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Publication numberUS1204647 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 14, 1916
Filing dateJan 19, 1916
Priority dateJan 19, 1916
Publication numberUS 1204647 A, US 1204647A, US-A-1204647, US1204647 A, US1204647A
InventorsHarvey P Bostaph
Original AssigneeHarvey P Bostaph
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process of obtaining coke and by-products from coal.
US 1204647 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



APPLlcATloN FILED 1AN,19,1916

1,204,647. Patented Nov. 14,1916.


ffomey H. P. BOSTAPH.

PnocEss or oBTAlmNG coKE AND BYLPRoDucTs mom con. l

APPLICATION FILED IAN. 1.9. |916- 1,2045647, Patented Nov. 14, 1916.


5 QQ o3 s A WI TNESSES -siafins ra'rianr onirica :HARVEY r. BostrAPH, or'nn'rnorr, MICHIGAN.


To all whom t may concern Be it known that I, HARVEY CP. BosTAPH, a citizen of the United States, residing at Detroit, in the county of Wayne,and State of Michigan, have invented a new and useful Process of Obtaining Coke and By-Products from Coal, of which the following isa specilication. l'

This invention has reference to a process of obtaining coke and by products from coal,

. and its object is to produce coke containing subjected to a temperature of about 700C such a percentage of `volatile matter as to provide a smokeless fuel burning freely with a long flame, and also to produce condensable by-products of superior quality and of increased quantity.

In accordance with thepresent invention the coal, by which term it is meant to include both the substance ordinarily known as coal and other carbonaceous materials suitable for the purposes of the present inven-` tion, is subjected in relatively thin massesx to a comparatively low, but gradually increasing temperature, in a manner to cause the distillation to progressively proceed from one long edgeof each thin mass of coal toward the other long edge, at which latter point the gases of distillation have free es-v cape. Such escape of the gases is facilitated by subjecting the coal during the coking.

process to subatmospherc conditions,.where by the temperature employed in the distilling operation may be sufficiently low to prevent any harmful eeot upon the volatilizedproducts. Y

rI he coal during the process. of coking, and while under subatmospheric pressure, is first F., which temperature is finally increased to about 1O00For 1100o F., in accordance with the coal being treated, although with some coals the maximum temperature may be asv low as about 900 F; Since the coal is first heated at the exterior or" peripheral "portion, distillation and' coking begin at such peripheral portionand the coked material acts as a heat insulator requiring the raising of the temperature-to an' injurious or undesirable degree if the distillation and vcoking fis to previously coked portions. But

proceed solely by heat conducted lthrough y Specification of Letters Patent.

coke, the heat isconducted by the webs past the sides of the coked portions at the periphery -and acts progressively along the sides Patented Nov. i4, 191e.

Application led January 19, 1916. Serial No. 73,012.

dividing the coal into relatively thin bodies or masses separated by websv of material of heat conducting qualities superior to the of the thin masses of coal. The distillation and coking therefore proceeds uniformly toward -that edge'of each thin mass of coal remote from the edge first affectedA by the heat without any necessity of unduly heatn ing the outer edge or peripheral portion of the lsubdivided mass of coal. Tapering each thin mass of coal from the outer toward the the distance from the periphery. Such progressive distillation not nly insures the final uniform heating of the whole mass by distributing the heat by conduction but prevents the sealing or trapping within the mass of any of the volatile products foi` the latter are alwaysprovided with a ready avenue of escape toward and through the inner or thin edges'of the coal masses. -As the coking progresses the escaping vol- .atile Vproducts are never forced to pass through coked portions of the mass or ,a portion of the mass which is at a higher teniperature than that at which the volatile products are evolved.

. In the practice of the present invention, and because of the treatment of the coal in thin masses, the coking is not only thorough,

but is performed within' a commercially reasonable time ranging-from three hours to four and one-half hours, more or less, the a.

time depending upjon the particular grade of loal employed. Furthermore, the subatmosjected is continued during the procedures, whereby the condensable by-products of dis tillation are recovered.

The. invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following de tailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming part of this specification, with the understanding, however, that while the drawings disclose a form of apparatus capable of practising the ,niention.- the imei may -be practised Witb I inner edge contributes to this end for the i mass to be heated decreases in proportion to ion .other apparatus, wherefore the invention in its practice 1s not confined to any strict conformity with the showing of the drawings, but may be changed and modified in various ways so long` as such changes and modifications mark no "departure from the salient features of the invention as expressed in the accompanying claims.

ln the drawings z-Figures 1 and 1a show partly in elevation, partly in section, and partly schematically an apparatus with which the present invention may be practised. Fig. 2 is a view partly in elevation and partly in section showing the core of the retort of Fig. 1 lowered. Fig. 3, is a cross-section of the core on the line 3 3 of Before describing the. process, and in order to facilitate the description thereof, the structures shown in the drawings will first be described.

