|Publication number||US1214591 A|
|Publication date||Feb 6, 1917|
|Filing date||Apr 29, 1916|
|Priority date||Apr 29, 1916|
|Publication number||US 1214591 A, US 1214591A, US-A-1214591, US1214591 A, US1214591A|
|Original Assignee||Atlantic Comm Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (7), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
ANTENNA FOR RADIOTELEGRAPH STATIONS. APPLICATmKWILEo APu.29.1916.
1.214,591 A PatentedFeb. 6,1917
3 SHEETS-SHEET 1- FROM TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT www 3 umn/tez G. REUTHE.
ANTENNA FOR HADIOTELEGRAPH STATIONS.
APPLICATION' FILED APR.29.19I6.
Patehted Feb. 6, 1917.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2- y@ f6. l Z0 G. RE'UTHE. ANTENNA FOB RADITELEGRAPH STATIONS. APPLICATION mw APRfzs. 191s.
1,214,591. Patented Feb.6,1917.
3 SHEETS-SHEET El#- nuenroz STATES PATENT OFFICE GUSTAN BEUTHE, F BAYVILLE, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOB TO ATLANTIC COIUNICATIUN v COIPANY, 0F NEW YORK, N. Y., A CORPORATION 0F NEW YORK.
ANTENNA FOR RADIOTELEGRAPH-STATIONS.
specification ot Letten Patent.
Patented Feb. 6, 1917.
Application tiled April 29, 1918. Serial No. 94,361.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, GUs'rAv RnUTiiE, a
` subjectV of the German Emperor, residing at Sayville, `county of Suffolk, Long Island,
State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Antennae for Radiotelegraph-Stations, of which the following is a full and clear description, illustrated in the accompanying drawings, the novel features of my invention being set forth more particularly in the annexed claims lt' is known that atmospheric disturbances,
manifesting themselves in the receiving systems of radio telegraph stations can be` traced to two different causes.
The first cause is the electro-magnetic effect of electric discharges in the atmos-y here at long distance. These discharges y what might be termed impulse effects, disturb the antenna so as to oscillate with its natural period, which oscillations then in turn manifest themselves in the detector circuit. The effect of such long distance atmosl'iheric discharges is the greater the higherl the receiving antenna is and the smaller its damping. For this reason high antcuna- (for instance of the uinl'irella-T- oi L-type) which contain a large self induction in circuit and which are particularly suitable for sending, are very unsuited for re ceiving, whereas on they other haifd low horizontal antennae not suited very well for transmitting on account of their small height above the ground, and on account of their high damping, are very well suited for receiving because they oll'er great advantages with regard to lessening atmosphei'ic disturbances. The second cause is static charges which the antenna receives through the electric field in the atmosphere. So long as this field and thus the charges which the antenna receives remain constant, they have no effect upon the detector system. They will, however, influence the detector immediately when the'electric field ir. the atmosphere varies. Then currents are induced in the antenna, which similar to distant atmospheric discharges cause the antenna to swing with its own period and thus to disturb the detector system. 'With regard to these two causes, the combination covered by the U. S. Patent No. 1,082,221
the transmittingifant 'L or T- types is a modification showing granted to Georg von Arco on December 23rd, 1913, which comprises a comparatively high transmitting antenna and a` comparativel low horizontal receiving antenna` is particularly favorable, provided however that during receiving the transmitting antenna. is detuned against the frequency of the arriving waves. Thusy in `case ofdistant atmospheric discharges tbe oscillations ofnatural period produced therebydo not `afl'ect the horizontal antenna and the detectorsystem coupled therewithfbecause during receiving the transmitting antenna is detuned againstl the horizontalV antenna and the detector system. antenna is very little directly influenced by the atmospheric disturbances because in the first place, such antennae are very little sensitive against atmospheric disturbances anyhow on account of their small height and their strong lrlanipiiig,and also because a great amount of the energyrof the electromagnetic' field causing the disturbance isl ticula'ijlfy.I 'le antenna i though ofi-cour effect is also present to some extent.
The Ahorizontal intennae, in which this l'n` technically developing this system, it *l has been proven to be -of great advantage to use a transmitting antenna having a counterpoise and to divide thecounterpoise into individual sectorswhich can be sepa- `rated electrically from eaclriother.
