US 1195307 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. S. WHEATLEY.
AUTOMATIC RELOADING RIFLE.
Patented Aug. 22,1916.
4 SHEETS-S HEET I APPLICATION FILED NOV. B, i915..
C. S. WHETLEY.
AUTOMATLC RELOADING RI'FLE. APPUCATION FILED Nov. 8`. 1915.
l ,l 95,307., Patented Aug. 22, 1916.
c. s. WHEATLEY.
AUTOMATIC RELOADING RIFLE.
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8'. i915.
1,1 959%?. PatentedAug. 22,1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
.52 a A--IWW//././/////////////A c. SQWHEATLEY.
AUTOMATIC RELOADING RIFLE.
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 8, 1915. l ,II 95,30% Patented Aug. v22, 1916.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 4.
EE; E A
f/ if 427 QC ernten.
CHRLES S. WHETLEY, 0F NEEDHAM HIEIGETS, MASSACHUSETTS.
Specicati tere Patent. Pgtgmged filing, 229 E936,.-
Applicaticn led November 8, 1915. Serial No. 60,302.
To all whom t may concern.:
Be it known that l, CHARLES S. WHEAT- LEY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Needham Heights, in the county of Norfolk and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain newvand useful improvements in Automatic-Reloading Ries; and I do declare the followingto' be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.-
My invention relates broadly to improvements in firearms, and more particularly to automatically reloading ri'les such as those used for military as well as for numerous other purposes.
The most important objects of the invention are to-provide a riiie of the class specified which although being eiiicient and durable, will be only of approximately the same weight as such rifles without the improvements applied; to eliminate the use of sliding or shunting barrels, blow backbreeches, recoil springs and inertia weights, and yet derive the same advantages in a very simple and effective manner; to provide loading and ejecting means operated bythe forward force of the exploding powder after the bullet or projectile has left the fire arm, and to include in the same device used for operating the loading and ejecting mechanism, means for silencing the report of the arm to an appreciable extent. These objects are obtainedby the provision of certain novel features of construction and by unique combinations of parts to be hereinafter fully de scribed and, claimed, the descriptive matter being supplemented by the accompanying drawings wherein:
'Figures 1 and 2 are side elevations of a rie constructed in accordance with myV invention, with parts broken away and in section, these views disclosing respectively, the normal positions of parts before firing of the arm, and the positions which such parts assumeJ immediately after firing; Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail side elevation partly in section of the parts at the front end of the barrel, with such parts disposed as shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a similarkview showing substantially the position of the parts disclosed in Fig. 2; Figs. 5, 6 and 7 are views similar to Figs. 3 and 4, disclosing the forwardly shiftable gas trapping member partly 1n elevation and showing the several steps 1n removing the same; Fig. 8 is an underside view of such member; Fig. 9 is a vertical section thereof taken on the plane designated by the line 9-9 of Fig. 8; Fig. l0 1s a vertical transverse section as seen on the planedeslgnated by the line 10-10 of Fig.. 3; Figs. 11 and 12 are detail side elevatlons partly in section, showing a different form ofconstru'ction al illustrating the mode of removing the for.:ardly shiftable gas trapping member; Fig. 13 is a. vertical transverse section taken on the plane designated by the line 13-13 of Fig. 11; Fig. 14 is a side elevation showing yet another form of construction; Fig. 15 is a longitudinal section thereof with parts in elevation; Fig. 16 is a vertical transverse section taken on the plane indicated by the line 16-16 of Fig. 15; Fig. 17 is a horizontal section viewed on the plane of the line 17 -17 ofv Fig. 15; Fig. 18 is a similar view showing the different positions of parts; Fig. 19
is an elevation similar to Fig. 14, showing an additional manner in which parts ofthe invention may be constructed; Fig. 20 is a longitudinal section of the construction shown in Fig. 19 with parts in elevation; Fig. 21 is a vertical transverse section taken on the plane of the line 21-21 of Fig. 20; Fig. 22 is a top plan view of the structure at the breech of the gun; Fig. 23 is a central longitudinal section thereof; Fig. 24 is a detail vertical transverse section taken on the plane indicated by the lines 24-24 of Figs. 1 and 23; Figs. 25 and 26 are detail vertical sections taken on the planes designated respectively by the lines 25-25 and 26-26 of Fig. 23; Fig. 27 is a` perspective view of the cam plate and the parts directly associated therewith; and Fig. 28 is a similar view of the locking block and its arms.
