US 1198598 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
c. L. SUDMANN.
PROCESS OF AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING MOVlNG PICTURES. 1 APPLICATION FlLED mms I916.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1- INVENTOR A TTORNEY C. L.' SUDMANN. PROCESS OF AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING MOVING PICTURES.
APPLICATION FILED JAN. 8. 196.
m j m m MW m mm m5 m m A C. L. SUDMANN.
PROCESS 0F AND MEANS FOR PRODUCINGMOVING PICTURES. APPLICATION FILED JAN. a. 1916.
1,198,598. I mum-011mm 19,1916.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3- M? 3* M kg N Q \l N" \Q Q a & M q H$ ii I INVENTOB rron/m CHARLES L. SUDMANN, OF DALLAS, TEXAS, ASSIGNOR TO ACORN MOVIE CARTOGN COMPANY, OF WILMINGTON, DELAWARE, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.
IBOCESS Oi? 'AND MEANS FOR PRODUCING MOVING PICTURES.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, CHARLES L. bUnMANN,
' citizen of the United States, residing at Dallas, in the county of Dallas and State of Texas, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Processes of and Means for ProducingMoving Pictures, of which the following is a specification.
Through the agency of my invention I produce moving picture films from anlmated cartoons in an expeditious and economical manner and believe I have brought this art to a higher state of perfection.
Successful'films have been produced from "a series of drawings, a separate drawing being made complete for each picture; and a further advance has been made by placing one or more transparent sheets over a background drawing and reproducing only movable parts on said sheets. However all of these systems require the services of a skilled artist on all sheets and he must do more or less work on each sheet. Further numerous sheets and cards are required. In photographing t'he drawings t, is necessary in orderto. secure the proper register of the and equivalents manifested in the carrying out of said invention.
The main portion of my invention resides in the drawing in sequence on a continuous strip or roll all of the features of the picture'- or story to be depicted, both animated and unanimated; and using in conjunction therewith. a transparent or translucent continuous strip of like proportions on which all or portions of the drawings of the first strip 'may be traced by any ordinary draftsman.
By the term features I mean to include.
the background, objects and all figures and parts of-the scene portrayed by the drawings. For instance a drawing showing a Specification of Letters Patent.
scene with no animation may be followed by one representing a man walking and giving four successive positions assumed by the man in taking four steps.
The first strip or roll I designate as a preliminary strip or roll, while the second strip or roll which the preliminary strip underlies, is known as a tracing strip. The only exception to the drawing of all pictures on the preliminary strip is where certain tea tures are added after the strip is made or where a single drawing can be utilized for scenes located at separated points on the said strip, in which case a third medium may be interposed between the strips and the obects copied therefrom onto the tracing strip.
By use of the preliminary strip it is evident that the artist may draw a single back ground on said strip either with or without such objects as are to remain stationary Patented Sept. 19, 1916. Application filed January 8, 1916. fierial No. 70,911. i
throughout several pictures and then follow with successive drawings of the animated and moving features in their-proper order, and also the fixed objects if the same are not drawn on the background drawing. .These drawings may all be executed in pencil and quite rapidly prepared. After the preliminary strip is completed it may be turned over to a less skilled artist or draftsman who by placing the preliminary strip under the tracing strip, can reproduce in ink on the tracing strip, such portions and features of the preliminary drawings as are necessary.
