US 1214941 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
` F. F. MORRIS & F. M. Luchs.
APPLICATION FILED DEC.24,1915.
1,214,941. F Damned' Feb. 6,1917.
gnvehi'ow @mmm ;ofa valve, .an the atmosphere a quantity of air to be'mixed Ywith said oxygen. This mixture is adminis- '.tered to the patient by any desirable means UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
FRANK FAIRCHILD MORRIS, OF PITTSBURGH, AND FREDERICK MELCHIOR LUCHS,.0F WILKINSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNORS T0 THE FILM OF DRGERWERK, HEINR. AND BERNH. DRGER, OF LBECK, GERMANY.
Specication of Letters Patent.
Pe tented Feb. 6, 1917.
To all whom it may concern 'Be it known that We, FRANK FAIRCHILD MORRIS, a citizen-of the United States, residingat Pittsburgh, and FREDERICK MELCH'IOR LUorrs, a citizen of Switzerland, residing at Wilkinsburg, both in the county of Allegheny and State of; Pennsylvania, have invented certain .new and useful Improve- :ments 'in Resuscitating Devices; and we do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art towhich it appertains to make and use the same, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to letters or figures of reference marked thereon, which form a part of this s inca-tion.
This invention relates to life saving and resuscitating devices, and to Vany form of apparatus designed to administer oxygenhumanbeings Vfor any desired purranged to deliver an ,injecting current of Ioxygen throughV the apparatus on one side at the same time draw from and at a sli htly elevated pressure. Upon reversal of fiile valve a suction is produced instead of aforcing current.
This much of the apparatus has heretofore been known, and has been successfully used, and our invention comprises means for indicatingv the condition of the forcing and 'the suction current, and means :for` controlling these currents bya novel method, which consists in reducing the pressure of the forcing stream by venting it to the atmosphere,
and reducing the suction of the suction stream by admitting atmospheric air thereto. 'The invention further A`consists in structural features that enable the size and veiglit of th'e apparatus toT be greatly renoe ' In the drawing is shown, partly in sec tion, so much of an apparatus asis necessary to illustrate this invention.
The oxygen connection to this apparatus is'made by the screw-threaded connector 1, which is arranged and'constructed to connect a the apparatus to a tank of compressed oxygen gas, or to' a hospital generator, or any other source of high or low pressure oxygen, other gases -or air.
The connector 1 has a centralopening 2 discharging to the removable jet-forming nozzle 3 that proj acts into a combining chamber 4 and is in alinement with a pressure-reducing cone 1' which delivers a current of gasv into a chamber 7 in a substantially cy indrical'cas ing 6. This chamber Z into which lthe gas ffom the reducingnozzle is separated from thelike.
chamberf.' by valve 9, and said chamber 7'.'
discharges'l through :L pipe 10 into the combi-ning chamber 4. 'Phe casing 6 has a port l1 arranged: between the pipe 10 and the reducing cone 5 thai is controlled by the valve 9. 4
1 The operation of this apparatus is as folows:
High pressure oxy gen is admitted through 2 and 3 and produce; a highpressure jet directed into the reducing nozzle 5, and at the same time draws ai? through port 11 and pipe 10- into the combining chamber 4 and' -entrains it through the pipe or reducing nozzle 5 -into the chamber 7 and delivers it through pipe 8 to "he patient. Upon reversal of the valve 9 port 11 is placed in communication with cha nber Tand pipeS with' chamber 7.', suction is produced in pipe 8, the air passing fron. pipe 8 to chamber 7', pipe 10, the combini ig chamber 4 reducing nozzle 5, chamber andl port 11 into the atmosphere;
We have found tl at a most decided improvement 'maybe made in this apparatus,
or in any other ap aratus using pressure and suction,' by .providing means for indicating 4the amount cfsuction and pressure alternate1y.} produce( in pi e 8, and also providing for .control the suction It. wi1l"' be unders ;o 'od that no two persons of thesam'e sex. and age have the same lungcapacity, nor w1 uld they have the same vita 't edly and -strengt 1,j`s o that it is decidisadivantageou; to deliver a fixed or measured `quantity oi oxygen all patients,
gen became necessary.
and the quantity of oxygen should be varied according to t e degree of recovery, and also according to the condition of the patient at the time the administration of oxy- It is well known that the administration of oxygen for overcoming asphyxiation, and` the administration of oxygen for resuscitating drowning persons is done quite differently, and it is our aim to construct an apparatus as nearly universal in its uses as possible, and capable of all the variations required under varying conditions with varying types of patients.
