US 1207395 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
BRAKE LOCK FOR AUTOMOBILES.
APPLICATION FILED DEC. 8, I9I5 img@ Patented Dec. 5, 1916,
LEON GOLDMERSTEIN, 0F NEW YORK, N. Y.
.BRAKE-LOCK FOR AUTOMOBILES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Dec.. 5, i916,
Application led December 8, 1915. Serial No. 65,858.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, LEON GoLDMEnsTEIN, a subject of the Czar of Russia, and resident of the borough of Manhattan, in the city, county, and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful lmprovements in Brake-Locks for Automobiles, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to electrically operated means for locking the brakes of automobiles, its purpose being in the main to secure the brakes, when set, to remove the liability of a car rolling away when left standing on a grade, and to prevent tampering with the brakes-in thev absence of the voperator.
In carrying out my said invention l may employ any desirable form of mechanical device for engaging and disengaging dthe brake, when set in position, to respectively lock and release it, said device being electro-- magnetically controlled in eachl of its movements. An example of such mechanical device may be a reciprocating plunger, or bolt, being a continuation or elongation of a solenoid core, so arranged and mounted, as beneath the floor of a car, as to be capable, in its projected position, of engaging with the brake lever in the set position of the brake, to secure thelatter in said position; said plunger, or bolt, in its retracted position,.be ing free from such engagement. The reciprocal movements of the plunger, or bolt, in either direction, are required to be performed with considerable force, to be eective, on account of the mechanical nature of the operation; and, further, the action must be speedy, as occurring through passing electrical Contact in the movement of a switch, for reasons which will be explained hereinafter. Therefore, l have devised a novel arrangement of solenoids and circuits, as follows: A solenoid carrying a projecting core, whose free end forms a plunger or bolt with which to engage the brake, is adapted to vibrate between two other solenoids which are stationary, the said projecting core also serving as a movable element for one of the said stationary solenoids, which lies between the current reversing commutator and said vibrating solenoid, and the other stationary solenoid having a steel core. Or a permanent magnet may be employed instead of the last named solenoid. The movable core aforesaid carries the movable commutator members, which are adapted to make sliding contact, alternately, with the separated and insulatedv portions of the commutator stationary members, the solenoid circuits includmg the commutator in such arrangement that, when said circuits are closed, as by switches, the magnets are energized to move the solenoid with its bolt carrying core in one direction; whereupon, when said switches 'are closed a second time, through the change in relation between the commutator movable members and its insulated stationary members, a reversal will occur in the flow of the electrical current, causing the return movement of the vibrating solenoid with its bolt carrying core. Obviously, to avoid setting up a vibratory action for the movable solenoid, the switches must be closed only momentarily, as by making passing contact, to therebyenable said solenoid to move only in one direction, as in shooting the bolt, the circuits-remaining open then until it is desired to retract the bolt, when the switches are again quickly closed and opened, to provide the necessary current reversal.
Strong electrical currents are necessary, in order that the 4action of the device may be sharp and powerful, this, however, necessitating the provision of means to prevent sparking between the commutator members, which is accomplished as by effecting' such relative arrangement between the commutator and switch thatI the opening of the current takes place through the switch instead of through the commutator, the switch being better adapted to resist impairment.
The reciprocating solenoid, at each end of its stroke, may engage a spring catch to hold it in place. The catches have the function of releasably detaining the reciprocating solenoid, so that the bolt carried thereby may not be jolted out of or into the brake engaging position through vibration of the car, or through sudden road shocks; but so that said spring catches will yield to the pull of the solenoid in the operation ofthe device. The overcoming of this spring catch necessarily requires a considerable amount of force, and therefore it is imperative to have a solenoid designed in such a manner as to produce a powerful pull. This practically excludes, in view of the limited space available, all devices of the horse-shoe electro-magnetic type. Also, the solenoid having a steel core, will therein retain residual magnetism, which will serve to or assist in retaining the movable solenoid when moved to the retracted position.
The circuit switches may form part of a master switch, such as that shown in my patent application No. 64,981 filed Dec. 4, 1915, whereby vother automobile parts are controlled and. locked in a set position, said master switch when closed beingarranged to only passingly close the solenoid circuits while moving from either position to the other, in the performance of its other stated functions. Y
Other features and advantages of my said invention will hereinafter appear.