The draftsman who'does the tracing can with a little instruction, become quite expert in reproducing and selecting the proper portions to be traced for each picture or scene. The original artist in making up the preliminary strip will first draw the background and may also draw such parts and objects which are to remain stationary in a large number of subsequent pictures or re productions on the tracing strip. For in-' stance if an automobile was to be represented as standing still during a long period it would be shown on the background drawing,
but if it was to move, its successive positions across the strip would be drawn in successive drawings on the preliminary strip. The background might portray a landscape scene and call for a man walking across the picture. In making the preliminary strip the artist would sketch in the background and then follow with a separate drawing showing four successive positions of the man walking. Thetracer could then place the tracing strip over the preliminary strip and after providing register marks he would trace the man in his first position, then by moving the tracing strip the prope distance for the next picture or drawing, would trace the second position of the man, and so on until each position had been traced. \Vith the background drawing in view the tracing strip could be moved to bring the register marks into harmony whereby the man would be depicted in the first position of walking across the scene. As the tracing strip was moved, the successive positions would be shown and it would only be necessary to trace the man for each picture. However if desirable the draftsman could trace the background each time and then trace the man over the same. By this method all of the drawings of the preliminary strip would be reproduced on the tracing strip. It would be possible to have the positions of the man drawn on a separate card and the latter inserted between the strips at the proper point in the work.
For convenience inniaking up the strips and for expediting the photographing I have designed a cabinet in which the strips may be mounted and rolled from one arbor to another, This cabinet is arranged so that the preliminary strip may be disposed under the tracing strip which latter is only threaded into position after the preliminary strip has been completed. The strips may be independently or simultaneously moved and provision is made whereby enough of the tracing strip will be constantly in view to expose several successive drawings so that the draftsman will have preceding drawings in view when making subsequent drawings.
The cabinet is also rovided with a re istor frame having an opening the size of the picture to be photographed which also may be used as a guide in drawing register lines on the pictures. The frame is also formed with an off-set in its opening whereby a portion or panel of the underlying strips will be exposed beyond the margin of the picture and in which characters may be written designating the number of the picture as well as the number of times it is to be exposed or photographed.
The cabinet is provided with devices for' moving or propelling the strips and by setting the cabinet upright infront of a cinematograph camera and connecting the operating means of the camera with the propelling devices of the cabinet, synchronically, the pictures may be taken rapidly and no time lost in adjusting or registering.
My invention will be more clearly understood by reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate merely an .ex-
ample of means for putting said invention into practice, and wherein:
Figure l is view in perspective repre senting portions of the preliminary and tracing strips and showing only the movable figure reproduced on the tracing strip, Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the entire picture reproduced on the tracing strip, Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 exceptthat the movable figure is reproduced from a card inserted between the strips instead of from the preliminary strip, Fig. "l: is a perspective view of the cabinet for holding and 1nanipu lating the strips, Fig. 5 is a longitudinal sectional view of the same, Fig. (i is a transverse vertical sectional view of the cabinet, Fig. 7 is a. side elevation of one of the operating levers, a. portion being represented in section, Fig. 8 is a view at right angles to Fig. 7, the parts being dis-jointed, and Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view on the line 9-9 of Fig. 7.
I will first describe the cabinet which coniprises a asing 1 with a lid or cover 2. hinged thereto at the rear, The casing has its top cut at an angle so that the lid will rest thereon on an incline like the lid of a school desk. From front to rear and centrally of the lid a guide panel 3 is provided and formed with marginal overhanging guide members 4, while a plate 5 thereunder forms the bottom of the panel, said plate being somewhat shorter than the panel. At the forward and lower end of the panel a drawing table (3 is mounted and spaced sutlicicntly from the plate to allow the passage of a strip of paper or cloth therebetween. A picture guide or register frame 7 has its front side hinged to the lower end of the panel so as to swing down over the table 6. The inner margin of the frame has a recess or offset 8 at its bottom. The opening exposed by thisfraine is the exact size of the picture to be drawn and the underlying surface exposed by the recess will be beyond the margin or field of the picture.