In describing the invention, Ishall refer to these drawings by similar reference characters lplaced on corresponding i parts throughout the several views, but since the construction of thedevice D at the muzzle of the barrel B is embodied in a number of forms whereas the mechanism M at the breech of the barrel preferably remains the same throughout the several types of the in vention,.such mechanism`M will be first dethe device D coperating' with the same will be entered into specifically.
The construction of all of the breech mechanism M is shown most Vclearly in Figs. 1, 2, 22, 23, 24, and .26, such mechanism comprising .a forwardly and rearwardly shiftable breech bolt V1 having therein an appropriate firing pin 2 and carrying a common type of extractor 3 atl its front end. As is common with devices of, this class, the pin 2 its retracting spring, y a trigger tripped hammer 4 whose operating means forms no part of the present invention and need not therefore be .shown or described. `The oppositeupright 'sides of the bolt 1 are provided with longitudinal ribs 5 which are received in grooves 6 formed longitudinally in the inner faces of the upright cheek plates 7, the latter having any preferred type of connection with the n stock S, and one uthe bolt is provided a laterally extending stud 9 projects, said stud being received by a cam slot 10 in Van upright elongated cam plate 11 which is pivotally'mounted .at 11a between the intermediate portions of the plates 7.
The upper edge o'f the plate 11 is shown as formed integrally with one side of a horizontally elongated stop block 12 spaced in rear of the breech'bolt 1, the front end of said block being disposed in close proximity to the rear side of a transverse locking block 13. The block 13 bears against the rear end of the breech bolt 1 and is received in notches 14 formed in the upper edges of the plates 7, the block in question being carried by a pair of parallel rearwardly extending arms 15 which straddlethe block 12, their rear ends being formed with slightly elongated openings 15, through which the pivot pin 1la passes. Thus, when a cartridge is fired within the barrel of the gun, the back pressure exerted on the bolt 1 will be imparted to the locking block 13, but will not be exerted upon the pin 11a.
It is to be observed that the upper edge of the plate 11 is formed With a substantially right-angular notch, one of Whose walls 11 stands upright in close proximity to the front side of the block 13, while its other wall 112 extends rearwardly from said wall 11 to the rear end of the plate 11, being spaced below the block 13. The wall 112 is also positioned below one of the arms 15, a rib 118 being formed on the side of the. block 12 opposite the plate 11 and being positioned 'beneath the other arm 15, said rib being extended forwardly from the block 12 beneath -the block 13 and being positioned in the position shown in Fig. 1, the upright front end of the slot 10 will allow it to move a predetermined amount without; imparting movement to the bolt 1. This initia movement imparts a considerable amount of momentum to the plate 11 and block 12 before the wall 112 and the rib 11" contact with the locking block 13. The result is that said block 13 is suddenly kicked from its notches 14, in spite of the fact that considerable back pressure from the gun barrel may `now Ais forced forwardly against the tension of\ be exerted against said block by the breech block 1. After the block 13 is thus released, the curved portion of thecamY slot 10 comes into action and retracts the bolt 1, thereby ejecting a spent shell preparatory to the insertion of another. However, since the construction of the reloading mechanism constitutes no part of the invention, it need not be described or illustrated inv detail. Its vlocation is designated at 16 on the drawings. Under most circumstances, the breech bolt ris to be retracted automatically by the means yet to -be described, in which lcase the locking block 13 will be automatically released, '90 but if the breech is to be opened manually a pair of knurled heads 17 on ,the-opposite ends of said block may be grasped, thus y allowing the cam plate to be raised to withdraw the breech bolt. '95
Projecting laterally from the lower edgeV of the cam plate 11, is a crank arm 18 having in its rear edge an arcuate notch 19 receiving therein a stud or the like 20 which projects laterally from a rod extension 21 10a which is slidable longitudinally in a groove 22 in one of the cheek plates 7 (see Figs. 1,
2, 24, 25 and 26), the free end of said rod being projected forwardly of the ammunition magazine into a tubular guide 23 bey105 neath the rear end of thejbarrel B, at which point it is secured in any preferred manner to a plunger 24 which is mounted to reciprocate in the aforesaid guide 23, it being evident that forward movement of said plunger 11o will dispose the several parts at the breech `of the fire arm to the position shown in Fig.
