US 1215226 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. M. WANEE. FLYING mAc'H|N E. y APPLICATION FILED IUNE 30| i916.. v.
' Y l y Patented Feb. 6,1917.
' 3 SHEETS-SHEET l.
I n I v am,
e. M.- wANEE. FLYING MACHINE. APPLICATION FILEII JUNE 30, 1916.
Pateted Feb. 6,1917.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2 Gebrg'e M Mue G. M. wANEE. num; MACHINE. APPLICATION FILED JUNE 30 1915- Patentea Feb. 6, 1917'.
.3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
eo nge Jil'. Warzee l/vneaswo Eg' I I A 3W' wie plane.
GEORGE M. WANEE, F OAKLAND, CL-IFGRNIA..
To all wim/ml it may concern.'
Be it known that l, GEORGE M. WANEE, a citizen of the `United States, residing at Oakland, in the county of Alameda and State of California, have invented newand useful Improvements in F lying-Machines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention relates to improvements 1n flyingv machines, and particularly to supporting surfaces for flying machmes of the heavier-than-air class, the present invention being an improvement upon the type of supporting surface disclosed in my pr1or :Patent No. 1,172,182, dated Feb. 15, 1916, embod ing a lower plane composed of laterally extending wings and an upper hoodshaped plane projecting to equal degrees beyond its longitudinal center, which 1s arranged in line with the longitudmal center of the machine, over the wings of the lower The object of the present invention is to provide an improved construction of supporting surface of the character'referred to,
whereby a more efficient sustaining action is obtained, as hereinafter fully described.-
ln the accompanying drawing illustrating the invention,- l
YFigure l is a front elevation of a flymg machine embodying my invention:
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the same. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the machine, Fig. a is a transverse section through the tail frame showing the supporting surface in rear elevation.
l Figs.I 5 and 6 are vertical transverse sections through the upper plane on lines 5 5 and 6-6 respectively.
Figs. 7 and 8 are vertical longitudinal sections through the upper plane on the lines 7 -7 and 88 of llig. 2.
ln carrying my invention into practice, l provide a flying machine including a main frame 1, and a longitudinally .and horizontally extending tail frame 2, which frames may he of any preferred or suitable construction. Any suitable type of launching and alighting gear, steering andstabilizing devices may be employed and are not llerein shown, as the saine constitute no part of the present invention. l may also employ any preferred type of propelling mechanism, none being shown 1n the present 1nstance for the reason above stated.
The supporting surface of the machine comprises a pair of lower supporting planes Specification of Letters Patent. Patmted Feb, 6, 1917, Application med .Tune 30, 1916. Serial No. 108,937. y
3 and 4,'and' an upper supporting plane 5. These' planes may be of any preferred construction, and preferably consist of a suitable frame structure having a covering of fabric or other suitable material. The planes 3 and 4c have inner ends 6 which extend inwardly and downwardly on curved lines and intersect each other in converging relationship, said portions of said planes forming va tapering lin or keel and curved surfaces to prevent the machine from skidding and thereby maintain it on its course and also to actas lifting and stabilizing surfaces, as hereinafter fully explained. rlhe body portions 7 of the respective planes 3 and l extend laterally to equal degrees beyond the sides of the machine and curve or incline upwardly and outwardly at a desired dihedral angle, to assist in securinglateral stability. From a point about midway of their length and inwardly toward their end portions 6 the planes 3 and l curve slightly at a downward and rearward angle, and from such intermediate point outwardly toward their tips the planes are curved to a gradually increasing degree outwardly, downwardly and rearwardly, the outer halves of the planes thus being helicoidally curved. lt will be evident that as the lower planes are disposed at a dihedral angle, an effective degree of inherent lateral stability will be obtained and this is augmented to a material extent by the curvature of thepo'rtions 6, since, as the planes are also curved in a fore-and-aft direction, a gust of wind 'striking the body portion of either lower plane and tending Ito tilt said plane upwardly will, on following the line of the plane inwardly and rearwardly strike the portions 6 thereof and exert its pressure to right or restore the machine to a normal state of equilibrium. rlhis is true of the balancing operation of both lower planes in maintaining lateral stability. lBy making the outer half of'eaeh plane helieoidally curved, and the inner half o f the body of the plane materially flatter and with but a comparatively slight curve, a maximum lifting action is obtained along the outer rear portions of the planes and iet that would otherwise be caused by the choking of the air beneath the planes. By causing the air to travel beneath the planes on inwardly and rearwardly convergmg lines, the forces of these currents are balanced and neutralized by the curvature of the planes, as such currents approach the center ofthe machine, so that'any tendency of the machine to tilt either longitudinally or later- Aally undervarlations of air pressures will be counteracted to a material extent by the equalizing of such pressures in the1r converging courses of flow.
