the invention7 such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains, to make and use thevsame.

rlhis invention relates to ratchet structures and more particularly to a. ratchet chuck and tool.

lt is one et the objects ot this invention to provide a chuck and bit combination which is simple in construction, substantial in design and has but a few operative parts.

A further object of the invention. is to provide a chuck which eliminates the objectionable tightening devices comn'ionly required to close in upon and clutch interchangeable, detachable tools.

Another object of the invention is to prof vide a chuck adapted to readily receive and release interchangeable tools and to lock a tool against withdrawal save at a predetermined position.

Another object oi? the invention is to provide a chuck or coupler in which the tool or attached part may be rotated in either direction or positively locked against relative movement and 'which has the further function oi' controlling the removal oi? the tool. j

To the accomplishment ot the objects reterred to and such others as may hereinafter appear, as will readily be understood by those skilled in the art. the invention comprises the eatures and combination ot parts hereinafter described and j'mrticularlyT pointed out in the appended claims, and an embodiment of the preferred term of which herewith illustrated.

lligurc l is an elevation et the device showing the braceand bit broken away;

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation on the line Q 2 of Fig. 3, showing the ratcheting mechanism '-.vith a bit inserted; if 9 .s a section on line- 3-43 oi: Fig. ifi. showing the tnrnhlozs Speccation of Letters atent.



Patented fing. S, i916.

i915. seriai No. 45,338.

the tumbler clicks locking the loit against relative rotation; Fig. 5 is a section on line Ll--ll of Fig. 2 showing the tumblers set to permit fthe driving of the loit'in a righthand direction; Fig. 6 is a section on line et 4t ot Fig. 2 showing the tumblers set to per-v mit the driving of the loit in a left-hand direction; Fig. 7 is a section on line 3-3 ot Fig. 2 showing the tumhlers set to release the bit for withdrawal; Fig. 8 is .a detail showing the upper or head end of the bit; and Fig. 9 is a perspective of one detached tumblers.

One of the disadvantages mon forms of brace stocks and the like tools with chucks is theI necessity of providing and adjusting gripping jaws for clasping the hilt of the tool in the chuck, With the additional adjustments and parts required for the ratcheting device.

It is the aim ot' this invention to provide an instrument in which interchangeable, detachable tools7 bits or the like may readily be inserted and automatically locked against withdrawalWithout manual adjustment ot' receiving jaws and from which the tool can be removed with ease and rapidity and others interchanged. To that end, the instrument includes a set of automatic tumbler-S which automatically lock the tool in the instrument and have the` further function oi: rotatively driving the tool With rotation ot' the instrument and arranged to ratchet when necessary.

'lVhile it is understood that the invention is adaptable for use in a variety of devices and combinations, it is illustrated in the present embodiment as arranged for use in a brace andibit instrument, a portion of the brace stock 2 being shown and having tormed on its lower end an enlargement or body portion 3 which is axially chambered as at 4 to receive the outer or shank end of a tool 5 shown as an auger bit. The upper end of the bit is preferably formed cylini drical as at 6 and is adapted to snugly but rotatably tit in the socket 4 of the body 3. rlhe upper end of the bit 5 is tapered as at 7 and engages a complemental seat portion at the top ot the socket Vilic body portion il et provided with lateral or .9. shown i!! the cross-sci :tionai` .tj vielen, than?,

of the.

'30| the tumblers 10e-11 '401 is inserted in the chuck.

pockets opening into the tool receivingl socket 4. In each of these pockets 8-9 there is mounted a respective tumbler 10e-11 v having ypivots 12 arranged at one side of` the diameter of the body part 3 and extending longitudinally and parallel to the axis of the body 3; The tumblers 10-11 are convergently disposed in the pockets 8-9 with their ends or inner longitudinal corners swinging inwardly toward the central socket 4 and are adapted to engage, on opposlte sides of the cylindrical part 6 of the tool, with shoulders or teeth 13 formed longitudinally thereon. The tumblers 10-11 are each automatically swung inwardly, so 'that their inner abutment edges 14 will yieldably engage the teeth 13, by means of springs 15 reacting upon the contiguous surface of each tumbler and against the body portion 3 upon which they are seated. Ubi-iously these springs 154 may be of any suitable form and conveniently disposed yso as to properly function and swing the longitudinal edges or faces 14 of the tumblers 10-11 toward each other to stand tangential in opposite directions to the teeth 13' of the tool 5 when the latter is inserted in the socket 4.

