US 1223159 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UQ H. ENSIGN.
APPLlcMmN mju Nov. 21
Patentedpr. 17, 1917.
' UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- oiwrLLE Hman ENsremr,` 'or rasannn` 1, can'ama.
Specification of Letters lPatent.
Patented Apr. 17, 1917.
atpueanon inea november 21, 1919. sem l m. nana.
To od whom t may concern:
Be it known that l, OnviLLE H. ENsIeN,
a citizen of the United States, residing at Pasadena, in the county of Los Angeles and State of California, have invented new and useful Im rovements in Carbureters, of which the ollowing is a specification.
This invention is an improvement upon the carbureters heretofore invented by me and described in my applications filed in the United States Patent Oilce, asfollows- Serial No. 669672, filed January 5, 1912; Patent No. 1,064,627, June 10, 1913; and
Serial No. 690191, filed April 11, 1912; Pat-ent No. 1,064,628, June 10, 1913 and the carbureter invented by Roy Francis Ensign, filed in the United States Patent Oflice L ay 23, 1912, Serial No. 699348, Patent No. 1,108,727, Aug. 25,v 1914 and which carbureters arecommon to. each other in that a ,vortex is depended upon to proportion and effect the mixture.
An object of the present invention is to ermit internal combustion engines supplied y this carbureterV to runat extreme slow speed and to avoid stoppage heretofore liable Vto occur upon sudden slowing down when the mixture from the carburetor is drawn upward toward the engine. f
Another object is to rmit of adjustment of the mixture of liquidfuel and air for the purpose of'using a y strong mixture while the engine ,andair are cold and adjusting it to a weaker mixture when the engine and air supply are heated so that heavyhhydrocarbon fuels may be successfully. used.
Another object ofthe invention is toledmitof greaterilexibility in the adaptation of the carburetor to various types of engines by making the vortexV mixing chamber in such a form thatL the inlet air nozzle may be set at any angle 'with reference to the other portions of the carburetor.'
The accompanying drawings illustrate the invention.
Figure 1 is an axial section of a carburetor' constructed in accordance with this invention.
. Fig. 2 is a' horizontal section on line ai, Fig. 1. l
Fig. 3 is a vicwlanalogous to Fig. 1 showing the mixture adjusting appli-ance that is not required with the lighter hydrocarbon or carbohydrate fuels.
. Fig. Il is a horizontal Fig. 1.
sectionon line m,
elevation partly in vertical- Vsection 5 of the connecting bolt extends.
The bottor i of the chamber 1 is provided 65 with a centrally threaded orifice 6 to receive the screw-t hrcaded upper tubular end of the yconnecting bolt section that forms the stem 7 of a hollow conical distributer 8; said Stem being screwed through said orifice 6. Onto the lop of the stem 7 is screwed the lower charlhered portion 9 ol? said bolt section 5.
The vor aex mixing or carburetin chamber is formed by the..hollow snail s ell-like body 10, which is of general circular contour, proi ided with a tangential hollow branch 11 fitted with a contracted vein nozzle 12, which isfscrewed onto the branch 11, thus forming the air .inlet into the carbureting chamber. The top and bottom o'f the Walls of the carbureting chamber 10 are provided iespectively with circular seats 13 respectively, the -bottom of amber Land the top of the aage member '15; which ispreferably form ed integral with a bell-like cup 16 that consaitutes the bottom ofthe carburetin chamber, having a central outlet orilice 1 diieotly below and overhung by the hollow conical distributor 8.
The ma rgin o the outlet orifice 17 is in the form .if a lip 18, the diameter of which is less than that of the annular edge of the conical di stributer 8, which annular edge-is 95 sharp to muse liquid leaving the distributor to be torn into fine partes.
sa outlet pas The cor necting bolt te inates at its lower end' in a nolid portion 1.) screw-threaded at its lower and and extending through a hole 20 in the bottom of the outlet member 15 and there threaded and fitted with a. nut 21 to engage the bottom of the outlet Vmember 15', thus io clam said member, the vortex chamber 10 an the supply chamber 1] tightly tr grctbcr,- but allowing relative rotaL tion of th ,s several parts whenever the thumb nut 21 is loosened so that various angufhir adjustmc it of the parts can Abe effected. 'lhc in por portion of the stem 7 is provided wh a nozzle 22, thc bore of which extends town to the top` of the vortex cari whirling around within'said chamber. (3peratmg an engine lby amore perfect mixture',
from the sump, normal operation of the car bureter through the vortex chamber has been resunied at very much reduced capacity and the fuel is drawn through/the orifice 25 and thus into the vortex chamber in thc lproper proportion but still une to the slow 4 velocity ofthe llowing air it is not all sustained as a mixture under thc throttled slow specdf runningl of the engine and a portion of said liquid rondenscs from out of the air stream and flows into the sump 26 and is instantly drawn above the throttle as before described. At the mentioned slow speed, it is understood that the throttle is always slightly open.
It is thus seen that by the use of this tube, the mixture pro'portioning function of the carbureter continues at slow speed and the proper mixture is maintained above the throttle in spite of the tendencies to drop the fuel. This prevents the phenomena commonly referred to lcaflingryup or the b automobile 'experts vas lling of the carbureter y passages with a surplus of condensed vapors which usually, upon the opening of the throttle after a period of slow running, causesa too rich mixture for an instant and Vstops the engine because such mixture will not ignite under the conditions then controlling.
y v `When the air tube 36 is open as shown in Fig. 3 and the carbureter in operation a flowing column of air is drawn'throu'gh the tube 22 and V.said air passes thence through 23 into the 'ymixing chamber 10. Liquid flowing from"` the suppl chamber 32 is applied externally to sai 'owing column of air. This gives an additional advantage in morethorough mixin by-applying an external skin 'of liqui column of -air which expands inside the car bureting chamber thus initially introducing to the center of the carbureting chamber, a fine ,mist of the liquid which is there expanded and thoroughly mixedwith the air results not only-V in economy of fuel, but also in. reduced cylinder-heating because combustion .isY not-,so nearly continuous as it is where the initial combination of oxygen and carbon is less intimate.