.2, thus placing the spring 25 under tension which is exerted to again return the several parts to their normal ,positions and at the Same time to insert a new cartridge in place of the spent shell ejected by rearward movement of the breech bolt. For operating the plunger 24 in this manner, the vdevice D in numerous forms has been provided. The 12o device in question illustrated in Figs. 1 to 10 inclusive, comprises a tubular guide 26 which is shown as formed integrally with the muzzle of the barrel B, as alined strictly with said barrel, and as having a smooth bore of greater diameter than that of said barrel, the lower side of the guide 26 being provided with a longitudinally extending slot 27. Slidably mounted in the guide 26 'is a tubular barrel extension member 28 135 forces the'plunger 24 forwardly, ejects the spent cartridge, and simultaneously places 'the spring 25 under tension to exert its power to return all parts of the riie to nor- .mal position and at the same time to insert a new Cartridge. Itis to be observed that the fejecting and reloading operations are performed by pressure exerted forwardly by the exhaust gases passingfrom the muzzle i of the barrel after the projectile leaves the gun, the result of this movement being that the' recoil is reduced toa minimum, which result cannot be obtained by the types of reloading rilies in which the breech block is blown open by the rearward kick exerted upon the discharge of a shell.` Furthermore, by the exact disposition of the member 28 shown in the drawings, the report of the rifle is muffled or silenced to an appreciable extent, the action taking place being very similar to that produced by the well known Maxim silencer. The member 28-is illusvtrated as having its bore enlarged at its front end to-provide a gas pocket and as having at thefront endo such enlargement, an internal annular shoulder 30 which faces the muzzle ofthe barrel' B. This is merely typical of one of the many interior formations which may be applied to use for allowing the discharging gases to produce the desired effect.
The rod 29 may be secured to the plunger 24 by threading as disclosed in Fig. 23, or in any other preferred manner, while the front end of said rod is provided with a socketed lug 31 which extends upwardly therefrom through the slot 27 in the guide 26 and is normally received in a pocket formed in the exterior of the member 28, such pocket being shown in the present embodiment of the invention in the form of a groove 32 extending entirely around the rear end lportion of the aforesaid 4member 28 and preferably having one undercut wall 33 which receives therein a nose'33a onv the lug 31. Leading rearwardly from the groove 32, is a channel 34 while alned with such channel and formed in the-undercut wall 33 is necessary to remove the rod 29 without lwithdrawing the member 28 from its guide 26. Furthermore, when the member in questionstands in`the position shown in the figures just mentioned, it may be well withdrawn without dislocating thev rod 29 and parts carried thereby.
When, however, the member 28 is turned to position the channel 34 and notch 34a as or approximatel as shown in Figs. 5 to 10, the nose 33 1s retained by the undercut wall 33 and thus the parts are effectively held together, but it becomes expedient to provide simple means for preventing unintended rotation of the member 28. For.k this purpose, a socket 35 is formed in the bottom of the groove 32 at a point spaced from the channel and notch as clearly shown in Figs. 5- and 10, and normally received in said socket, is one corner of a 1 ectangular catch member 36 (see more particularly Figs. 3 and 4), the member 3.6 being confined in the socket of the lug 31 and being rocked to active position by a spring ypressed plunger 37 slidable in the tubular front end of the rod 29. By this means, it will be evident that the member 28 cannot be rotated until the catch member 36 is disposed to the position shown in Figs. 5 and 6, for which purpose, the plunger 37 may be forced rearwardly against .the tension of its spring by the application of an approprlate tool such as that indicated at T in the aforesaid ing in this posltion, the member 28 may be rotated to position the lug 31 in alinement wlth the channel 34 and the notch 34a, whereupon either the rod 29, the member 28, or both, may be removed 'at will.
4 In Figs. 11, 12 and 13, a slightly'diiierent form of construction is shown in which the bore of the tubular member 28a is of uniform size throughout its length and is provided at its front end with a single shoulder 30'i which is undercut to allow the exhaust gases to more readily act thereon. In this type of the invention, the lower side of the member 28 is provided with a pocket 32a receiving therein a lug 31a whichrises from the front end of a rod 29a identical with the rod 29, the lug in question being slidable within the longitudinal slot 27a formed in the lower side of a tubular guide 26a which is shown as being threaded upon the front end of the barrel B. rather than being formed as an integral part thereof.
To normally retain the lug 31a in the pocket 32a, a spring projected catch member 36EL is forced normally forward into a socket 35kl here shown in the form of a loop depending from the guide 26a.