' 1t is one of the features of the present invention to so design, construct and arrange that either or both of them will operate to automatically latch or lock a tool 5 when its upper end is inserted in the socket 4 of the bit stock 3, and this is accomplished by providing or forming upon v351 each of the tumblers 10-11 a shoulder or portion 1G which is adapted to project suihciently into the chamber or socket 4 to automatically snap into interlocking engagement with the upper end of a tool 5 when it This interlocking of the tumbler 10-11 with the tool 5 is provided by forming an annular groove 17 just below the conical end of the tool 5 so that when the tool is inserted in the socket or f chamber 4 the shoulder or portion 16 of a tumbler, or of the tumblers, will yield and automatically snap into the groove and lock the tool 5 against longitudinal movement and permit of its relative free rotation.

For the purpose of designing the parts of the chuck so as to be compactly arranged within the body 3, a tumbler 11, is shown in Fig. 9 as being relieved or concaved at 18 on one side or face, lthus forming a clearance bev hind the locking or dogging edge or click 14 of the tumbler when the latter enters the spaces between the teeth 13 at the shank of the tool 5.

Another advantage of this construction is that when a. tumbler 10 is swung outwardly just suiicient for its abutting edge 14 to clear the cylinder 6, the shoulder or portion 16 of the tumbler will still project sufiiciently into the annular slot 17 in the shank of the bit to jprevent the longitudinal withdrawal or movement of the bit vfrom the socket 4 though the other tumbler is retracted to clear the tool.

The tumblers 10`11vare mounted so' that they are automatically swungtoward each' otherwith their abutment edges 14 adapted to encounter or engage the 'longitudinal teeth 13 and when both of the tumblers so engage the teeth 13 as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the tool 5 is locked against relative rota'- tion as to the tumblers and as to the brace stock 3. n y

1t is a feature of the present invention to provide`for the simultaneous, driving engagement by the tumblers 10-11 with the shank of the tool 5, or to effect a removal of either of the tumblers from the shank of the tool, and provide for the removal and d isengagement of both of thet'umblers so 'as to unlock the tool 5 and permit its withdrawal. To that end there is rotatably1 mounted upon the stock body 3 of the brace vstock a sleeve 19 which rests on a lower shoulder 20 of the stock 3 and is held against longitudinal shifting movement thereon by an upper stop 21. The sleeve 19 has a shoulder 22 adapted to engage radial stops 23 after the sleeve has been moved through a predetermined arc. The sleeve is of such length as to substantially cover the body portion 3 of the brace stock and is provided with a plurality of short internal, longitudinal, recesses or chan.- nels 24, 25, 26, with arcuate surfaces and which extend to the lower edge of the sleeve 19l and permit thedownward adjustment or assembling of the sleeve over outwardly projecting contiguous lever portions 27-28 of the tumblers 10-1l. These portions are shown in Fig. 8 as located in a common plane andA adjacent the lowerv en( s df the tumblers and are in the form of cams whose peripheral surfaces are curved and adapted to slidably contact with the inner surface ofthe sleeve 19 when thelatter is rotated on the body 3 within the limits of the annular stops 23.v The tumblers 10-11 are shown in Figs. 2, 3 and 4 as springing into locking and abutting .engagement with the inserted shank portion 6' of the tool 5 at which time the lever faces 2-28 of the tumblers project into the adjacent recesses 24-25 formed in the sleeve 19,the faces 27-28 being out of contact with the inner surfaces of the sleeve 19 at the recesses 24-25.

When it is desired tov actuate either or both of the tumblers 10-11 the -operator simply turns the sleeve 19, as, for insta-nce, from the position indicated in Fig. 3 to that indicated in Fig. 5. As the sleeve 19 is turned to the position shown in Fig. 5 the lever end 27 is engaged by the sleeve surface and the cam swung inwardly with a resultant outward swinging motion of the inner end of the tumbler 11 to clear the abutment shoulder 14thereof from engagement with,

- rocked outwardly by the lever 27 riding en and from the path of, the teeth 13 of the shank 6 of the tool. As previously stated, when the tumblers 10-11 and the sleeve 19 stand in the position indicated in Fig. 3, the portions 27-28 project into the relatively deep recesses 24.-25, but as the sleeve 19 is rotated the thicker. portion of the Sleeve 19 rides against the lever surface 27-28 and.

the internalarcuate cam surface 31 engages and tilts the abutment member 11 about its pivot. When .the tumbler 11 is disengaged from the teeth 13 of the tool 5 then a rotation of the brace stock to the right will 'cause vthe rotation of the tool 5 by reason of the abutment of the inwardly projecting'end or abutment face 1l of the tumbler 10 positively engaging one of the teeth 13 of the tool. rEhen the rotation of the tool will be in the right hand direction as indicated by the arrow a.