The upper supporting plane 5 is longitudinally bowed or curved and has its cen tral portion disposed above the inwardly incidence, which is preferably the same an` gle of incidence as the lower planes 3 and 4, and the front orleadin portion 8 of the plane 5 is set at a somew at greater angle of inclination than the rear or trail por-A tion 9 of `said plane. The concaved side of the plane 5 faces downwardly and is disposed above the convexed upper surfaces of the planes 3 and 4, with its middle portlon above the downwardly extending inner ends 6 'of the said planes 3 and 4, at which point the chord of the fore or-leading portion 8 of the plane 5 is of greatest depth,
` the plane 5` thus providing a substantially said planes and the downwardly curved inhood-shaped structure over the main portions 6 and 7, of the planes 3 and 4g and, cooperating therewith to provide an air passage of greatest depth at the center and contracted betweenthe'ljuxtaposed surfaces of the superposed` plane, as will be readily understood.
In my prior Patent No. 1,172,182, aforesaid, I have shown a supporting surface composed of upper and lower Vplanes of the general structure herein disclosed, but in the patented structure the portions of the lower planes between the body portions of ner ends of the planes are curved downwardly and rearwardly at a pronounced angle, which portions of the planes correspond with the portions indicated between the points -a 4inthe structure herein disclosed. As a result of suchy curvature in the patented structure an objection is encountered in that owing to the pronounced curvature of such portions of the planes the ycated points Zie-b amazes i inward and rearward ow of the currents of air on converging lines is resisted, with the eilect of retaining the air beneath the lower planes to an undesirable extent.` This objection is overcome in the present instance by attening or decreasing the curvature of the portions of the lower planes between the points wma',l and extending the outer portions of said planes on a helicoida curve, by means of which Athe tendency o the air to ow Yinwardly the trail portion 9 of the plane tends to restrict the flow of air thgh the spaces between the converging portions of the planes 3, 4; and 5, with a result of causing the formation of currents or eddies between the planes which tend to disturb the stability.
This objection is overcome, in the present construction, by attening or decreasing the curvature of the extremities of the'trail portion 9 of the plane 5, between the indiwith relation to the cor-Y responding arts of the lead portion 8 of the plane 5, andp by also flattening or decreasing the angle of incidence of the central rear part of the trail portion 9, between the indicated points c-c, whereby the air owing between the planes is caused by the diminished resistance to flow inwardly and rear# wardly on convergin lines, thus preventing the accumulation o f an undue amount of' air in the narrow 'spaces between the converging portions of the planes 3, 4 and 5 and the consequent choking of the air in such spaces. By also flattening the trail portion "tor-different angles of incidence as set forth the tendency of the air to rebound from the trail surface of the plane and exert a depressing" effect upon the lower planes is avoided in a reliable and ecient manner. By the construction and arrangement of the planes as herein disclosed the flying eciency, as well as the poise ofthe machine is increased to a material degree, so that greater speed and the load carrying capacity are obtained without increase of surface area 4or propelling power over a structure such as disclosed in my prior patent.
I claim 1. A ying machine having a supporting surface comprising a pair oflower planes having downwardly and inwardly curved converging inner ends, and having their outer ends helicoidally curved in a down- Ward and rearward direction the intervening portions of the planes being curved downwardly and rearwardly to a lesser angle of incidence than the outer ends of said planes, and a hood-shaped upper plane above the inner ends of the lower planes and its extremities connected with the body portions of the lower planes between the curved portions thereof, said upper planes having a trail portion of less angle of incidence than its lead portion, and said trail portion having its central part of a less curvature than its extremities.
2. A flying machine having a supporting surface comprising a pair of lower planes having'concaved lower surfaces and convex upper surfaces, said lower planes having their inner ends disposed in proximity at the median longitudinal line of the machine, and an upper plane longitudinally and transversely curved and having its concaved side facing the convex upper surface of the lower planes, said upper plane having its central portion disposed abovev the inner ends of the lower planes and its extremities connected with the lower planes at points adjacent to but beyond the fore-and-aft centers of said lower planes, the trail portion of the upper plane having a less angle of incidence than the lead portion of said plane, and said trail portion of the upper plane having its central part of a less curvature than its extremities. f
In testimony whereof I aix my signature.
. GEORGE M. WANEE.