On the under side of the lid 2 a pair of supporting plates 10 depend from the members 4 and are suitably spaced apart in rigid relation. Between these plates tansverse arbors 11. 12, 13 and H are:, ,disposed with their reduced ends journaled in said plates. The arbors ll and 13 receive strips A and B in roll form, the roll A being adjacent the table 6 and the roll B under the plate 5. The roll A is formed of the preliminary strip which is passed up and over the table (5 and thence down between said table and the plate 5 to the arbor 12 on which it is wound. llhen the tracing strip B is brought into use it is threaded over t'ansverse guide rollers 15 journaled in. the plates 10 and then carried over the strip A onto the plate 5 under the guide members 4.. From the upper end of the plate 5 the strip B is led down and around a guide roller 16 to the arbor 14: on which it is wound For revolving the arbors 12 and 14 I provide a lever, pawl and ratchet mechanism and as they are both thesame, a description of one will suffice for both. The end of the arbor is extended through the adjacent plate 10 and-a ratchet wheel 17 is fixed onthe said end of the arbor, while a lever 18 is mounted on to swing on said end. This lever carries a pivoted pawl 19 engaging the ratchet sothat when the lever'is swung rearward the ratchet is revolved and the arbor rotated whereby a portion of the strip is wound thereon.) On the upper end of the lever which terminates below the lid 2 areduced shank 20, is provided'as 'is best shown in Figs. 7,f'8 and 9. A. handle 21 is mounted on this shank so as'to rotate and to be removed when desired. The handle carries a laterallyfprojecting linger 22 at its lower end and,.whfen said hahdle is rotated, this finger swings into contact with a lug 23 on the pawl'whereby thedatter is swung upward and held out of the teeth of the ratchet. It is evident that by removing the handle and closing the. lid no "one can operate the.
ratchet or tamper with the adjustment of the strips. 'A flat; spring25 frictionally engagesthe side of the wheel 17 and retains It in the position to which it is moved. The handleprojects through a slot 2ft in the lid. The mechanism on the arbor 12 is placed on the oppoiiite' end with relation to the arbor- Has isfshbwn in the drawings.
In using? theeabinet the preliminary strip" A which may be paper or other material is threaded fiver the drawing table 6 and secured to'ithe arbor 12. The frame 7 is f swungdownover the strip A andfastened by (illpg zfi pivoted on the members 4 and swung over the frame. The artist proceeds to. make" his first sketch and then traces around theiinside of the frame whereby register or mai'gin lines are made on the draw-- .ing. ;He' also writes the number :of the drawing and av designation indicating the number. ofi' exposures to be made in the space or panel provided by the recess 8. After completing these operations .the strip is propelled forward and wound on the arbor 12. The stripismoved upward or forward until the bottom line h of number I panel registers with the outside upper edge exposures without assistance from the artist and also relieves the artist from the burden of, remembering or listing the different exposures.
For the imrpijsse of rewinding, the arbors' 11 and 13 are extended through the casing 1 and provided with crank-handles 27. Before the strips can be rewound the particular pawl 19 associated therewith must be raised by; rotating the handle 21 controlling said I strip. After the preliminary strip has been sketched it is rewound onto the 'arbor 11. The artist is now through with his work and the films may be produced without further attention or service on the part of the artist. drawings threads the'tracing strip B, which is of suitable material, over the. rollers 15. up over the strip A and onto the plate from which it is taken to the arbor 14- over the roller 16.
If it is desired to reproduce only the animated portions on the strip l3 shown in Fig. 1 the background of the picture or scene is not traced, but the register or guide lines are marked off around the frame 7 and then the preliminary strip moved forward until the drawing of the man is brought. into frame and line A as before described. The draftsman now traces the man in the first po sition, which is that at the extreme right hand side and then writes-in the number panel the number of the picture also the number of the-background drawing and the number of exposures to be made. F instance suppose the number of the background drawings is 40 and the number of the first pic ture on the tracing strip B is M; then 54-t0+4 writtenin the number panel of the first picture would indicate to the pho:
tographer that he was to register drawings numbers and 40 and make four exposures thereof. The artist in making up the preliminary strip may write the picture number and number of exposures under each 7 position from which a drawing is to be traced or he may leave the numbering to the draftsman. After the first position is traced the strip B is moved upward as shown in Fig. 1 and the second position traced, the draftsman having the first draw ing in view while tracing the second so that he may follow the technique of'the preced ing drawing. The strip B is moved until pictures produced. The preliminary strip may be now moved to bring the subject over the drawing table and the Work completed. I propose to use a suitable ink which will lie flat and to render that portion. of the tracing strip covered by the man, opaque so that the underlying background will not show through. i
In Fig. 2 I have illustrated the method The draftsman who is to finish the a t 6 proper position, which 155 done by means oi 120 all four positions have been traced and four .tions might be evolved.