When this catch member 36a is moved to the position shown in FigY 12 by the insertion of an appropriate tool into the socket, the rod 29 may be sprung downwardly whereupon it, as well as the member 28a, may be removed. j Figs. 14 to 18 inclusive disclose a tubular fguide 26b identical with the guide-26a with gures. With the parts standthe exception that a pair of upright flanges 38 depend therefromon,oppos1te sides of the slot -in its lower side. Slidable 1n the guide 26h is a tubular member 28 havmg on its interior a plurality oflongitudinallyv spaced annular ribs or shoulders 30h, the member 28b having in its lower side a pocket 32" receiving therein a lug 31" rising from the front end of a connecting rod 29b here shown as formed of two sections hingedly connected together at 39, the front sectlon having therein a longitudinally disposed slot 40 through which and through rectangular openings in the flanges 38, a latch member, 36b is passed, said member having a bor/e in which the headed shank 41 of a rotatable locking button 42-is mounted, a spring 43 being provided to normally retain saidl button seated within appropriate notches 1n one end of the member 36", when said ,button is turned transversely of such member as shown in Fig. 16, it being evident that under these circumstances, the locking member cannot be removed, but when the button is turned as disclosed in Fig. 18, the member in question may be retracted, thus allowing the front section of the rod 29b to be swung downwardly, whereupon the operating member 28b may be removed at will. As shown most clearly in Figs. 16 and 18, the button 42 is normally received in notches in the outer side of one of the iianges 38 as well as in the notches' -in the member 43, it being necessary to force inwardly upon the head of the shank 41 and disengage the button from the numerous notches before it may be so turned as to allow it to stand as shown in the last named ligure.
The form of operating mechanism illusl trated in Figs. 19 to 21 inclusive, comprises a tubular barrel extension or guide 26 having in its lower sidea longitudinal slot 27, said extension or guide beingl shown as ofl a diameter corresponding to that of the barrel and as carried by the front end of the latter as indicated at 44. Slidable longitudinally in the guide 26, is a tubular operating member 28'having therein a plurality'of annular shoulders 30 corresponding to these 30", but exceeding the latter in number. The lower side of the member 28 is'provided with a pocket in the form of a slot 32 in which a lug 31 rises from the front end of the connecting rod 29, said lug as well as the front end of the rod being bifurcated and receiving between their furcations, an L-shaped latch member 36 having a nose 45 which projects through the slot 32 and normally overlies the bottom of the member 28. The nose 45 is formed on the end of onearm of the member 36 while the other end thereof is normally held in the bifurcated front end of the rod 29 against the tension of a spring 46 by a sleeve 47 which is slidable on said rod and which may be moved to the right in Fig. 20lwhen the longer arm of the member 36 is sprung inwardly thereby allowing said member4 to be disposed to such a position as to allow the rod 29 to be swung downwardly whereupon the member 28 may be withdrawn.
All types of the device D produce the same results as the form rst described, namelyyso operating the mechanism at the breech of the gun, as to expel the shell of a spent cartridge and inject anew cartridge.
forms are positively automatic and although being very simple, they will be eicient and durable. Several types of detachable connections between the connecting rods and the gas trapping operating members 28 have been shown, as have likewise/a number of forms of such members, but it is to be understood that the illustration is merely typical of some of thel great number of ways in whichi, the numerous details of the invention may be constructed to produce equally good results. It is to be noted that the several operating members project forwardly beyond their guiding means, this being essential since it allows the attachment of the common type of bayonet to the end of the gun, even though it be equipped with one of the devices I claim: v
1. In an automatic firearm, a barrel, extracting and reloading means at the breech thereof, a forwardly shiftable tubular gas trapping member in advance of the muzzle of the barrel and alined therewith, said member having a pocket opening through its outer side, a rod lying substantially'parallel to the barrel and having connection with the extracting and reloading means, alugiprojecting from the front end of said rod into the aforesaid pocket, and lock means for normally preventing removal of said lug.
2. In an automatic firearm, a barrel', ex-
tracting and reloading means at the breech i thereof, a tubular guide alined with and carried by the muzzle of the barrel, a tubular forwardly shiftable gas trapping member slidable in the guide and projecting forwardly therefrom to provide means for the attachment of a bayonet, and connecting means between said member and the extract- 4. In an automatic firearm, a barrel, eX- 130' tracting and reloading means at the breech thereof, a tubular guide alined with and carried by the muzzle of the barrel and having a longitudinal slot, a tubular forwardly shiftable gas trapping member slidable' in the guide, a rod substantially parallel to the barrel having connection with the extracting and reloading means, a projection extending from the front end of the rod through the slot, and a detachable connection between said projection and the aforesaid member.
