US 1200439 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
.W. F. KEMBLE. KEYBOARD FOR TYPE wmme 0R ANALOGOU'S MACHINES. APPLICATION FILED OCT. 9. I932.
1,26%;439 Patented 0m. 3,1916.
WITNESSES; INVENTORY n izwQ- w W the keyboard to effect the selection and depression of individual keys.
' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE; a.
WILLIAM F. KEMBLE, or YonKERs; NEW YORK.
I KEYBOARD FOR TYPE-WRITING- OR ANALOG-Oil's LT ACHINES.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, WVILLIAM'F. KEuBLE, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Yonkers, in the county of Vestchester and State of New York, have invented certain new and seful Improvements in Keyboards for ype-VVriting or Analogous Machines, of which the following is-a specification,
Thisinventionrelates to a keyboard for.
typewriting or analogous machines, and the main object of the invention is to provide a key mechanism for machines of this general class. in which all of the keys and other parts to be depressed by the fingers of the operatorare located in such positions as to permit the depression of the same while the hand as a whole is maintained substantially in a fixedposition with respect to the key board. 4
As is well known the natural movements of the fingers of the hand follow certain definite paths 'or'lines, not all of the fingers moving naturally in the same or similar directions. In order to obtain a keyboard of maximum efliciency-that is, one which will require the minimum of effort on the part of the operator in locating and depressing the keys,-etc., to be depressed-these keys,
etc, should be located in. groups-corresponding respectively to the individual fingers to be used in striking such keys. Where all of the fingers of each hand are brought into play and each has a definite portion of the keyboard under its individual control, and the keys so controlled are located in positions corresponding as closely as possible to thenatural path ofmovement of the finger by which they are intended to be struck, the.
minimum of 'movement'will be required at The keyboard of thepresent invention is i one in whichthe keys and all-other manually controlled parts of the keyboard are so located relatively to one another and to thenatural paths of movement followed by the fingers'of the hand-or hands held in a substantially all, unnecessary movement of fingers and hands in manipulating such keys, etc. The preferred construction is one in which a set of keys is divided into a plurality of linear groups running in different specification of Letters Patent. Patented Oct, 3, 1916, Application filed October 9, 1912. Serial 724,713.
directions corresponding substantially-to the natural directions of movement of fingers of the hand when the hand is .held horizontally in a substantially stationary position, these linear groups corresponding usually to the number of fingers on the two hands and the paths in which-the groups of each set operated by either hand are located preferably diverging from the front toward the rear of the keyboard-followingthe natural direction of movement of most of the fingers of the hand.- Where all fingers are used, as is intended in the keyboard preferably employed, some of the groups are disposed in linear pathsthe general directlon of which is lengthwise of the keyboard, while others are disposed in pathshaving a general direction crosswise of the keyboard, the general direction for the three intermediate fingers of each hand being lengthwise. of said keyboard, while for the thumb and the little finger of each hand the as usual, 'while others have their surfaces at' an angle to the horizontal plane, being inclined upwardly toward the rear of each such group, in order to bring the keys near the back, of the keyboard nearer to the center of swing of the operators finger than would be the case if all were disposed horizontally. In addition to the keys being arranged as just described, the manually operated elements, whether keys, bars, or other similar parts, intended to control the operation of spacing and shift levers, will. also preferably be located in such positions as to be readily operated, substantially with out change of position of either hand with respect to the keyboard as a whole, the preferred construction being one in which the spacing-lever is operated by one part of the palm of the hand and the shift-lever or le- 7 'vers by another' or other parts of said palm.
Other features of the invention not here- 11.
inbefore referred to will be hereinafter de scribed and claimed and are illustrated in the accompanying.drawings, 1n wlnch.fl'
Figure l is a plan of a keyboard 'illus 5 trating so much of .a typewriting or ana-. gous machine embodying the presenti'nven tion as is necessary to understand the same; Fig. 2 is a detail illustrating in side ele vation a portion of said keyboard, and Fig.
10 3 isa detail illustrating in front elevation;
with parts broken away, substantially half of said keyboard.
Similar characters designate like parts in.
or these operating levers may run in parallel straight lines, as indicated in Fig. 1, and as is usual in standard machines, or they mayconverge or be grouped in any other desired manner. At their forward ends so e of these operating bars will ordinarily be bent laterally, as indicated atB and 4,.
either. toward or away from the longitudinal axis of the keyboard. Some of the operating levers may be straight from end to end thereof, as illustratedd Eachof the opcrat ing leversterminates at its forward end, as
is usual, in a key, 5, by means of which the corresponding lever is. depressed. The keylevers so constituted may be those of a machine having any desired number of cases, but as ilh'lstrated here, the number of keys used-corresponds to a three ca'sc. inachinc,,
each key I'QPI'CSBDtlHQ both a capital and a small-letter and also a nuswllaneous character.,.to be made, 0r: .such other combination of three -characters as may be desired.
