|Publication number||US1213349 A|
|Publication date||Jan 23, 1917|
|Filing date||Feb 5, 1914|
|Priority date||Feb 5, 1914|
|Publication number||US 1213349 A, US 1213349A, US-A-1213349, US1213349 A, US1213349A|
|Inventors||Lawrence G Gebhard, James M Rowley|
|Original Assignee||Lawrence G Gebhard, James M Rowley|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (2), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
L. e. GEBHARD L 1. M. Rowm.
VAPORIZER. APPLICATION FILED FEBQS. 1914.
Patented Jan. 23, 1917.
3 SHEETS-SHEET I.
I .l Y y WITNEEIL4- l N Em-0R51. M Y @MTTDHNEY5 L. G. GEBHARD a. 1. M. Ro'wLEY.
AAPPLICATION FILED FEB. 5. 1914.
Patented Jan. 23, 1917.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE.
LAWLRJEIITCIEI Gr. GEBHARD AND JAMES M. RQWLEY, OF BUFFALO, NEW YORK.
Specification of zLettersatent.
Patented Jan. 23, 1917.
Application led February 5, 19.14. Serial No. 816,828.
. a device whereby kerosene or other hydrocarbon Huid is rendered highly volatile by means of heat so as torender the same readily ignitiblev for developing power inan ex plosion engine.
It is the purpose of this invention to provide a device of this character which is exceedingly simple and comparatively inexpensive in construction, which will thoroughly volatilize hydro-carbon fluids or the like rapidly and uniformly and with a minimum expenditure of heat and which is capable of being easily dismembered and assembled for cleaning, inspection or repairs.
In the accompanying drawings: Figure l is a vertical section of one form ofvaporizer embodying our invention, taken'in line 1-1, Fig. 4. Figs. 2 and 3 are horizontal sections of the same, on a reduced scale, taken in lines 2-2 and 3 3, iFig. 1,' respectively. Figs. 4 and 5 are also horizontal sections taken on the correspondingly numbered lines in Fig. 1l and on a smaller scale than Fig. 1 but somewhat larger than the scale of Figs. 2 and 3. Fig. 6 is a vertical section showing another embodiment of our invention. Fig. 7 is a. detached side elevation of the core forming part of the fuel conduit shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a vertical section of the same. Figs. 9 and 10 are horizontal sections taken in the correspondingly numbered lines in Fig. 6.
Similar characters of reference indicate corresponding parts'throughout the several views. ,y
In the construction shown in Figs. 1-5, a heating chamber is provided vwhich is formed by a side wall or body 1 preferably of tubular circular or cylindrical form, and upper and lower heads 2, 3 which are detachably clamped against the upper andI lower edges of the body or -side wall in any suitable manner but preferably by means of upe right tie or clamping bolts 4 lconnecting the corresponding lugs 5 adjacent to the outer side of the bodyor wall of the heating chame ber. By loosening these bolts the 'body together with the parts mounted thereon can be readily slipped laterally from between the upper and llower heads for the purpose of inspecting, cleaning or repairing the internal part of the vaporizer and the same can also be easily replaced without dismantlingother parts of the vaporizer which are connected with the upper and lower heads thereof.y Meansare provided for supplying a heating agent to the heating chamber and also carrying oli" this agent after the /same has become Acooled' by vaporizing the liquid. For this purpose two pipes 6, fare connected. with the upper and lower heads, preferably by screwing these pipes into nipples 8 9 formed on the central parts of these` heads.A Through one of these pipes, preferably the lower one 7, the heating, medium such as the exhaust gases from a gas engine, steam.I hot water 4or the like may be conducted into 'the interior of the heating chamber and then discharged therefrom/through the upper pipe 6 after the temperature of this heating medium has beenreduced.
