US 1202887 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. J. FHILPS"l sAs'H WEIGHT. APPLiCATION FILED NOV. 24. 1914.
Patented Oct. 31, 1916.
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WALTER J. IPHELPS, OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND, ASSIGNOR TO THE PHELPS CAN COMPANY, OF WEIRTON, WEST VIRGINIA, A CGRPORATION OF WEST VIRGINIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, WALTER J. P HELPS, a citizen of the United States, residing in Baltimore and State of Maryland, have invented a new and useful Sash-Veight, of which the following is a specification.
rIhis invention has reference to sash weights, especially of the kind employing lead as the body material, and its object is to provide a sash weight having characteristics of an all-lead sash weight with certain objectionable features eliminated, and possessing additional advantages.
Among the disadvantages of all-lead sash weights are the relatively high cost of lead and the liability of bending and denting the sash weights due to the softness of the metal employed. Among the advantages of lead sash weights are the relatively small bulk for a. given weight and the smooth exterior whereby lead sash weights have and are replacing iron sash weights in the better class of buildings, since iron sash weights are brittle and of a rough exterior due to the material from which they are customarily manufactured.
In accordance with the present invention lead is utilized as in the all-lead sash weights, butl there is also utilized a material heretofore largely employed in the production of sash weights and with which lead readily unites. This last-named material is a waste product of factories producing tin articles from sheet tin or tin plate, and which is customarily known as tin scrap. The tin scrap is treated with molten lead by means of which either of two conditions are brought about. The molten lead alloys with the tin and becomes as tenaciously adherent to the steel base of the tin plate as characterized the tenacious clinging of the tin to the base. The molten lead by its alloying action with the tin greatly dilutes the tin and a large proportion of the tin may be recovered from the mass in the form of an alloy of lead and tin with the lead greatly predominating. Or, the tin values need not be recovered at all. In either case the sash weights are formed of a, mixture of lead and tin scraps with an alloy of tin and lead in tenacious adherence to the basic material of the tin scraps and either all thev tin originally contained inthe tinscraps, or but a Patented Oct. Si, 1916.
serial no. 873,804.
fractional proportion thereof is contained in the mixture.
The relative weights of the materials employed are such that a sash weight composed 1n most part of tin scraps with the remainder formed of lead united to the tin scraps while the lead is molten is of somewhat greater bull; than an all lead sash weight, but of materially less bulk than an iron sash weight. From exterior appearance the composite sash weight of the present invention is practically identical with an all lead sash weight, but because of the presence of the relatively very cheap tin scrap the cost of production of the sash weight is far less than that of an all lead sash weight.
The invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, with the further understanding that while the drawings show a practical form of the invention, the latter is not confined to any strict conformity with the showing of the drawings, but may be changed and modified so long as such changes and modifications mark no material departure from the salient features of the invention.
In the drawings, Figure l is a perspective view of a sash weight constructed in accordance with the present invention and more or less schematically representing some features of the invention. Fig. 2 is an enlarged schematic view of a minute fragment of a sash weight constructed in accordance with the present invention. Fig. 3 is a. cross-section of the sash weight of Fig. 1 on an enlarged scale and more or less schematically illustrating certain features thereof. Fig. 4L is an elevation with parts in section of a composite sash weight embodying the present invention.
Referring to the drawings there is shown in Fig. l a sash weight l which may follow any of the usual conformations of such articles, and may also be taken as representative 4of any article other than a sash weight to which the material of the present invention is adapted. The sash weight l has a body portion of lead infiltrated throughout or substantially throughout with small pieces 2 of tin plate either with the tin coating remaining thereon or removed therefrom entirely or to a greater or less` extent.
In the practical embodiment of the invention the tin scrap may represent from fifty to seventy-five per cent. more or less of either the Weight or the bulk of the com pleted article.
The facility With Which lead Will alloy With tin is of material advantage in the present invention, since because of this characteristic the tin scrap or the steel base thereof becomes so tenaciously united With the lead mass that the resultant article is in effect a one piece structure Where all the parts, though of individually different characteristics, are, so far as their union is concerned, practically homogeneous.
In Fig. 2 the attempt is made to more or less schematically represent the conditions occurring when the tin scrap and molten lead are brought together.
At 2a in Fig. 2 is represented a minute fragment on a greatly enlarged scale of a piece of sheet steel constituting the base of tin plate. This sheet of steel is covered on opposite faces with a thin coating 2b of tin very tenaciously united to the steel in the course of manufacture. so that the union approaches that Which Would occur if the coating 2b were integral with the base 2a.
lVhen molten lead is applied to the tinned sheet, Which lead is indicated at 2C in Fig. 2, the lead alloys With the tin, .and this is indicated in Fig. 2 by an intermiXture of the section lines of the lead mass 2C and the tin coating 2b. This alloying action may proceed so far as to rob the steel sheet of all the original tin coating which is replaced by a coating of lead .and tin very Weak in tin because of the distribution of the latter through the lead, but such substitute coating is in as irm and tenacious union with the steel as was the original tin coating.
Under Vpresent commercial conditions tin scrap is of relatively small value and the manufacturer of articles made of tin plate can dispose of the Waste tin in the form of tin scrap only at a price far below the cost to him of the sheet tin.