There is shown a columnarform shell 1 upright in the installed position and tapering from the bottom toward the top, such shell constituting the body portion of a retort particularly adapted to the practice df the present invention, and which retort is described in'detail and claimed in another application Serial No. 73,011 filed on even date herewith for a retort for the destructive distillation of coal.

The shell 1 is provided with an upper head, 2 and a lower head 3 having means, which need not be specitically described, for fastening the heads tightly in place to seal them hermetically to the ends of the retort,'but in such manner that they may be readily removed as needed. lin the particular showing of the drawings the'shell 1 has brackets 4 at the lower end suporting the retort upon channel beams 5 forming part of a suitable installation, since in practising the invention on a commercial scale a battery of retorts is provided and suitable supporting structures are arranged forthe accommodation of the retorts. Each retort is surrounded by a wall 6 of re brick spaced -a short distance, say, in the neighborhood of two inches, from 'the ,shell 1. The wall'G constitutes a heat equalizing envelop. for the retort and is heated by any suitable means, as, for instance, by"4 hot products of combustion whichu may be applied to .the vwhole battery "of retorts atonce. v While it is not customary to direct flames against the wall or envelop 6, the drawing sh ws burners 7 ywith their names directed toward the wall 6 merely as a ready indication of theV fact-that the wall or envelop is being subjected to the action of heat ofsufficient intensity for the purpose.

Mounted upon the upper face of the head .3, as by-supports 8, is a core'9 comprising in the particular showingo the drawing. la truste-conical bottom plate 10, trom. which lin the..drawings. The slanting recaer? rises a tubular duct 11 having webs 12y radi-4 ating. ltherefrom toward` the inner wall of the shell into close relation thereto. .The core -9' tapers Ain conformity with the taper `of the retort'shell 1.

The core 9 when in the retort divides the interior of lthe latter into a circular series of chambers 13' constituting coal tubes eX- tending `longitudinally ofA the lretort and Vgrouped in` circular series about the duct 11, with which latter each chamber 13 communicates al'dng its inner long edge by way of numerous perforations 14:, With the webs 12 radial, the c'oal tubes 13 are of segmental form having the widest end at the retort shell and the chambers are of such dimensions that their greatest width meas' ured circumferentially of the retort does walls of the retort are approximately ene inch in thickness, while the walls of the duct 10 and the webs 12 are approximately three-fourths of an inch in thickness. ln a retort of such particular size the coal tubes at their greatest circumferential width are a little less than four inches, say, about three and nine-sixteenths inches, and have a radial depth varying from about six inches at the upper end to about eight inches at the lower end. rllhese dimensions it will be understood have to do with a commercial form of the retort which has'been tried and found to give excellent results, but the practice of the invention is not necessarily confined to a retort of the particular dimensions given.

ln the practice of the invention the core 9 is loweredfrom the retort from time to time forfthe discharge of its contents, and

in order to accomplish this, suitable mechanism is provided, the drawings showing in simplified construction a means for the purpose. A suitable framework 15 serves as a guide for a` supporting frame 16v having a post 17 thereon in position to engage and carry the head 3. The frame' 16 is in turn carried by ropes orV cables 17 running over pulleys 18 and-provided with counterweights l19 so arranged as tooverbalance the carrier 16 and the core 9, but these counterweights are themselves overbalanced when the corew contains a charge of coal or coke'. Under the last-named conditions, and when the head 3 is released from the retort, the weight of Ithe cdre'with thecharge "of rcoke causes -thecore to' lower, raising the counterweights 19, .such flowering being.l controlled by any,A suitable brake or retarding means not shown bottom 10 ias Y. of the core provides an unstable supportl lfor the columns of coke olf lof which they readily slide when freed from the restraint of the shell 1, as when the core is 'in the lowered position shown in Fig. 2. Since there is a liability of the hot coke, because of its expansion, sticking' to the core, or even to the inner walls of the retort, the latter is entered by a' steam pipe 20, whereby th'e charge within the retort may be cooled down somewhat before the'core is.