When the sleeve 19 stands in position indicated in Fig. .5 so that the tumbler 11 is the sleeve surface, the cam 28 of the opposite abutment member 10 stands in the recess 26 which is of such depth as to, clear the lever end 28 and permit the abutment end of the tumbler 11 to stand in engaging position with the adjacent teeth 13 of the shank of the tool.

TWhen it is desired to give the tool v5 a left-hand direction of rotation then the operator again turns the sleeve 19 so as to carry the stop pin or projection 22 against the right hand stop indicated in Fig. 6, at which time the lever 27 of the tumbler 11 will slide oil the internal surface and outwardly into the deeper and adjacent recess 25. During this time the lever end 28 of the tumbler 10 will have been engaged by the adjacent portion of an internal groove 30 of the sleeve 19 so that the abutting edge of the tumbler 10 is drawn outwardly and disengaged from the teeth 13 of the shank 6 ot the tool and thus clears the latter while the y opposite tumbler 11 has been thrown into abutting position with the teeth under the impulse of its respective spring 15. The

groove 30 is ot less depth than and inter sects the recesses 25-26 and is cut in the plane of the lever ends 27-28 of the tumblers.

chuck body 3 until the stop 22 engages the lett-hand shoulder or stopl 23 (Fig. 7 At this position ot' the sleeve 19 the lever ends 27-23 have been tilted inwardly by riding upwardly out of the recess 2st-2 n interior surface 31 forming "f of the inner .cani surface et t 'fthe result that the abutment faces 14 ot the tumblers 10-11 and the locking shoulders 16 thereof are withdrawn entirely so as to clear the cylindrical portion 6 et the tool 5 and permit the withdrawal of the latter.

It will be noticed that the internal cam groove 30 traverses and is interrupted by the pockets 21, 25 and 26 so that at the several positions of the actuating sleeve 19 on the body portion 3, the tumbler members v10-11 may both be allowed to abut the teeth 13 of the inserted tool, as in Fig. 3, or one of the tumblers may be allowed to remain in abutment, as in Fig. 5, at which time the lever end 2S of the tumbler 10 stands in the adjacent recess 26 while the tumbler 11 is swung clear of the tool, and lever end 27 has been swung inwardly by rotation of the sleeve to litt it on the cam su'riace 31. ylhe further turning oit' the sleeve 19 carries the clearance recess 26 away from the lever end 28 of the tumbler 10, and it is tilted by engagement with the continuation or adjacent portiorrof the annular' cam groove 30, at which time the lever end 27 o t the tumbler 11 may play in pocket 25 while ratcheting over the teeth 13. rlhe rotation of the sleeve 19 to the position indicated in Fig. 7 carries the internal cam surface 30 to such position that the parts 27-28 of the tumblers are forced entirely out of the re cesses and cam groove 30 and ride upon the inner surface 31 so that the tumblers are clear from the tool. The depth, length and contour of the effective cam surface 30 is such that, save when the sleeve 19 is turned to position (Fig. 7), either one or both of the tumblers is held in such position that the locking shoulder 1G is extending into the g cannot be withdrawn from the clutch until the sleeve is set as shown in Fig. 7 to throw out both tumblers. The shoulders 1G are of such proportions as to project into the groove 17 while the tumblers are ratcheting over the teetlrso as to prevent the tool being withdrawn.

For the purpose oi3 temporarily locking the actuating sleeve 19 in its several positions so as to hold the tumblers 10-11 in the desired position, the interior surface of the sleeve 19 is provided with a series ot small indentations 32 at suitable angular relations into which will snap a detent 33 which is yieldably supported in the lower l against rotation.

'lt is understood that the iv'uffention is not limited in details of.

on of roove 17 of the tool and this, therefore,

tool to prevent its withdrawal and from the scope of the invention and Within the limitations of theclaims hereof.

The terms tool and bit are to be interpreted as including any part adapted for adjustment in the chuck and to be operated as set forth.

I claiml. A ratchet structure, having,in combination, a driving chuck having a body-With a. tool receiving chamber and longitudinal pockets communicating with said chamber, means in said pockets for rotating the inserted tool in either direction or for holding it against rotation in the chuck,.and for automatically locking the tool against Withdrawal, and mechanism for changing and controlling said means.

2. A ratchet structure, having, in combination, a driving, chuck-body axially chambered to receive a rotatably fitting tool, and having side openings extending to saidv chambers, -tumblers longitudinally pivoted in the openings of said body and automati-v cally operative to tangentially abut an inserted, removable tool, and means mounted on said body for controlling the position of the tumblers to automatically lock the tool against Withdrawal when inserted and for rotating the inserted tool in either direction and 'for lunlocking the tool to permit its Withdrawal.