Within the heating kchamber is arranged the device whereby the hydro-carbon liquid such as kerosene or other liquid to be vapor- Yized is caused to travel through a path of considerable length from the time it enters the heating chamber until it leaves this chamber so that it is exposed to the heating medium for a sufficient length of time to thoroughly vaporize this liquid. In its preferred form this heating device is constructed in the form of a core arranged within the heating chamber and containing a vaporizing conduit through which the hydro-carbon liquid is first caused to move from the peripheral portion of this core to the center thereof and then outwardly again to the peripheral part thereof so that the liquid is retained for a considerable length of time within the heating core and subjected to the effects of the heating medium for a sufficient length of time to cause thorough vaporization of the same. In its preferred `form this core comprises a horizontal intermediate plate, disk or partition 10 of circular form, a lower disk, wall or platell engaging its upper side with the underside of the intermediate disk or partition and provided at its marginal portion or edge. with an annular upwardly `projecting flange` ings being suitable and comprising an annular row of vertical bolts 14 which connect the marginal part of the upper disk or wall with the flanges of the lower disk or wall. This core is arranged centrally within the heating chamber so as to leave a space between all sides of the same and the body ofthe heating chamber and the core may be supported in this position by any suitablel means but preferably by means of a plurality of radial arms 15, preferably four in num er, which connect the peripheral portion of thel lower core plate with the body of the heating chamber, this body, the lower core plate and the supporting arms being preferably formed integrally or of one piece of metal. The diameter of the supply and delivery pipes for the heating medium is y preferably less than the diameter of the core which compels the heating medium to enter the central part of the heating chamber and strike the central part of the underside of the core, then spread horizontally outward along the underside of the same,
then travel upwardly around the vertical edge thereof, and then pass horizontally inwardly over the top of the core before reaching the delivery or outlet pipe, thereby causing the heating medium to completely surroundthe core and expend its maximum heating effect upon the hydro-carbon or other liquid -which is passing through the crefor thoroughly and uniformly vaporizing the same. The conduit through which the liquid passes within the core is composed of two sections one of which 16 is formed per .between the opposing surfaces of the central disk orpartition and the lower disk or wall while the other section 17 is formed between the u per side of the partition and the upciisk. The preferred manner of` constructing the upper and lower sections of this vaporizing conduit consists in cutting a spiral groove in the underside of the intermediate disk or partition and a similar spiral groove on the upper side of this intermediate disk or partition, so that when this intermediate partition is placed beL tween the upper and lower disks or walls the lower wall will close the underside of the lower spiral groove and the up er wall will close the top of the upper spira groove, thereby converting these grooves into spiral until it reaches the inner end o this sec-v tion,\.th`en,passes through the vertical connecting opening'18 into the inner end of the other spiral conduit section and then travels spirally through the latter from the inner part of the intermediate disk or partition to the outer part thereof. In this manner the hydro-carbon liquid is caused to travel througha path of considerable length adjacent to the outer heated surfaces of the vcore and thereby become highly .volatile or vaporized and put into a condition best sultedfor quick and thorough ignition as an explosive yfuel for gas or internal, combustion engines. In order to still further increase the vaporizin upon the hydro-carbon 'quid the spiral conduit sections are madeI comparatively wide and shallow,l the width being in a direction parallel with the horizontal upper and lower surfaces of the upper and lower core plates or walls. By this means the liquid in passing through these conduit sections is spread out into a comparatively thin film or ribbon in a direction parallel with the plane of the upper and lower heating surfaces of the core, whereby the presentation of liquid in a comparatively thick stream is avoided but instead this liquidis presented in the form of a thin stream all parts of which are thoroughly exposed to the effects of the heating medium for volatilizing the liquid uni-j formly and quickly.
The liquid to be vaporized may be admitted either at the outer end of the upper conduit section and discharged in the form of a vapor at the outer end of the lower conduit section, or vice versa. In the construction shown in the drawing, however, means are provided for supplying the liquid at the outer end of the lower conduit section and discharging the vapor at the outer end of the upper conduit section, whereby the fresh liquid is first acted upon by thel heating agent while the same is at its highest temperature and operates most effectively for vaporizing the liquid and thereafter the liquid travels through the upper conduit section where the vaporization is continued and completed by the heating agent after the same has expended part of its effect upon the hydro-carbon liquid. As shown in eii'ect of the heat l Fig. 1, the liquid to be vaporized is supplied i liquid is supplied to the inlet passage by means of a pipe having an inner section which is permanently connected by means of a screw joint with the outer end'of the inlet passage and an outer section 21 which is detachably connected by means of a `union with the inner section. The hydrocarbon .'apor is discharged from the outer end of the upper conduit section by means of an outlet passage Q3 formed in another arm l5 of the core and extending at its outer end through the body of the heating chamber while its inner endy opens through the upper side of the lower core plate orwall and a port or passage 24: formed vertically 'in the intermediate disk or partitionY near the periphery thereof and extending from the outer end of 'the upper conduit section to the inner end of the delivery passage or outlet 23, as shown in Figs. 1 and 4. The vapor is discharged from the delivery passage by means of a delivery pipe having an inner section Q whiehis permanently connected by a screw joint or otherwise to the outer end of the delivery passage 23, and an outer section .25 connected by a union 2G with the inner section 214.0, as Ishown in Figs. inner sections of the supply and delivery pipes from the companion outer sections thereof through the medium of the unions 22, 26, and then loosening the clamping bolts -i it is possible to remove the body of the heating chamber together with the Vaporizing core therein and again replaeethe same without dismantling any of the other connections of the apparatus when it is desired to either clean, inspect or repair the vaporizer. These operations can therefore he performed quickly and eiiiciently without interrupting the operation of 'the engine with which the same. is associated for any considerable length of time and also enabling the operator to keep the vaporizer in its best working condition. By arranging the ports and passages of the core in the manner indicated it isponly necessary to assemble the same in vthe proper position to bring the companion passages in alinement for restoring communication between the r same. therebyY avoiding the necessity of em'- ploying any separate fittings for this purpose.