My invention is shown in the ,annexed` drawings, in which,
Figure 1 shows the entire antenna Yarrangement with the countepoise; Fig. 2 the counterpoise alone in a form in whic one single sector is used for' receiving; Fi 3 is a modification showing a form o the counterpoise' in which twe opposite seetorsgare used for receiving; Fig. 4 is a modification showing several oppositely disposed sectors of the counterpoise `joined together for receiving and in order to obtain a different Wave length; Fig. 5 is a plan view of a furtherv modication of the counterpoise; Fig. 6 is a detail illustration of the form inY which the individual sectors of thev counterpoise maybe thrown into circuit; Fig. 7 is a modification of Fig. 6; Fig. 8 shows the antenna wires arranged for heating.
Referring now to Fig. 1, 1 is the vertical antenna preferably anuinbrella antenna to which the transmitter circuit (not shown here) may be coupled by means of coupling coilsrQ. 3 is the counterpoise used as a horizontal antenna as will be described hereinafter. It consists of a considerable number. of radially extending wires 4 so as to cover an approximately Vcircular area, a suitable number of adjoining wire (in this case, three) being connected into groups so as to form an even number of sectors 5 as shown. The wires of each group are connected together at their outer ends and supported a short `distance above ground by posts G from Vwhich the wires are insulated. For sending,
this horizontal antenna is used as theY countcrpoise for the vertical antenna and in this instance, all its sectors are connected at their inner ends as shown by the dotted line 7 and then connected to the vertical antenna by means of switch 8. For receiving, the ver tical antenna is disconnected from the horizontal antenna by a switch 8 and thrown in circuit with a gro ind connection 9 which may or may not contain an inductance 10 anda capacity 11. If desiredduring the receiving the vertical antenna mayl not be con- .nected to the ground.
During receiving the horizontal antenna 3 may be used in several different wayswhich are illustrated in' Figs. 2 to 4. -In'all these' figures it should be assumed that of counse all the radially extending Wires 4 are in place though they may not be all connected. The wires are indicated by the black insulators 12 which are mounted on topof posts G, the 'posts being omitted in the illustrations. Referring now particularly to Fig. 2, this modification shows the usc of only one'single sector for receiving. The inner end of the sector is connected to the transformer coil 13, the other end of which is connected to ground. This coil is coupled with the coil 14 which leads to the detector circuit arrangement not shown' here,l I but vmerely marked with D in Figs. 2-5. Thevertical antenna, which is not shown in Fig. 2; being disconnected from the horizontal antenna is of course considerably detuned thereby and if itis connected to the ground at 9 as described before, its detuning may st'll be materially increased hv `the capacity 1 and the inductanc 10, so that if it is excited by atmospheric disturbances, it will not only not interfere with the receiving by means of the single sector 5 of the low horizontal antenna, but have the screening effect previouslyrefer'red to. All the remaining sectors of .the low horizontal antenna are disconnected from the receiving circuit and from yeach other. 4
The modification shown' in Fig. 3 in which the vertical antenna (as also in Fig. 4) is assumed to Abe similarly arranged but not illustrated shows two oppositely disposed sectors 5 of the low horizontal antenna 3 connected at their inner lendsI to the respective ends of coupling coil 13 of the receiving. arl rangement.4 The remaining sectors are dis- I stance in the U. S. Patent No. 979,144, to '95 F essenden, though the manner in which I apply such a symmetrical antenna is different from the way in which it is. employed in the patent above referred to. In particu-v lar one of the purposes of the arrangements covered by the present invention, that is-to say, to screen during receiving' the low horizontal antenna from latmospheric disturbances by a large, high` vertical` transmitting antenna which is'detuned, has not been sought nor knowledge by any of the arrangements of a low horizontal antenna disclosed in the prior 1 art.
In the practical. commercial use the an have the great. advantage that it is not necesaccomplished to my sary to erect a. special, low .horizontal anusing the verticombinationdescribed hereinbefore is used.
In that patent aside from the lew horizontal antenna, a special counterpolse 1s necessary Which in case of large stations, for
11i) tcnna arrangements described h ereinbefore` j z involves considerable expense ough the additional wires and causes great inconven ience through the additionof a low horizontal antenna to the counter-poise, which latter naturally should cover as large an area as possible. Moreover, by using the low horizontal antennain the preferred forms shown in Figs. 2l to 4, where any numbers of sectors may be connected'to the receiving arrangement so that any desired compass direction may be covered, the great advantage Vis obtained that in case of receiving lfrom several differently located stations,
Voi thc scf-tors J.
those portions of the low horizontal antenna which coincide with the direction of the received waves and` by which, as is known, a particularly 'favorable effect is obtained, may always be..connected for receiving. Moreover an arrangement such as I have shown renders it possible to vary the capacity of the low horizontal antenna for receiving in wide limits by using only a few or many sectors as is shown in Figs. 3 and 4, so that the antenna can. receive at quite a variety of 'Wave lengths.