5. In an automatic reloading gun, a barrel, a member at themuzzle thereof shifted forwardly by the escape of gases from said barrel, a rod extending rearwardly from said member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the o en breech of the barrel, a breech bolt shifta le forwardly and rearwardly in said guideway and adapted to -actuate extracting and reloading means, a cam for, re.- tracting the bolt When shifted, said cam having connection with the rear end of'the aforesaid rod, and spring means for returning all parts to normal position.
6'. In an automatic reloading gun, a barrel, a member at the muzzle thereof shifted forwardly by the escape ofgases from said barrel, a rod extending rearwardly from said member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the open breech of the barrel, a breech bolt`shiftable forwardly and rearwardly in said guideway and adapted to actuate extracting and reloading means, a vertically swinging pivotally mounted cam plate for retracting the bolt when shifted, said plate having an eccentric connection with the rear end of the aforesaid rod, a breech bolt lock operating in conjunction with the vertically swinging cam plate and applied when said plate is lowered to lock the breech bolt in active position, but released when said plate is raised, and a spring for returning all parts to normal position.
7. In an automatic reloading gun, a barrel, a member at the muzzle thereof shifted forwardly by the escape of gases from said barrel, a rod extending rearwardly from said member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the open breech of the barrel, a breech bolt shiftable forwardly and rearwardly in the guideway and adapted to actuate extracting and reloading means, a stud projecting laterally from the bolt, a vertically swinging pivotally mounted cam plate having a cam surface engaging the stud to retract the bolt when the plate is shifted, said plate having an eccentric connection with the rear end of the aforesaid rod, and spring means for returning all parts to normal position.
8. In an automatic reloading gun, a barrel, a member at the muzzle thereof shifted forwardly by the escape of gases from said barrel, a rod extending rearwardly from said member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the open breech of the barrel, a breech bolt shiftable forwardly and rearwardly in the ideway and adapted to actuate extracting and reloading means, said bolt having in its rear end a notch and a stud projecting laterally into such notch, a vertically swinglng pivotally mounted cam plate having an eccentric slot receiving the stud therein whereby to retract the breech bolt when the plate is raised, said plate having an eccentric connection with the rear end of the aforesaid rod, and a spring for returning all parts to normal position.
9. In an automatic reloading gun, a barrel, an operating member at the muzzle thereof adapted to be shifted forwardly by the escape of gases from said barrel, a rod-extending rearwardly from, said member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the breech ofthe barrel, a breech bolt shiftable forwardly and rearwardlyin the guideway and adapted to actuate extracting and reloadmg means, a vertically swinging locking v block contacting with the rear end of the breech bolt and having an arm extending rearwardly, a transverse pivot pin p assing through said arm, and a vertically swlnging breech block retractor mounted on the aforesaid pivot pin and having a kicking surface spaced below the locking block.
10. In an automatic reloading a barrel, an operating member at t e muzzle thereof and adapted to be forced forwardly by the escape of gases from said' barrel, .a rod extending rearwardlyrfrom the operating member, a guideway extending rearwardly from the breech of the barrel, a horizontal breech bolt slidable in said guideway toward and away from the breech, a laterally extending stud carried by said breech bolt, a transverse locking block contacting with the rear end ofsaid breech bolt, the sides of the guideway being formed with notches receiving said block, a pair of spaced arms extending rearwardly from said block and having elongated openings in their rear ends, a transverse pivot pin passed through said openings, a vertically swinging block having its front end positioned contiguous to the rear side of the locking block and having its rear end pivotally mounted on the aforesaid pivot pin, and a cam plate carried rigidly by the second named block, said plate being eccentrically connected with the rear end of the aforesaid rod and having an arcuate cam surface which engages the stud on the breech bolt, said plate also having a notch in its upper edge whose lower wall is spaced below the locking block for the purpose specified.
1l. In an automatic rearm, a barrel, extracting and reloading means at the breech thereof, a rigidly fixed tubular barrel extension projecting forwardly from said barrel that of said barrel., a tubular gas trapping In testimony whereof I have hereunto set member housed shdably in said extenslon my hand in presence of two subscribing witand adated to be moved forwardly by the messes.
gas from the muzzle of the barrel, CHARLES S. WHEATLEY.
escape o and means connecting said member and said /itnesses:
extracting and reloadn means for operat- HAROLD G. WYNNE,
ing the latter when the ormer is shifted. SHERIDAN WHITAKER.