lowered,I thus causing a sufficient contraction of the coke to loosen it from adherence to the walls Ainclosingit, and consequently the coke readily' gravitates from the lcore when the latter is loweredfrom the retort..`

The duct 11 opens at the upper end into a chamber 21 in .the upper end of the retort, from which chamber there leads a pipe 22 including a controlling valve 23 andconnected to another pipey 24, whichlatter may be common to a battery of retorts aId constitutes a vapor line discharging into another pipe 25 on oneside ofa release valve 26' therein. The pipe -.v 25 is connected through a valve 27 into a tar tank 28. Leading from the tar tank isf a pip'e`29 dis# charging into a condenser drum 30. The pipe 29 includes a Ytarextractor 31 and a vacuum gage 32, and has connected'thereto an equalizing valve 33, which, however, need not be described in detail. f Leading from the condenser drum 30 is a`pipe '34 connected to ,one end of a condensing coil 35' having associated therewith a cooling water spray pipe 3 6. That end of the condensing coil 35 remote from the pipe 34 Nis connectedy by a pipe 37 to a washer 38 disv charging into a separating tank 39. Lead ing from the separating tank is a pipe 40 communicating with a vacuum pump 41,

and the latter discharges int'o ascrubber 42,

`jected to the action ofl heat directed 'first againsty one edge, that is, with 'the retort shown,- the outer or periphera edge, of each column .of coal with theheatincreasing 1n 'intensity fromv a minimum ktemperature to a maximum temperature. The heating progresses from the edg'eirsta'ected toward the Aopposite edge, particularly Jalong @the sides ofthe coal column, since the 'walls of the coal tube have greater heat conductivity #than the coal itself and especially than coked portions of the coal. 1 While the heating and consequent distillation is progress'- ing through the mass of coal subatmospheric conditions are established by suction apparatus, such as a vacuum pump, so that the volatile matters Idriven oil from the coal are Withdrawn therefrom as rapidly as column of coal. The external surface ofthe retort is maintained at about the maximum temperature employed, while 'the coreafter discharging the coke by being withdrawnl from the retort becomes reduced in temperature, so that formed and lthrough 'the innei` edge' ofeach when afresh charge of coal is introduced into the retort 'it is subjected 'at lirst to a considerably reduced temperature.

lVith the present invention the maximum temperature need not exceed about 1100 F. and tlnen the temperature of the interior of the retort after discharging .the coke and on .the return of the core thereinto will bein the neighborhood of 700o F., so that the thin mass of coalin e'ach coal tube is subjected to distillation rs't along the outer edge with the4 distillation progressing to-r ward the inner edge,.and the heat to which.

'the coal is subjected correspondingly invcreasing toward the maximum temperature f employed. e Experience has shown that the coking is progressive without choking back or trapping-the products of distillation when the greatest 'width of the column of coal does not exceed about four inches and-the coking is performed 'under subatmospheric conditions whreby the volatile products ofdistillation are withdrawn as rapidly as vformed from` that edge of the coallcolumn remotefrom the edge to which'the heat isA initially applied. Under such circumstances the distillation is completed in from three to four and one-half hours, and hence is commer cially economical. .Furthermore, the treatment of a thin mass of coal in the manner stated and under the conditions named produces a coke containing a suilicient percentage, say, about temper cent., of the entire volatile matter originally contained 'in .the

coal, the product being \a smokeless fuel burning freely 'with a long llame, while the amount of volatile matter drivenoif andrecoverable is increased 'over other'coking procedures and is of superior quality because have any` harmful eii'ect upon s uch 'byproducts. A

Cannel coals treated by the process of the present invention produce a smokelessl fuel` buring with a longi'ame and useful for steanr as well as cupola purposes. The `quancoal, and the oilsae somewhat more highly saturated with acids. The cokev has a someythe temperature employed is insuflicient to ytity of oils obtained from the cannel coal ranges from two' to two and one-half times, vas much as that obtained frgm bituminous what similar appearance to wood charcoal but is much firmer and-cleaner. rlhe evolved gases, being quickly carried away through the numerous small openings distributed along each coal tube, say, 'at distances of about siX inches from each other, are not burned, and hence when t-reated by a series of condensers, extractors,`washing apparatus and cooling coils, all of which apparatus together with the retort is subjected during the entire process to a relatively high vacuum, the character of the recoveredby-products is markedly superior. Because of the treatment of the coal to gradually increasing temperatures within about the limits stated, unusually large quantities of light oils and gases are obtained. The Aentirely different natures' of the oils and acids ob tained by the present process from those ob. tained at higher temperatures is attributed to the fact that the temperatures are not allowed to become excessive. 'The coke produced retains all the fixed carbon which the coal originally carried.