In the drawing, Figure l is adiagrammatic view of the electrical circuits, including solenoids, commutator, brake for an automobilehandholt therefor, and Fig. 2 is a detail view of a master switch, whereby the circuits may be controlled in the electromagnetic operation of the bolt, in engaging and disengaging the bolt as set.
In Fig. 1 I have indicated, at 1, a portion of an automobile brake, the portion shown being the treadle and the operating arm or lever, which latter is provided with an aperture 2`, to receive an engaging bolt 3, which is arranged to aline with said aperture when the brake has been operated to the set position thereof, the bolt action being of a reciprocating character, that it may enter and recede from said aperture. l
In the electromagnetic method of bolt operation shown in the drawing, three solenoids are employed, being indicated respectively at 4, 5 and 6, whose terminals are represented respectively,at AB CD and EF. Solenoid 5 is arranged to vibrate between the other solenoids, which are stationary, its core 7 projecting at one end and extending through solenoid 4, and terminating in the bolt 3, which is thus afforded its brake engaging and disengaging movements. The solenoid 6 has a steel core, that it may hold residual magnetism when denergized, for a purpose to be described hereinafter, or, instead, a permanent bar magnetmay be substituted for solenoid 6.
Core 7 carries the commutator members 8, 9 adapted to make sliding contact, respectively, with the fixed commutator members 10, 11 and 12, 13; members 10 and 11 being separated by insulation 14 from members 12 and 1 3. The terminals CD of solenoid 5 are connectedto the battery 16, as through a switch 17, in such a manner that the terminals B and E are of tle same polarity.
In the'operation of the device, the switches being closed with the -commutator members 8, 9, in contact with the fixed commutator members 10, 11,-upon excitation of the solenoids, the terminals B and C will have different polarities, and D and E like'polarities-there will be attraction on one hand and repulsion of the other, both collaborating to the end of moving the bolt 3 forwardly into its brake engaging position; whereupon current will tend .to flow into solenoid 5 through the iixed commutator members 12 and 13, thereby reversing the polarity of solenoid 5, which in consequence will be repelled by solenoid L1 and attracted by solenoid 6. In-'the operation of the device, however, the solenoids are energized only momentarily, as in the act of closing and opening the switches, whereby, with the use of a heavy current, a single movement only is allowed the solenoid 5 iny one or the other direction, according tothe relative positions of the commutator members a't starting. In said operation it is my purpose to establish a definite operation between the commutator and the switches, whereby after closing the switches to energize the solenoids through the commutator, the movable members 8, 9, of the commutator, then being in contact with either the fixed members `10, 11 or 12, 13 will maintain such relation for a fraction of a second after the switches have been again opened, so that sparking cannot occur between the commutator terminals, which are of more delicate character with considerable force, in this action overcoming the elastic resistance of a spring catch 19, which serves to hold it in place after the current has been shut off. Thus the bolting operation is performed, when the brake has been applied through the mere act of opening and closing the circuit. When the switches are closed with the bolt in its forward operating position, the current then flows into solenoid 5 through the commutator members l12, 13, thus reversing its polarity, whereupon said solenoid 5 is repelled by solenoid 4 and attracted by sole-y noid or permanent magnet 6. In this bolt retracted, brake free position of solenoid 5, with the circuit shut off, it is held in place, first, by a spring catch, as 20, and, second, by the fo'rce of attraction exerted by the steel core of solenoid 6, which has a large residual magnetism.
Added force of propulsion is provided the solenoid 5 by the magnetic attraction of the lsteel core aforesaid, which stores useful energy upon the excitation of the solenoids,
and applies it to assist in speeding the solecarries the contacts 22, 23, adapted, respectively, to make passing electrical connection with contacts 24, 25 on the stationary portions o the master switch; said contacts 22 24 and 23, 25, respectively taking the place of the switches 15 and 17. Hence in the operation of the master switch in the manner and for the purposes indicated in my said previous application, it will be seen that only passing contacts will be made, to momentarily energize the solenoids herein, in either direction of operation of said master switch. 1n other words, the circuits will be open when the master switch is either entirely open or entirely closed, and said circuits will be closed only during the brief period occupied by the movable member of the master switch in moving from one position to the other.