In case a. station operates principally with only one other station so that the messages are received practically only from one direction at all times, the low horizontalantenna might be given such form. that it extends principally only in twoopposite compass directions. This form is shown in Fig. 5, wherein 13 and 14 represents again diagrammatically the receiving circuit to which that antenna iS connected. The vertical antenna is disposed similarly as referred toin the remaining Hgures, but also here omitted from the drawings. In the preferred opposite compass directions a number of parallel wires l2 extend from the receiver. their inner ends being connected to bus bars between which the primary coil 13 of the rccciver is connected. As many oi the parallel `wires :23 as desired may be connected to the bus bars so as to vary the wave length of the low horizontal antenna.
' To simplify the connection of the several sector,"l to the receiving arrangement. as .shown in Figs. 2J. it is of course necessary to provide suitable switches by which this can be zwcomplislied. That this can be donein a number oi' diiicrcnt ways to suit the particular requirements 'of the installation is obvious. l ha vc shown in Fig. timorel or less f liagrammatically as an example one in which this .can hc accomplished. This figure only shows the central 'portion 'The receiving coil 13 I connected at cach endl to the bus bars 1F) and 1T. thcse'bars being shown in this par ticular case semi-circular for convenience. These bars have contacts 19.. each bar a number equal to one-halt of thc climbers of sectors which the horizontal antenna oo n- For instance, in the modification Fig.4 1, the antenna contains 16 sectors so 'Atluteach bar has 8 contacts. The inner end ofjeach sectorV terminates in a switch 20 which can be thrown onto its corresponding contact 18 so that this sector is thereby connected to the corresponding bar. Thus any number of'sectors may be quickly thrown into or out of circuit'and the most suitable group of sectors for receiving -may be quickly determined. In order to use this switch arrangement for the form shown in Fig. 2,'each bar 16, 17 is provided with a switch\21,.22 respectively by which the respectivev bar may be grounded as shown. This arrangement can'be further modified so as to render the horizontal antenna capable of multiple receiving as welll as also capable of protecting by means of some of its Sectors, other sectors which may be used at the time for directional receiving. This f modification is shown in Fig. 7. In prin- Vciple of arrangement it is similar to that shown in Fig. (i. except that instead of one vcircle of bus-bars. four circles of two bars each are concentrically arranged, and the switches 20 are placed so that their points may wipe transversely over all four circles of bars so that they can make contact with any of the circles desired. The showing in Fig. 7 is of course somewhat diagrammati cal and it is obvious to anyone skilled inthe art that in 'a station in actual practical'use Vthe detail arrangement of the switches and bars may bemade somewhat more conven- 13? ient. In this figure thetwmheavy marked circles of bars 31 and 3?..each comprise two substantially half circles which are connected with the, detector circuit D, and D2 in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 6 at 105 13. 14. The two other thin lined circular pairs of bars 30 and 33 are provided for connecting some of. the-antenna sectors desired with local circuits L1. L2. the purpose of which will be explained presently.
So far as the`directional receiving by means of two oppositely disposed antenna sectors is concerned, which has been de# scribed hereinbefore, I have'found that 1t 1sv possible to simultaneously receive fromvtwo 'different directions.4 even at thc same wave length. with two different receiving circuits.
Ol" course suchmultiple receiving is mostV effective when thc two directionsl are substantially at right`angles to each other or nearly so because then in casc of receiving on the saine wave length' ther-rl will be the Y,
least interference. (ln thc other hand it'is also possible to s'nuiltam-ously receive by means of two pairs of opl'iositely disposed scf-tors from substantially thcsamc dircction at rli'fierentwavc lengths.V Of course it natu-v rally followsthat4 also from two di'ererit directions simultaneous messages can be received at the same time at dlli'erent Wave lengths. Now the arrangement shown in Fig. 7 enables me to carry out this multiple receiving. I have assumed in this figure the case where 1 desire to receive simultaneously at the same wave length from two different directions which are substantially at right angles to each other and I have therefore connected two` adjacent oppositely disposed pairs of antenna sectors 5 together by means of their respective switches 20 and thrown them on to the two respective halves of bus-bars 31. lT his may forni re ceiving circuit R1 which is connected with the detector circuit D1. Another oppositel-y disposed pair of single sectors 5 may be connected hy their respective switches 20 to the pair of bars 32 which is connected with the detector circuit D2. This may form the receiving circuit R2. The antenna sectors connected to the respective circuits as will be seen are substantially at right angles to each other. Both may be tuned to the wave length of 6,000 m. as indicated.'