lInstead of constructing the vaporizing core yin the form of a plurality of plates which are arranged in contact with one an ei and 5. By uncoupling the other substantially the same resultcan be producedv by constructing the intermediateV and outer members of the core of cylindrical form, as shown in Figs. 6-10. In this last mentioned construction the heating chamber comprises a cylindrical wall or'body 27, upper and lower heads Q8, 29 which are clamped against the upper and lower endsv of the body by v'means of tie bolts 30 connecting the upper and lower-heads adjacent to the outer side ofthe body, and supply and deliver-ypipes 31, 32 connecting with the central parts of the lower and upper heads and adapted to supply the heating` medium to the heating chamber'and deliver the same therefrom. The core in this construction is v arrangedA within the heating chamber and comprises an inner cylinder or wall 33 axially alined with the inlet and outlet pipes 8l, 32, an outer cylinder or -wall 50 ar'- ranged concentrically with the inner cylin-` der but separated therefrom by'an intervening annular space, an intermediate cylinder or partition 34 arranged between the inner and outer cylinders, a lower ring closing the space between the lower end-s of the inner and outer cylinders, and anupper ring 36 closing the space between the upper ends of the inner and outer cylinders. The members just deseribedmay' be made of metal or" other practically impervious material; -The lower ring 35 is preferably formed integrally with the inner and outer cylinder but the upper ring 3G is detachahly connected with these cylinders by means of bolts 37,4 as shown in Figs. 6 and 9, or by any other suitable means for the purpose of permitting'the introductionand removal of the iiitermediate cylinder. The core in this con struction is supported centrally within the heating chamber preferably by arms 38 connecting the outer cylinder with the body of the heating chamber, as shown in Fig, 6. Spaces are left between the upper and lower ends of the core and the upper and lower heads and between the periphery of the core and the bore of the bod \r so that) the heating mediumentering through the supply pipe 31 will pass partly through the passageway in Vthe center of the core and also around the ends and the periphery of the core to the pipe 32 for the purpose of heating the hydro-carbon liquid which is passed through'the core. This passage which is formedgwithin the core and through which the liquid hydro-carbon is conducted is preferably formed by means of a helical groove formed in the inner side or bore of the intermediate cylinder partition. a helical groove 40 formed on the periphery of thev intermediate cylinder and a transfer port or passage il1 connecting the corresponding` ends of these helical passages. The inner groove of the intermediate cylinder is covered by the inner cylinder 33 so as to form an inner helical conduit section and the outer groove of the intermediate cylinder or partition is covered by the outer cylinder so as to form an outer helical conduit section. The liquid hydro-carbon to be vaporized enters one of the helical conduit sections at that end opposite to the port 41 and passes thence in a helical path through this conduit section to the port 41,thence through the latter to the corresponding end of the other helical conduit section and through the latter until it reaches that end of the last mentioned conduit section opposite to the port 41, and then is discharged from the core. During this passage the kerosene or other liquid is acted upon by the heat of the heat ing mediumy passing through the bore and around the periphery core and is volatilized or converted into a vaporized condition suitable for ignition in a gas engine or for other purposes. The liquid hydro-carbon may be delivered either at the lowei` end of the inner helical conduit section and discharged.