It is important in the type of carbureter described in. this specification that the fuel supply means shall consist of a float bowl and adjustments arranged above the` carbureting chamber. for the reason. that at slow speeds of the motor under throttling conditions when idling or l developing a smallfiilnountof power at slow dspeed, the
suction produced by the vortex carburetingchamber is very light, varying with diierent motors' from th of Aan meh" up to a probable maximum of ths 4of an inch 4of water pressure. .We're an Vattempt made te fuel to the flowing reverse the arrangement of fuel chamber and vortex chamber, it is practicall a mechanical impossibility to lift up t e fuel from the fuel chamber into the carbureting chamber at such low suction pressure. lVhen operatirg at the low idlingl speeds the low vorte:: suction in this carbureter only acts to pimp the fuel over from the fuel chamber ilto the carbureting chamber,
`and the mixing is necessarily not accomthrough the tu )e 30 into the s ace aboye the ence, this carl. bureter is cons yructed with the fuel chamber butterfly throttle valve 29. y
on top and so irranged that fuel will begin to new through the ynozzle 22 and down through the carbureter the instant the slightest currel itof air enters the carburetin chamber 10. Were the positions reverse fuel would not flow, into the carbureting chamber at all until the motor had attained a speed and power approximating, that represented by at least 25% ofV its normal fuel load.
In the form shown in Fig. 3 the nozzle K22 in connection Avith the air inlet: through the passage 36 and the vortex reducing car-4 ureting vchan ber or snail s ell like. body 10 with tang@ utial inlet l1 and axial mixture outlet 17 constitutes means for producing a moving `:olumn of'air in the nozzle 22 and the hole Q3 constitutes means to supply this particulal column of air Ato the vortex producing ani' mixture producing means 10. The noz le 22 and the surrounding reservoir with the: float valve 33 and. its connections const tute means for supplyin the liquid fuel ext riorly to said moving co umn of air before' t enters said mixture producing meansor vortex forming chamber 10.'
I claim z- 1. In a cariureter havin liquid supply 'and with the outlet passage beyond the throttle valve 2, Acarbuieter comprising a liquid QSupply chamber; means to maintain liquid at means, a carbureting cham er below said4 'liquid supply means, an air lnlet intothe 'carbureting chamber, an outlet passage a determined level in the supply chamber;
a carbureting chamber located below said liquid supply chamber an air inlet intothe i In utsvad ao 1 5, A car cham-ber having annular top and bottom' carbureting chamber "afi nozzle chambercommunicatling withl the liquid in vthe supply chamber and with the air in the carburetlng vchamber andnormally sealed from the air 5 in the supply chamber; an air passage lead ing from said nozzle chamber tothe air; and a valve to ycontrol said air passage.
3.- A carbureter comprising a liquid supply chamberg-mea'ns'to maintain liquidl at a lo' determined level in the liquid supply chami chamber haying annular top and bottoin ends; aliquld supply chamber and an outlet passage vfitting said ends respectively and rotatable thereon' and a connecting bolt and justably fastening the chambers and passage to ether.
ureter comprising a carbureting end-s; alliquidsupply chamber and an outlet passage ttlng said ends respectively and 'rotatable thereon and a sectional connecting 135' bolt and nuts adjustably fastening the chambers and passage together, `a section of said K bolt being chambered and there bemg a pas- 'Usage through the1 bolt from the liquid supply chamber 'into the carbureting chamber.
40 6; Apparatus for 'regulating the flow of under' varying suction comprising` in fuel chamber, means :for Y maintaining 'fuel at a constant level in said chamber, a fiel supply pipe adapted to lead -liquid combination a thefuel from such chamber under such suction, downward, and of' such size and free from such obstructions', as to permit the simultaneous passage of fuel and air-therethrou h and an internal chamberwithin the fuel c amber, inclos'ing the inletto the said 60 fuel supply pipe, andrestrictedV air inlet at the top of said internal chamber communieating with the external air.
7,'A carbureter having a throttle valve,A
and comprising a vortex mixing chamber having a tangential air inlet and an axial mixture outlet, regulable means to 'supply liquid Ato said Vortex mixing chamber and means to by-pass a portion of the supplied liquid. past the throttle valve of the carbureter.
, 8. A. ,carbureter having a 'throttle valve, and comprising a vortex mixing chamber having atangential air inlet and axial o'utlet and meansvcon'sisting of a fixed orifice for 65 supplying liquid to said vortex mixing chamber, and means to by-pass a portion of the supplied liquid around the throttle valve of the carburetor.
9. Infa carbureter having liquid supply jmeans, a carbureting chamber. below said liquid supplyinea'ns, 4an air inlet yinto the carbureting chamber, an outlet passage opening from the carbu'reting chamber below the -level of the airinlet, a throttle valve for" the outletl passage, asninp in the outlet passage, anda tubelocated Wholly Within the outlet passage and communicating with `the sump and with a by-pass leading around the throttle valvel, 80
In testimony whereof, Ihave' hereunto fset my hand at Los' Angeles, California, this .13th day of November,l9 l2.
ORVILLE HIRAM ENSIGN.