While not herein shown, it is evident that known mechanical eXpedients may be employed in the operation of the master switch, orother circuit making and breaking means, to regulate the time 'during which each circuit remains closed, in accordance with the strength of the current employed and the inductance of the circuit, in order that a single movement of the bolt, in either direction, may be accomplished through the act of making and breaking the circuit which at that time is formed through the commutator members.
Obviously the degree of movement imparted to the bolt through the electromagnetic agency indicated, may be multiplied by any known mechanical means, as to convert a necessarily limited motion into adequate movement.
Variations may be resorted'v to within the spirit and scope of my said invention, and 'parts thereof used without others.
1. ln an automobile having a brake, a bolt movable into and out of engagement with said brake when the latter is applied in service, mechanical means to releasably detain said bolt, and electro-magnetic means for moving said bolt into and out of engagement with said brake against the resistance of said detaining means.
2. In an automobile having a brake, the combination of a bolt movable into and out of engagement with said brake when the latter is applied in service, a movable solenoid, a projecting core for said solenoid, said core carrying said bolt, a stationary solenoid, a commutator, a source of electrical energy, and electrical circuits including said solenoids, commutator, and source of electrical energy, whereby said solenoid is reciprocated tofalternately move said .bolt into and outof engagement with said brake.
3. In an automobile having a brake, the
' combination of a bolt movable into and out of engagement with said brake when the latter is applied in service, a movable solenoid, a core for said solenoid, said core carrying said bolt, a stationary solenoid, a commutator composed of movable and stationary members, the movable members carried by said core, a source of electrical energy; and electrical circuits including said solenoids, commutator, and source of electrical energy, whereby said movable solenoid is reciprocated to alternately move said bolt into and out of engagement with said brake; together with a switch, the relative arrangement between said commutator and switch being suchthat in the interruptionl of the circuit, the commutator members maintain contact for a fraction of a second after the switch opens, to prevent sparking at the commutator, and a condenser for said switch.
4. In an automobile having a brake, the combination of a bolt movable into and out of engagement with said brake when the latter is applied in service, a movable solenoid, a projecting core for said solenoid, said core carrying said bolt, a stationary solenoid at each end of said movable solenoid, a commutator, a source of electrical energy, electrical circuits including said solenoids, commutator, and source of electrical energy, whereby said movable solenoid is reciprocated to alternately move said bolt into and out of engagement with said brake, and a spring catch to retain said movable solenoid in a position to which moved.
5. 1n any automobile having a brake, the combination of a bolt movable into and out of engagement with said brake when the latter is applied in service, a movable solenoid, a projecting core for said solenoid, said core carrying said bolt, a stationary solenoid at each end of said movable solenoid, said core movable through one of said stationary solenoids, and said other stationary solenoid having a steel core, a commutator, a source of electrical energy, and electrical circuits including said solenoids, commutator, and source of electrical energy, whereby said movable solenoid is reciprocated to alternately move said bolt into and out of engagement with said brake.
6. 1n an automobile having a brake, and means for locking and releasing said brake when inset position, the combination of two solenoids having a common core movable magnetically in opposite directions, a commutator to change the direction of the magnetic flux in one of said solenoids and thus control the direction of movement of said core, mechanical means to releasably detain said core, said means yielding to the pull of the solenoid, and means for'eiecting the locking of the brake by said movable core.
7. 1n an automobile having a brake, and means for locking and releasing said brake when in set position, the combination of two solenoids having a common core movable magnetically in opposite directions, a commutator to change the direction of the magnetic flux in one of said solenoids and thus control the direction of movement of said core, a switch to limit the periods of energizing of said solenoids, mechanical means to releasably detain said core, said means yielding to the pull of the solenoid, and means for effecting the locking of the brake by said movable core.
8. In an automobile having a brake, and means for locking and releasing said brake when in set position, the combination of two solenoids having a common core movable magnetically in opposite directions, a com- LEON GOLDMERSTEIN.
CLARENCE S. ASHLEY, F. WV. BAKKER.