in the form of gas or vapor at the lower end of the outer helical conduit section, or vice versa but in the construction shown in the drawing the liquid hydro-carbon is conducted to the lower end of the inner helical conduit section by an inlet passage 42 formed in one of the arms 38 and communicating by a p ort 43 in the lower part of the cylindrical partition with the lower end of the inner helical conduit section, and the gas or vapor is delivered from the lower end of the outer conduit section by an outlet or delivery passage. 44 formed in another arm 38 and communicating with the lower end ofA the outer conduit section. The liquid hydrocarbon is supplied to the inlet passage 42 by a pipe having an inner section 45 connected with the inlet passage 42 andan outer section 4G connected by a union 47 with the innersection, and the gas or vapor is delivered from the outlet passage 44 by a pipe having an inner section 48 connected with the outlet passage 44 and an outer section 49 connected by a union 51 with the companion inner section. In this modified form of vaporizer for hydro-carbon liquid or the like. the liquid first traverses the partition from one end thereof to the other through the groove in one side thereof and then reverses its movement and travels back again lto the same end of the partition where the liquid was first introduced but .on the opposite side of the partition. thereby prolonging the course of the liquid in substantially the same manner, as shown in the construction embodied in Figs. 1-5 and insuringr a thorough vaporization of the liquid before escaping from the core. rThe grooves in the inner and outer sides of the partition, shown in Figs. 51O are also comparatively wide but shallow similar to those shown in Fig. 1, so that the liquid is presented to the heat in the form of a comparatively thin film for the purpose of promoting and quickening heating chamber together with the vaporizf ing core mounted within the same can beremoved laterally frein between the heads of the heating chamber for cleaning, inspection and repairs in the same manner in which this is done in the construction shown in Figs. 14). K
These vaporizing devices are more particularly designed for vaporizing kerosene oil or other low volatile liquid hydrocarbons, and when used in connection with a gas engine the latter is first run for a short time with gasolene or other highly volatile liquid in order to run the engine a sufficient length of time to heat the vaporizing core of which the members 10, 11 and 13 form elements, as shown in Fig. 1, and the elements 33, 34 and 50 shown in Fig. 6 perform the saine function, but after these members have been thus heated from the exhaust products of an engine which has been temporarily run b gasolene as fuel, the gasolene fuel is cut o and thereafter kerosene oil is supplied to its vaporizer and discharged therefrom in a vaporized condition to the engine for con-v tinuing the running thereof with this fuel. If for, any reason an automobile equipped with this vaporizer should stop on the road where no gasolene is available for again starting the same, it is only necessary to remove the core members 10, 11 and 13 shown in Fig. 1 after loosening the bolts 4, or removing the core members 33, 34 and 50 of the structure shown in Fig. 6 after loosening the ybolts 30, after which these cores ywhile removed from the heating chamber may be warmed up or heatedby extraneous means, such as a. torch or a fire, in order to make them hot enough to produce vaporization of the kerosene oil after these parts are restored to the heating chamber, and thereby permit of resuming the operation of the engine with kerosene oil. This removal of the core members and the restoration of the same to the heating chamber can be effected quickly and easily and without dismantling the vaporizer to any material extent and thus. avoid undue interruption inthe use of the machine.
Our improved vaporizer for hydro-carbon liquid or the like is not only very efficient and reliable in operation but the same can also be produced at very low cost and owingto the convenience with which the same can be assembled and dismembered it can be quickly cleaned of any sediment which is liable to gather in the vaporizing passages and clog the same, and it is therefore possibleto keep the vaporizer always in good working condition without unduly interlrupting the'operation of the engine in conneotion with which it is used.
We claim as our invention:
1. A liquid vaporizer comprisinga heating chamber having a tubular body, heads -engaging With opposite ends of said body and provided respectively with an inlet and an outlet for a heating agent, a core a'rranged Within the heating chamber and provided With a conduit for the liquid to be vaporized, said core being of larger diameter than the bore of said inlet and outlet, and means independent of said body for clamping said headsagainst said body.
ZA liquid vaporizer comprising a heating chamber having ka tubular body, heads engaging with opposite ends of said body and provided respectively vvith an inlet and an outlet for a heating agent, a core arranged Within the heating chamber and provided vvith a conduit for the liquid to be vaporized, said core being of larger diameterI than the bore of said inletand outlet, and means independent of said body for clamping said heads against said body, comprising olts connecting said heads outside of said ody.
3. A liquid vaporizer comprising a heating lchamber having a tubular body, heads engaging with opposite ends of said body and provided lr'espectivelykwith an inlet and mounted on said ;body and provided with a conduit for the liquid to be vaporized, said core being of larger diameter than the bore of said inlet and outlet, and means independent of said body for clamping said heads against said body. v
4. A liquid vaporizer comprising a heating chamber having a tubular body and heads engaging opposite ends of said bodyV and provided with inlet and outlet passages, respectively', for a heating agent, and a core arranged Within the heating chamber and having a partition plate and Wall plates arranged on opposite sides of said partition plate, said plates being constructed to form conduits for a hydrocarbon liquid to be vaporized, 'and one of said Wall plates being formed integrally With said tubular body of the heating chamber While the other Wa-ll plate is separable therefrom.` Witness our hands this4 3rd day of February, 1914. LAWRENCE G. GEBHARD.
JAMES M. ROWLEY. Witnesses:
E. M. GRAHAM, ANNA HEIGIS.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5906683 *||Apr 16, 1996||May 25, 1999||Applied Materials, Inc.||Lid assembly for semiconductor processing chamber|
|US6379466 *||May 5, 1994||Apr 30, 2002||Applied Materials, Inc.||Temperature controlled gas distribution plate|
|U.S. Classification||165/164, 165/DIG.361|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S165/361, F28F7/02|