3. A ratchet tool, having, in combination, a driving stock with a chuck body, a tool insertible and rotatively fitting the Chuck, tumblers ,pivoted in said body With their axes parallel the axis of said tool and having locking 'engagement with the .inserted also op.- erative to tangentially abut Said tool to ro- ,tate itin either direction, and a manually adjustable device mounted on the chuck body and operative to actuate said tumblersand control their locking and driving positions as to the tool. y

4E. A ratchet tool, having, in combination, a driving stock with a chuck body having side openings, tumblers, one pivoted in each of said openings and operating automatically tcvvard each other to engage a tool insertible in the chuck, from tangentially opposite directions, said tumblers, having shoulders operative to lock the inserted tool against Withdrawal, and a sleeve rotative on `the chuck body and having a cam-face engageable with said tumblers for positioning them tojointly or severally abut, or to unlock the inserted tool.

5. A chuck comprising a body part chambered to receive a removable, interchangeable tool, -ratchet tumblers mounted in said Copiesof this patent may be obtained for ve cents each, by addressing the Washington, B- 0,-

body for rotating the inserted tool in either direction or for holding it against rotation in the chuck, and for automatically locking the tool against Withdrawal, and means for changing and controlling the position of the l tumblers.

6. A ratchet clutch and tool, having, in combination, a chuck body having a tool receiving chamber, automatic tumblers mounted in said body, and'a tool inserted in said body and having locking engagement With ing the tumblers from rotative engagement with thetool.

8. A chuck and tool having, in combination, a clzuck body with a toolreceiving chamber, a plurality of tumblers mounted and having sides projecting into said chamber,

a tool removably insertible in the chamber and designed to interlock With said tumblers against longitudinal movement and be rotatively driven in either direction thereby, and means for'disengaging yieldably i said tumblers severally or cojnjointly from i rotative engagement-.With the tool.

9. A chuck and tool, having, in combination, a chuck body, vble in said i body and having an annular grooveand a plurality of longitudinal shoulders formed adjacent one end, l'automatic tumblers insaid body for interlocking in the groove of the insertedtooh and engageable with said shoulders to rotate the tool in eitherdirection, and means for changingv and controlling the positions of the tumblers.

.10. A chuck and tool, having, in combination, a chuck body, a tool removably insertible in thechuck and ,having an annular a tool removably insertigroove mits shank end, "and tumblers mountf ed in the chuck for rotatively driving the tool, said tumblers adapted to freely ratchet on the tool in one direction, and means on the tumblersfor locking in the groove of the bit Whilethe tumblers are ratcheting to prevent Withdrawal of the bit.


mark W'inesses:


Commissioner of latents,

Corrections in Letters Patent Ne..1,193,71 6.

It is hereby certied that in Letters Patent No. 1,193,716, granted August 8, 1916,

upon the application of James B. Purssell, of Boston, Massaeiiueetts, for an improve- .ment in Chucks, errors appear in the printed Specification requiring correction as followef Page 2, line 104, for the abbreviation and numeral Fig 8 read Fig. 2,'

' page 3, iine 64, for the Word point read points; and that the said Letters Patent should Vbe read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 31st day of October, A. D., 1916.


C1. 145--7 5. Acting ommssioner of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3016252 *Feb 27, 1957Jan 9, 1962John E Mitchell Company IncDog clutch
US4529071 *Jul 6, 1982Jul 16, 1985Easco Hand Tools, Inc.Ratcheting tool with improved cam shifter means
US5848680 *Feb 7, 1997Dec 15, 1998Beere Precision Medical Instruments, Inc.Actuator cap for a ratcheting mechanism
US7036399Mar 1, 2004May 2, 2006Pilling Weck IncorporatedRatchet screwdriver with actuator cap and method
US7168342Nov 18, 2005Jan 30, 2007Pilling Weck IncorporatedRatchet screwdriver with actuator cap and method
US8109181May 19, 2006Feb 7, 2012Bradshaw Medical, Inc.Ratchet screwdriver and construction method
US20060065077 *Nov 18, 2005Mar 30, 2006Pilling Weck IncorporatedRatchet screwdriver with actuator cap and method
US20060191381 *May 1, 2006Aug 31, 2006Hua GaoRatchet screwdriver with actuator cap and method
US20090301267 *May 19, 2006Dec 10, 2009Hua GaoRatchet Screwdriver and Construction Method
U.S. Classification81/58, 192/43.1, 81/32
Cooperative ClassificationB25B13/462