11To this end we make the valve 9 a manua y 9 and operated by a handle 12 which is detachably or otherwise secured to. the valve spindle 9. The movement of the valve is limited in its end positions by pins 13 and 13 on the casing 6, or on the plate 9a, as shown, J -V The ,chamber 7 is provided with a valve 14 comprising a. circular plate connected to, and held spaced from a tubular screw 16 at two or more points adjacent its periphery by lugs 15. A anged head17 on this screw projects over the end of the casing 6. The tubular screw 16 is provided with a single high pitched 'thread 18 and screws into one end of the casin 6. The underface of the ange of head 1 is provided with recesses 19 into which engages a pin 20 urged by a spring 21 to hold the screw against rotation from its adjusted position.
The pin 20 and spring 21 are placed in a drill hole in a slight shoulder 22 on the casing 6. The valve plate 14 seats on a valve seat 23 formed in the casing 6.
Inasmuch as the tubular screw 16 has a high pitched thread it is intended that one revolution of the screw shall move the valve 14 its maximum extent and in order to prevent the screw, during its operation, from entirely leaving the casing, a. suitable stop, such as a screw 24, is passed through the iange 17 and abuts against a shoulder 22 as a stop ,whenthe screw 16 is rotated to its'full extent in one or the other direction. The screw is held in its adjusted position by the pin 20 entering any one of the peripheral notches 19'on the underface of the fiange 17, whereby the valve 14 will be held in any desired position toward or from its seat 23. The chamber.7 is provided with a valve and a screw 16* of like construction..
That portion of the casing 6 which is eX- tended to form the connection 8 of pipe 8, in other words, the suction and forcing conduit, is provided with two indicators, A and B, one of which, for example, A, is adapted to indicate suction, and the other, B, to indicate pressure, these indicators are preferably, but not necessarily, identical in construction, the only dierenoe being that the actuated valve held in place by a plate tor B, and
piston of the indicator A is distant from the conduit 8', while the piston of the indicator B is adjacent said conduit.
.The structure of these indicators is as follows: They comprise a metal tube 25 havin a reduced end 26 that vscrews into a threaded hole 27 in the extension 8', the opposite end of said tube is screw-threaded at 28 to receive a nut 29 having a central perforation 30, leading to an enlarged recess 31 containing a wire gauze or other suitable screen 32. The tubular nut 29 holds in place a centrally perforated flexible washer 33, and forces this washer against one end of a glass tube 34, the other end of which tube engages a like washer 35 at the opposite end of the tube 25., A screen 36; is interposed between washer 35 and the opening in the reduced end 26.
Within the glass tube 34 is a cylindrical piston 37, and between this piston and the washer 35 is a light spring 38. The piston 37 is provided with a peripheral surface mark 39, more clearly shown on the indicathis mark is exposed to view through a slot 40 in the tube 25, the edges of which slot are graduated to indicate, preferably Acentimeters of water column.
If the valve' 9 be set as indicated in the drawings, with the handle 12 resting against the stop pin 13, and oxygen is supplied through the nozzle 3, .the combined stream of air and oxygen will be directed through chamber 7 into pipe 8 and into the lungs of the patient. The pressure developed at the end of the forcinU or inhalationperiod will be indicated on tlie indicator B, its piston 37 being moved to the right as soon as backpressure sets in. The degree of back. pressure indicated on the edges of slot 40 showing that the lungs have been filled and that it is desirable for the patient to be caused to exhale.
The pressures used vary from 5 centimeters of water column for infants, to 50 centimeters of water column for adults under;
some conditions, but the usual high limit is about 25 centimeters of water column.