As an example of the actualpractice of the invention certain cannel coals treated showed by analysislzfmoisture 2.20, vol. matter 47.35, carbon 42.15,ash 8.530, sulfur An analysis of the coke showed :-'-v olatile matter 11.27, fixed carbon 74.44, ash 14.29, sulfur 1.31. 1

Out of 1200 pounds of coal there were obtained 854 pounds'of coke and 33 gallons of crude oil condensates ofdark brown color, with a specic gravity of .995 at 15.5 degrees C., and flowing freely at 27o C.

What is claimed is 1. The .process of producing coke from coal which consists in subjecting a relatively thin .body or-mass of coal to the action of 'heat applied initially .at one edge of the' mass, maintaining the heat at that edge andVv applying heat progressively along each side of the mass from one edge to' the other, whereby the entire heatior the distillation ofthemass does not have`to be transmitted through the mass whichis .adjacent to the edge at which the heat is initially applied. A2.- "lhe process of producing coke from coal,` which consists in subjecting a rela-- tively thin body or mass 'of coal tothe ac-` tion of heat applied initially at one edge of` the body of coal andprogressively along each side thereof, and causing the gases of distillation to escape from the otherthin edge of said body of coal.

3. The process of roducing coke from coal, which consists 1n subjecting a\rela t tively thin body of coalto distilling heat applied tol one thin 'edge of the coal and withdrawing the gases of distillation by suction fro'mthe other-thin edge of the body of coal. v

4. The process of producing coke from hanane? coal, which consists in subjecting a relatively thin'body of coal to distilling heat applied to one thin edge of the coal.. causing the heating to progress along the sides of the body `of coal, and withdrawing the gases of distillation by suction from the other thin edge of the body of coal.

5. The process'of producing coke from coal, which consists in subjecting the coal in relatively thin masses having the greatest thickness not exceeding .about four inches to the action of distilling heat directed against one edge of the mass of coal and withdrawing the products of combustion by suction from the opposite edge ot the mass of coal.

6. The method of producing coke7 from coal, which consists in subjecting the coal arranged in a series of relatively thin masses in close side by side association to the action of distilling heat .applied initially and continuously at one long edge of cach mass and progressively along each side of each mass toward the other long edge thereof.

7. The method of producing coke from coal, which consists in subjecting the coal` arranged in a series of relatively thin masses in close side by side association to the action of distilling heat applied initially and continuously at one long edge of each mass and progressively along each side oiveach mass toward the other long edge thereof, and' removing Athe products of distillation by suction from the second-named long edges lof the masses'of 'coal as rapidly as such products are formed.

8. The process ofA producing coke from coal, which consists in subjecting a group of relatively thin masse'svof coal arranged about a central duct to the action of distilling heat directed against the outer long edges of the masses and withdrawing the gases of ydistillation from the inner long edges through the central duct by suction as rapidly as the gases are formed.

99The process of producing coke from coal,which consists in subjecting a group of relatively thin mames of coal arranged about a central duct to the action of distilling heat directed against the outer long edges of the masses, `conducting the heat along the sides of the thin masses of coal progressively, and in withdrawing the gases of distillation vfrom the inner long edges through the central duct by suction as rapidly as the gasesare formed.

10. The process of producing coke from coal, which consists in subjecting the coal in relatively thin masses to the action of distilling heat applied initially at one edge iis of each mass, maintaining the heat' at that edge and applying heat progressively along the sides of each mass toward the other edge thereof, the heat increasing progressively from about 700 l?. to about 1000 or l100 F., at the same time withdrawing the -In testimony, that I claim theforegliffcinfz;4

gases of distillation as formed by suction "as my own, I have hereto aHiXed my signa'- from that edge of each mass of coal opposite ture in the presence of two witnesses. -l to the edge at which the heat is initially apy HARVEY P; BOSTAPH; 5 plie@ the maximum temperature employed Witnesses: f v z being Varied in accordance with the kind of J. B. Goss, coal treated. FLORENCE JACOBL

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5845775 *May 30, 1995Dec 8, 1998Southpac Trust International, Inc.Floral grouping wrapper having a detachable portion
U.S. Classification201/35, 48/123
Cooperative ClassificationC10B27/02