I found by actual practical experience at a large Wireless station that in this way messages y'can be very conveniently Aand clearly received simultaneously at the saine wave .length or of course also at different wave len hs.
n the preamble of the'speciiication I have pointed out that the vertical antenna exerts a. screening action upon. the horizontal antenna. I can now increase this screening action upon the sectors of thel'iorizontal antenna which are used at the time for receiv- "ing by a certain arrangement of other secside of the receiving sectors are connected to the receiving sectors.
another local circuit tuned to a wave length above the one at which signals are received. In Fig. 7, the two' auxiliary circuits including the auxiliary sectors are termed. L1 and L2 and may be located on either side of theI receiving antenna R1. L1 may be tuned to 4,500 m. and L2 may be turiied to' 7,5004 m.
- Thus unless a disturbance arrives at exactly 6,000` m. wave length or closely thereto, its energy is at leastv p'artly consummated in the local circuits without detrimental eiect upon This expedient may 'I .particularly favorable where, during receiving, distant thunder showers occur subsectors may be thrown into two different receiving circuits, one tuned to one wave length, the other to another wave length and thus two kinds of signals ma be simultaneously received from substantially the same direction.
While it is not shown in Fig. 7 for simplicitys sake, itis of course obvious to anyone skilled in the art that all the pairs of bus-bars may be provided with grounding `switches such as are shown at 21 and 22 in Fig. 6 for the purposes 'referred to in the specification, and it is also obvious to anyone skilled' in the art that by the arrangement shown in Fig. 7 a large number of combinations ofsectors is possible according to the local conditions and those of receiving. Y
In cases,where the station is exposed to severe winter weather,`especially ice storms, it is `advisable to arrange the wires, of which the horizontal antenna sectors are formed, so that each sector or portions ofjit can be, formed into a loop, which can be thrown in circuit with a strong source of alternating or direct current, when the antenna is not used for receiving or sending.'
Any destructive formation of ice onthe wires can thus be easily melted o'l'.. An arrangenfent of the wires of two adjacent sec-V tors is shown in Fig. 8 as an example. The two sections 5-5 are o vn at their inner ends so that their individual wires 5 may be connected to the battery B or any other suitable source of direct or alternating current in any suitable mannerl (in series or in parallel)` as the occasion and the source of current may require. In Fig. 8 for example a multiplevconnection. of two adjacent sec-- tors is shown in dotted lines. Any other connection vill be obvious to anyone skilled in .the art.-. I`have found in practice that for such piirposes current of considerable intensity is required rather for a short time, than current of smaller intensity for a longer time, on account of thestrong heat radiation of the wires. Therefore the division of the horizontal antenna into sectors for radiowould be necessary', were the lhr'nizontal antenna arranged .as one. integre ,4 net of wires commonly used heretofore. p to the telegraphic purposes affords at' the same-1m lpears to y thawfrom the vertical. antenna during receiving.
2. In `a radio telegraph station, the combination of a high vertical antenna for transmitting, and a low horizontal antenna for recei vin having 4a suitable number of tions, said vertical antenna being? onnccted during transmitting with all of said sections as a counterpoise, said horizontal antenna. being disconnected from the vertical antenna during receiving and at .least 'one of its sections being used as a'low horizontal antenna for receiving.
3. In a radio telegraph station, the combination of a high vertical antenna for transmitting and a low horizontal antenna. for ieceivin said vertical antenna being connected e ectricall y during transmitting with horizontal antenna 'as a counterpoise,
.said horizontal antenna being-disconnected from the vertical antenna during receiving, and means for detuning the-vertical antenna.
4. In a' radio telegraph-station, the com-- bination of a high vertical antenna for transmitting, and a lowhorizontal antenna for receiving, having a suitableniimber of sections, said vertical antenna being connected during transmitting Witliall of said sections asa coiinterpoise, said horizontal antenna being disconnected from the vertical antennavduring receiving and atleast one of its sections being used as a low horizontal antenna for receiving, and means for detuning the vertical antenna. n
ln a radio telegraph station the combination-of a high vertical antenna for trans- `mitt-ing and a low horizontal antennaior receiving, said horizontal antenna consisting of a suitable number of radially extending wires forming `an approximately circular area an-'l being connected in suitable numl'iers in-'indi'vidual groups to form indepenrl cri-t, sectors of the cir-, clc. .said vertical 4antenna being connected 'during transmission with all of said sectors as a counterpoisc, said horizontal antenna being disconnected from the vertical antenna during receiving, and at least one of ils sectors beingr used as a lou' horizontal antenna for' receiving.