By the present invention the commercial value of tin scrap is materially raised, since it may be utilized for greatly improving and at the same time reducing the cost of manufacture of a high grade article for which there is 'a decided demand, namely, lead sash Weights.
The composite sash Weight of the present invention has an exterior surface possessing all the desirable qualities of an all-lead sash Weight, but is of a better nature because of the presence of tin scrap in greater or less quantity. Furthermore, the composite sash Weight of the present invention is more rigid and less liable to distorting forces than an all-1ead sash Weight and permits thevutilization of a large proportion of a cheap material in its construction, Which material actually improves the article. The only feature wherein the sash Weight of the present invention might be compared unfavorably With an all-lead sash Weight is in the matter of bulk, but the increased bulk necessary to obtain the desired Weight is so slight as to be immaterial.
While in Fig. 1 the sash Weight is shown as though the tin scrap particles were eX- posed at the surface thereof, this does not actually occur, since even those edgesof the pieces of tin scrap which may come to the surface are coated With lead or a mixture of lead and tin, and consequently are not noticeably visible. Since the lead body forms an envelop covering or encapsuling the particles of tin scrap distributed all throughout the lead body the outer surface of the sash Weight is to all intents and purposes a lead surface which is smooth and free from all protuberances of any kind liable to be injurious to the usual Wood casing or boxing in which the sash Weight moves when installed. The composite material of the sash Weight is particularly strong even though it may be in part made of so soft and easily distorted a metal as lead. This great inherent strength is due to the reinforcement provided by the multitude of steel pieces or particles extending in all directions throughout the body of the sash Weight and in substantially as firm union with the lead portion of the sash weight as though the lead and the steel Were a one piece structure.
The particles of tin scrap may be, and usually are, round, square, triangular, Vand many other shapes both regular and irregular, and under some circumstances are long and slim similar to shreds. Some tin scrap as produced in the course of manufacture of sheet tin articles is in size and shape Well adapted for use Without further treatment, while other pieces of tin scrap are too large for use in the shape in which they are originally produced. In the latter case they may be bent or otherwisechanged in shape and reduced in size, so that they may be readily associated together and with molten lead to form sash Weights or other suitable articles for which the composition employed in the present invention is adapted.
The term tin scrap is intended to cover the remnants of tin produced in the manufacture of sheet tin articles, Whether or not the tin coating has been removed.
Vhile the present invention is designed primarily for the production of sash Weights, the term sash Weight as used herein is designed to include other articles to which the characteristics of the composition or mixture employed are adaptable.
In the foregoing description it has been considered that lthe sash Weight is molded or otherwise formed of lead and tin scrap in practically one homogeneous piece. The sash Weight may be formed of a series of blocks or Washers of composite material consisting of lead and tip scrap, said blocks or Washers being formed in any suitable man` ner as by punching the blocks or Washers out of a sheet of the composition, or in the case of the blocks being each of considerableY length, but less than the completed sash Weight, they may be molded as hereinbefore described.
Such a composite sash Weight is illustrated in Fig. 4. The lead and tin scrap composition is formed into blocks or Washers 10 each having an aXial passage 11 therethrough, and these blocks are strung upon a sustaining rod 12 having an eye 13 at one end and a terminal threaded portion 14 at the other end to which there is applied a nut 15 and an interposed Washer 16.
The blocks 10 may have any desired contour, that is, they may be of cylindrical shape or polygonal in cross-section or, in fact, may be any shape desired.
It is desirable that sash Weights shall agree as nearly as possible with the Weight of the sash they are to balance, and as sashes vary greatly in Weight it is usually necessary to obtain sash Weights by order7 and dealers do not usually carry the sash Weights in stock.
lVith a. structure such as illustrated in Fig. 4 it is quite feasible to carry in stock an ample supply of blocks 10 of various sizes and shapes and also to carry in stock a supply of rods l1. In the event of an order for sash Weights of some certain Weight they may be furnished in very close conformity to the Weights of the sash by a selection of blocks 10 of such sizes that their combined Weight when strung upon a rod 11 and secured thereon Will be practically that of the sash they are to balance.
`What is claimed is 1. A sash Weight comprising a mixture of particles or pieces of tin plate and lead With the latter in tenacious adherence to the basic metal of the tin plate and the particles or pieces of the tin plate distributed throughout the article.
2. A sash Weight comprising an intimate mixture of tin plate scraps and lead With the latter in tenacious adherence to the basic metal of the tin plate scraps, and said tin plate scraps being in predominant quantity and distributed throughout the lead.
3. A sash weight composed of lead and pieces or particles of tin plate scrap With said pieces or particles distributed throughout the lead and said lead and tin scrap united While the lead is in the molten condition.
11. A sash Weight composed of a mixture of lead and pieces or particles of tin plate scrap distributed throughout the lead with the tin coating of the tin scrap alloyed with the lead and the basic metal of the tin scrap tenaciously united to the alloy.
5. A sash Weight, comprising a body of lead with tin plate scraps distributed therethrough with the original tin coating of the tin scraps replaced by an alloy of lead and tin having the lead greatly predominating, and said alloy being tenaciously adherent to the basic metal of said tin plate scraps.
In testimony that I claim the foregoing as my oivn, I have hereto aiiiXed my signature in the presence of tivo Witnesses.
WALTER J. PHELPS.
l/Vitnesses JOHN H. SIGGERS, JOHN R. RAY.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for ve cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents, Washington, D. C.