It \vi-llbe understood,i of course, that the particularlocation of the letters, etc, to be str-uck, while a matter of choice, will preferably be-such as will reduce to the minimum the effort required tofind or locate l(B YS- IGPIBSGHlZlHfI characters most frequen tly .used.
. wThe keys of the keyboard shown are llvidedsubstantiallyrinto two sets. one for the right :hand and onelfor the left, and each set hasya linear group of keys;theigeneral direction of which corresponds as closely laspossible to thedircction of movement of the fingermeniploycd to operate the keys of that-group, and ithe; lateral spacing o.f.,the
" groups relative to one another is suchfas to l5 'ing and shift-levers, asis Well understood;
type is illustrated at .6, and this carries a have each group as nearly as possible immediately under the finger by which it is con- ,trolled, sothat practically nomo'vcment of a finger-crosswise of it's natural path of movement Will-be required to find a key. In the keyboard ,illustratedmthere are five linear. groups for each hand and two of these groups have acommon elenient-and merge --into each other, these being the groups for the thumb, and being located at thecenter' 7 of the front ofthe keyboard. The other groups, withthe exception of those controlled by the little finger, ext end substantially lengthwise of the' keyboard, the groups intended to be operated by the little so fingers being located substantially crosswise p of the keyboard and in positionsfcorresponding quite closelyto those of the keys intended to be operated by the thumbs. The five groups for the right hand a're indicated by "3 a, I), c, d and e, and those for the lefthan'd by a,- 7), c, d'and e, the cent alkey :atthe front of the machine, WhlCll is indicated by 11/, being common to the groups a' and a. The group 7) is intended to be controlled 0 only by the forefinger of the right hand, the
group 0 onlyby the second finger. the gri'iup (Z only by the third finger, and the group? only by the-little finger of said' hand. The groups I), 0'. (1' and a are correspondingly controlled. The groups a and n. are intend ed to be controlled only by the right and left thumbs respectively, with the exception of the key a common to both groups, which may be controlled by eithcrthumb. v
Tn addition to the keys controllingthe writing of letters. etc. the keyboard of such a machine as described ordinarily has spac A spacing lever substantiallyof Well-known suitable manual element or elements. such; as a bar or bars 7, intended to be struck bV the operator. Two such manual elements or bars are preferably used. one under the 11o controlof the right ha nd and the other under that of the left. Similarly one or more shiitlevers, Which are or may be of the ordinary type, ""\vi ll beemployed. Shift levers for.
both the second and third casepositions are illustrated, the levers 8 represcntingione of these case positions andi thc levers 9 the other, and suitable manual:lclenients keys or barsare connected to "these leversgtor operating them. The manual, elements shown arebars, 10 and 11, andtwo of each are employed, one under the control of each;
hand. Theprincipal feature, howeverflof this part of thekeyboard-is that'each of these manual elements is so locatedwith re- 1225 spect to the keys 5 and with respect to the position the hand is intended to occiipy in manipulating the keys, as to be at allitimcs -immediately under a portion of thelpalm of the hand intendcdto operate it; new the" spacing lever is intended to be operatedby the back part of the ball of the palm of the hand, While the bars 11 are under the control of the right-hand edge. ofthe palm and the bars 10 underthe control of the left-hand edge of the palm, these bars being actuated by merely tipping the hand to the right or to the left as required. Correspondingly thev element 7 is operated by merely pressing down the back edge of the palm. The two sets, it will be noticed, are disposed symmetrically with the devices of each set converging toward the longitudinal axis of the keyboard, in order that all of them may cotiperate properly with the keys v 5 from a predetermined substantially fixed position of each hand with respect to the key-board under it.
' In addition to the features just described each of the linear groups 7), 0, (Z and b, c
' and d, controlled by the three intermediate fingers of the hands preferably has elements disposed in different planes, the keys in -each of these groups located at or "near the front edge of the keyboard being in the usual substantially horizontal position of keys of'ordinary keyboards, while the keys farther back in each of these linear groups-are inclined toward a horizontal plane, the angle of inclination being preferably such as to bring each inclined key face to a point where the finger controlling it .will have the minimum distance to move in striking it. Where two or more keys of'a s1 ngle group are inclined for this purpose the general pathin which the faces .of the keys of- :the group lie will be one having an up-- ward and rearward inclination from the. front of the group, as'will be evident by.
referring to Fig. 2, in which the last inclined key of the group is elevated above the next to the last, but is substantially in a path common to the key faces of all the keys of that group. The same is true of each of the other series or groups controlled by the 1 three intermediate. fingers of the hands.