FJ. ln a radio telegraph station thecombination of ii high vertical antenna for trans-A mittirigv and a low horizontalantenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna consisting of a suitable number of radially extending wires forming an approximately `circular 05 area and being connected in suitable num-- bers in individual groups to form independent sectors of the circle, said vertical antenna being connected during transmission with all of said sectors as a countcrpoisdsaid horizontal antenna being disconnected from the vertical antenna horizontal antenna forreceiviiig, and means for detuning the vertical antenna a ainst the frequency of the arriving waves c uring receiving.
7. In a radio telegraph station the combiff nation of a high umbrella type antenna for transmitting and a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna consisting of a suitable number of radially ex tending wires forming an approximately circular area and bein connected in suitable numbers in individualgr groups to form independent antenna being connected during transmission with all of said sectors as 'a counterI poise, said horizontal antenna being discon-` nected from .the vertical antenna during recei ving, and at least one of its sectors being used as a low horizontal antenna for receiv ing, and means Afor detuningthe vertical antenna against the riving waves during receivin 8. In a radio telegraph station the combination of a high vertical antenna foi` trans'- mission and a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said horizontal antenna consistin of a, suitable number of radially extending wires forming an approximately circular area and being connected in suitable numbers in individual groups to form independent sectors of the circle, said vertical antenna bein connected during transmission with all o? saidectors as a counterpoise,
said horizontal antenna being disconnected the vertical antenna duringreceiving, l
from and atleast one of its sectors being used as a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said vertical antenna having a ground connection and having suitable inductance and capacity in circuit therewith to detun the antenna against the frequency of the arriving waves during receiving. l
9. In a radio telegraph station the combination of a high umbrella type antenna for transmitting and a low horizontal antenna forreceiving, said horizontal antenna consisting of a suitable number of radially extending wires forming an approximatelycircular area and being connectedin suitable `numbers in individual groups to form, independent sectors of the circle, said vertical antenna being connected during transmission with all poise, said horizontal antenna being disconnected from the vertical antenna during refrequency of the arf' of said sectors as a counter-4 during receiving, and at least one of its sectors being used a low sectors of the circle, said vertical ceiving,` at least one pair ofioppostely disposed sectors being'connected as a low horizontal antenna for receiving, and means for Y; detuning the'high antenna against the frelguencyy ofthe arriving waves during-recei" U. In a radio telegraph station the 'combination of a high vertical antenna for transmitting and a low horizontal antenna for receiving, said lhorizontal antenna consisting bf a suitable number" of radially extending wires forming a circular ar'eaand being con- I lected in suitable numbers in individual g'roups to form independent sectors of the circle, said ,vertical antenna'being connected during transmission 'with all of said sectors asa. coun-terpoise, said horizontal antenna.
being disconnected from the vertical antenna during receiving, each of saidv sectors having 20mi suitableJ switch connection to permit the e combinationof any desired number of op- .positely disposed sectors to vary the capacity ofthe low horizontal antenna and to render -it directive for receiving, and means for de- ?5 tuning the vertical antenna against the freguency of the arriving Waves during receiving.
11. Ina radio telegraph station une con., nation of a high umbrella type antenna for "transmitting and a lov\7 horizontal antenna Aconsisting of a suitable, number of radially f extending wires forming an approximately circular area and being connected in suitable numbers in individual groups to form independent sectors of thev circle, said vertical antenna being connected during transmission with all of said sectors as a counterpoise, said horizontal antenna being disconnected from the vertical antenna during receiving, at least one pair of oppositely disposed sectors being connected as a low' horizontal antenna for receiving, local circuits containing inductance, capacity and resistance, means for connecting the pairs of op posite sectors adjacent to either side of the receiving sectors each to one of said local circuits, said local circuits being tuned respectivelyto a- Wave length above and below that of the receiving antenna for screening the receiving antenna from disturbance, and means for detuning the high antenna against the frequency of the arriving Waves during receiving.
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|US2466354 *||Jun 28, 1944||Apr 5, 1949||American Telephone & Telegraph||Directional radio system|
|US3253279 *||Feb 1, 1963||May 24, 1966||Trg Inc||Bandwidth monopole antenna having low ground losses due to a circumferential ground ring|
|US3419873 *||Dec 9, 1964||Dec 31, 1968||Control Data Corp||Monopole antenna|
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|U.S. Classification||343/725, 343/841, 343/847, 343/851, 455/129, 343/876|