Under normal conditions the pressure of the oxygen, or other gas or air -at the source of the compressed supply, or generator may;
' deemed necessary or 'the particular patient being treated. A
When valve 9 is reversed, so that the handle 12 engages stop 13', suction is produce in pipe 8, chamber 7 and pipe 10 by the nozzle 3, thus drawing the contents of thi erator, and adjusted by the tubular screw lungs through said chamber and pipes into the combining nozzle 5, and discharging them through chamber 7 andA port 11 into the atmosphere. Suction will thus be 'indicated on the indicator A in centimeters of water column; and in a like manner suction in chamber 7 can be watched by the op- 16, air being admitted through the center of screw 16 around' the edge of the valve plate 14 into chamber 7. v l Air ai'ects the indicator A by passing through the central bore 3 0 of the screw 29, the screen 32, and t-he central perforation of washer 33 onto the end of piston 37 thus causing the piston to move to the right and compress its spring andindicate the pres- The device, when used, will show` to the operator just the amount of pressure and the amount of suction developed in the lungs on each and every stroke of the valve 9, which is a great advantage. Another advantage is that the valve 9 is manipulated manually, and as soon as a patient commences to breathe this shallow,v breathing is at once shown by the indicators A and B, and the operation of the device regulated accordingly. Y
The desire to breathe is not always regular or in rhythm with a regular movement of the valve 9, and the discrepancy in the timed relation between the action of the apparatus and the action of the lungs causes an interference of onevwith the other, and
the apparatus would at times hinder the resuscitation rather than assist it, were it not possible to operate the valve 9 according to the action of the lungs. With applicants structure, however, and the accurate indications given of the suction and pressure developed, the operator of the apparatus lwill always know when the patient desires to exhale and when he desires to inhale, and will manually set valve 9 accord- .ingly, irrespective of whether the periods be regular or irregular.
We claim- 1. In a resuscitatingdeviceLthe combination with a casing having two chambers therein and a port between them, a conduitV connection, a valve controlling the connection of said conduit connection with one chamber and the slmultaneous connection of the port with the other chamber, one of said `chambers having an inlet pipe and the other having an outlet pipe, and an injector arranged between the two pipes to dlscharge into one of them and to thereby entraln air or gas from the other pipe; of means controlling the connection of each chamber with the atmosphere. ,n f
2. A resuscitating device having a breathing conduit for attachment to a breathing mask, means to produce suction and pressure in said conduit, and a controllable valve between said means and condu it, in combina` tion with a pressure indicator and a suction indicator onsaid4 conduit, siid indicators being in permanent operative relation tothe conduit andarranged to indicate pressure and suction in said conduit u1 Lderallcondi.
tions of operation.
3. The combination with a `oreathing tube and manually operated meansk to direct 'a stream of gas into or from said tube; of
produced throughout the who le duration oi the suction and pressure peric ds, and means to control the energy ofsaid stream of gas during the suction and pressure periods-and thereby vary the suction and pressureproduced by said stream in said zonduit.
4.'The combination with cont rollable means for producing alternately sucwion and pressure in the breathinglconduit of a resuscitating device; of separate indjzators respec- Y means to indicate vthe suction and pressure tively -indicating the suction and pressure produced in said device, Vand se parately operating valves respectively. adr iitting air to said device during the suction period and venting ing the lcompression period.,
5. In a. resuscitating device, a substantially cylindrical casing havi 1g a port between its ends, a pipe connecti )n between its ends, a valve dividing the casing into two chambers, a suction pipe connected to one chamber and aforcing pipe ce anected tothe otherchamber, a plate closing; each end of the casing, a tubular screw in each casing endconnected to said plate, whereby said pressure gas to the atmosphere durplates may vent said chambers to the atmosphere. Y
6. The method of operating` injectors for resuscitating apparatus, which comprises producing a jet of gas having a suction and a forcin side, combiningwith said jet alter- 4nately resh air and air from thelungsof the patient,` alternately direct ng said combined stream to the patient a1 ld to the outside air, .and controlling the suction and forcing action by venting ther suction, and forcing sides ofthe stream 1o the atmos- 1 phere.
7. The method of operating Ainjectors 4arranged to produce both forcin g and suction in which a forcing jet of gas c ombines with a current of air to producey a combined .l
stream of reduced pressure, controlling the lll suction of said jet by venting the atmosphere to said current and controlling the combined stream by venting it to the atmosphere.
8. The method of operating injectors arranged to produce both forcn 1,' and suction by means of a jet of compressed gas com-4 vbined with air to produce a combined stream of reduced pressure, which comprises controlling the suction of said jet` by admitting atmospheric air to said stream, controlling lll its `pressure by venting the stream to the atmosphere, indicating the suction and pressure produced, and controlling the duration of the suction and pressure periods in accordance with said indications.- f
9. In vthe method of operating resuscitating devices in which alternate suction and pressure are produced Within the lungs by alternately supplying within the lungs a 10 respirable gas and'withdrawing the'respired gas therefrom, the improvement Which conlnce with the indications.
In testimony that we claim the foregoing' as our invention, we have hereto signed our i sists in indicating during the supply and Withdrawal the pressure and suction produced, and controlling the duration of the supply and Withdrawal periods in accordnall'leS.
FRANK FAIRCHILD MORRIS. i FREDERICK MELCHIOR LUCI-IS.