Thus by properly disposing the'keys of the twomain'sets in lines following the' general directions of the fingers when the fingers are in action, and by disposing the groups controlled by the intermediate fingers of I the hands in paths corresponding approximately to the arcs in which the fingers swing, and by suitably relating the miscellaneous keys or bars controlling the spacing and shift-levers, etc;, to -the' positions of the keys of themain sets, all of the manual operations required in typewrit- 'ing, etc., may be performed with the minimum of movement by the operator, and
particularly with the minimum of movement of the hands relative to the keyboard,
and a corresponding increase in the efiiciency of the operator secured through reduction of the amount of workrequired of him'in accomplishing a given task, or
increase in the amount of work turned out in a given time, or as a result of the expenditure of a given'amount of energy.
'WhatI 'claim is;
1. In a keyboard of the class described, the combination with a plurality of operating levers running in'one general direction, of a set of keys secured respectively to said operating levers, the keys of said set being divided into a plurality of linear groups running in different directions corresponding substantially to the natural directions of movement of fingers of the? hand when the hand is held horizontally iii a substantially stationary position the genera direction of the groups controlled by the thumb and the little finger being substantially crosswise, and of the groups controlled by the other fingers substantially lengthwise, of the keyboard. i
2. In a keyboard of'the class described, the combination with a plurality of operating levers running in one general direction, of a set of keys secured respectively to said operating levers, the keys ofsaid set beingdivided intoa. plurality of linear groups running in diflerent directions corresponding substantially to the natural directions of movement of fingers of the hand when.
ating levers running in one general 'direc tion, of two sets of keys secured respectively to said operating levers and disposed symmetrically at opposite sides of the longi-' tudinal axis of the, keyboard, thekeys of each set being divided into a plurality of linear groups running in different directions corresponding substantially tow the natural directions of movement of fingers'of bothv hands when'the hands are held horizontally andin substantially stationary positions the general directions of the groups controlled by the thumbs and of those controlled by the little fingers being substantially crosswise, and of the groups controlled by the other fingers of each hand substantially lengthwise, of the keyboard.
4. In a keyboard of: the class described, the combination with a plurality of operating levers running in one general direction,
- of two sets of keys secured respectively to said operating levers and disposed symmetrically at opposite sides of the longitudinal axis of the keyboard, the keys of each I set being divided mto a plurality 9f linear groups running in dih'erent directions corresponding substantiallyto the natural d1- rections of movement of fingers of both hands when the hands are held horizontally and in substantially stationary positions and the keys of' th'ose groups of'eaeh set'ivhich' are controlled. by the three intermediatefin gers of the corresponding hands havingtheir facesiir paths the general direction of which is upward toward the rear of the 'keying rapidly corresponding substantially to i Y the natural directions of movement of'fingers of the handwhen the hand is held horizontally in a substantially stationaryposition, and aspacing lever having a bar dis tant from thelongitudinal center of the keyboard and in position to be operated by the palm of the hand.
6.' In akeyboard of the class described, the combination with a: plurality of operating levers running in one general direction,
' of a set of keys secured respectively to said operating lovers, the keys of said set being divided lIltO a plurality of linear groups running in difierent directions corresponding si'ibstantially to the natural directionswo finoveinent of fingers of the hand when the hand is heldhorizontally in a substantially stationary: position, and 'a' spacinglever and a shift-lever having bars in position to be operated respectively by different portions of the. palm of the hand.
7. In a keyboard'ot' the class described,the i combination yvithn plurality of operating lerers running in one general direction, of a set of keys secured respectively to sa1d operatlng levers,,the keys of said set be ng divided'into a plurality of linear groups "running indifferent directions correspond ing substantially to the natural directions of movement of fingers of the hand when the hand is held horizontally in a substanatially stationary position,and aspacinglever and a pair of difierential shift-levers having bars in position to be operated -re spectivelyby the back and both 'sides'ot' the;
palm of the hand.
.In a keyboard of the class described, I
the combination with a plurality of operat ing levers running in one general direction, of two sets of .keys secured respectively to said operating levers and, disposed symmetrically at opposite sides'of the longi-' tudinal axis of the keyboard, the keys 10f each set being divided into a plurality of f linear groups running in diilerent directions corresponding substantially to the natural directions of movement of fingers of,
both handswhen. the hands are held horizontally" and in substantially stationarypo-- sitions, a spacing-lever, difierential ,sh1ft-- levers, andtwo sets of operating bars for said levers said sets being disposed sym nietricallyat opposite sides of the longitu dinal axis of the keyboard-and all of said bars being inclined toward said axis.
Signed at New York in the county of New.
York and State of NewYork this 4th day,
of October, A D. 1912. I
\VILLIAM F. -KEMBLE;
ANN-n C. BARNES, C. S. CHAMPION.