whereby the background is reproduced in each drawing. This requires the draftsman to first trace the background on as many pictures as he has positions of the man and then run the tracing strip back so that he may trace the man in each picture, the strip A being moved forward for this purpose. In Fig. 3 the positions of the men are shown on a card C which is inserted between the strips and adjusted by the draftsman. It is evident that various combina- The tracing strip being completed the next step is to make the exposures with a cinematograph camera and produce the film. The strips may be rewound in the cabinet and the latter suitably positioned in front of the camera. Now by adjusting the pre liminary strip if the same is to be used, m that the background view is visible and then by suitable means (not shown) synchronically connecting the arbor 1% of the cabinet with the operating mechanism of the camera, the strip B may be propelled and the exposures made harmoniously with considerable speed. By this arrangement no time is consumed in adjusting and registering individual pictures and considerable expense is saved. Of course Where the entire picture was reproduced on the strip B the preliminary strip would not be required in making the exposures.
It is obvious that by having the pictures in sequence on a continuous slrip it is possible to move the same forward and rearward and .thus observe to some extent the continuity ot' the scene as well the animation, thus giving an excellent opportunity for elaboration; correction or elimination so that the pictures may be reduced to a nicety not otherwise to be had.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim, is:
1. The process of producing drawings for use in making moving pictures, which consists in producing on a strip the background of a scene and a plurality of drawings in g quence depicting movable objects in successive positions, then tracing said sequent drawings on a superimposed transparent strip, and mechanically controlling and traversing the transparent strip after each successive tracing operation.
2. The process of producing drawings for use in making moving pictures, which consists in producing on a strip a series of back-' ground d wings, then drawing movable objects on a. transparent strip superimposed on toe first atri and mechanicaily' traversin t2 messes the transparent strip over the first strip and controlling the relative positions of the two strips.
3. The process of photographing drawings for producing moving pictures, which con sists in immovably supporting a background drawing in front of a cinematograph camera, mechanically controlling and traversing over the background drawing a transparent strip on which movable objects correlated with the background are depicted in successive order, whereby successive pictures are produced in front of the camera, and photographing the successive pictures.
4. The process of photographing drawings for producing. moving pictures, which consists in supporting in front of a cinematograph camera a strip on which the backgrounds of a scenario are drawn, mechanically moving over the background drawings a transparent strip having drawings of movable objects correlated with the different backgrounds and controlling the registrition of one strip with the other, and photographing the successive pictures produced by the registrations of the two strips.
5. The'process of producing moving pictures, which consists in producing a background drawing containing parts of a scene which remain stationary during that portion of the series of pictures in which the background is used, producing on a separate transparent strip drawings of the movable objects in the proper order of semwnce in which they appear in the scene, successive positions of certain objects being portrayed in successive drawings on said strip, and photographing said pictures in succession on acinematograph film, each picture of the series being formed by a separate portion of said strip mechanically moved over said background and registered therewith. said background being visible through said transparent strip, said strip being mechanically moved in either direction to bring successive positions of the movable objects over the background and in registration therewith.
6. An article of manufacture for use in the production of moving pictures, comprising a preliminary strip having drawings thereon portraying the features of the picture in their order of continuity, some of the picture areas containing a plurality of representations depicting successive positions of the movable objects.
In testimony whereof I aliix my signature.
CHARLES L. SUDMANN.