US 1228680 A
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F. w. KENI.
PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING PAPER AND TRANSFER PROCESS.
APPLICATION FILED DEC. 13, I913.
Y Patented June 5, 1917.
rno'roenarmc rcana'rme To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, FRANK WILLIAM KENT, of 72 Manor street, Clapham, London, England, gentleman, a subject of His Majesty the King of England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in and Relating to Photographic and relating to photographic printing Printing Paper and Transfer Processes, of
which the following is a specification.
This invention is for improvements in per and transfer processes. As a basis upon which the original protograph or positive is produced, or any one of the original photographs orpositives when several are to be associated or combined, use is made of paper or the like fully saturation with wax, as distinguished from mere surfacing. or partial saturation with a wax or the like, prevents a temporary lookmated with wax may be burnished by fricedge or with a brush or soft pad; thus he ingup of fluid which takes place in partly saturated paper; such locking up of chemicals rendering satisfactory washing and workingdiflicult, and by the'admixture of chemicals, rendering certain toning operations impracticable. It is found that a desirable saturation is attained'by, immersing the material inthe melted wax until air bubbles cease to escape and squeezing orbrushing 0E all excess. After this and when cold the wax surface may be brush polished.
The surface of the paper or the like, sattion' against a smooth and hard surface or it may be polished by friction i realized the technical edect of a sheet or sla of wax,
mooth onone surface, held together by a mass of fiber, and such that warmth makesv it uniformly soft and double throughout its whole thicknesses Un the waxedgbase any suitable sensitive photographic preparation is spread; and especially suitable combination in this respect being thewaxed base coated with a gelatin emulsion containing pyroxylin such as -is fknown asfVogels emulsion, the? soor Lorinonnne r arm 'rnansrnn. rnocnss.
so -cem nt Patented June a, rare.
A licationmearee ber-iaia a. 1.
called Vogels composite or collodio-gelatin' I emulsion consisting essentially 'of gelatin emulsion and pyroxylin emulsion both dissolved in acetic acid. It may be characterized as a sensitive gelatin-pyroxylin emulsion in acetic acid. Such an emulsion flows on and adheres to the waxed base but other emulsons and sensitive preparations may involve the use of a medium or substratum on the waxed basis and underthe sensitive layer, in order to realize the essential condition of even flow and adhesion. A substratum suited for this purpose is the insensitive basis of the above nientioned Vogels emulsion (or gelatin and pyroxylin dissolved in acetic or other closely allied fatty.
acid alone --'or with alcohol) when laid or coated'uponthe waxed base forms a gen-' erally desirable substratum when the sensitive layer is a gelatin emulsion in water or in water with a modicum of alcohol. This substratum is also suitable when the sensitive layer is a collodion emulsion. A suitable'formula for a substratum mixture of the kind indicated above is the following:
When a thin substratum is required the i above may be diluted with once or twice its volume of glacial acetic acid, of alcohol, or
verywide variation is allowable. As alterof a mixture of acetic acid and alcohol, but,
natives the pyroxylin alone or the gelatin alone in acetic acid may be used, or these two i solutions may be used in succession. Acet c acid or acetlc acid in admixture with alcohol has the special double advantage of softening paraffin wax without dissolving any ap preciable proportion and without carrying the parafin wax into the substratum.
In Figure 1' of the drawlng appended hereto, A designates a base consisting ofpaper fully, saturated with wax, B a subthen g elatin-pyro'xy lin 'entiulsioninwhichv a picture is formed by exposure, development and fixation.
The sensitive layer may be ofany ordinary character and the photograph whether positive or negative or for transformatlon from oneto the other may be produced by camera exposure, printing out, 3 or development in any usual or known manner. Ordiwished toned or treatedto narily a gelatin-haloid emulsion forms a desirable sensitive layer, the image being when any desired tint or condition. y I f a 1 a An image having been 'formedorproduced on a basis'ofwaxedpaper orthelike as described above, the photographicfilm or surface is cementedortransferred to the permanent support by means of a suitable cement and more especially a resinous or resinoid or equivalent cement. A generally preferred mode of performingthis operationis to cover both the receiving surface and thephotographic film with a solution of india rubber inbenzol, and when the solvent has evaporated, the surfaces are pressed together; the rubber being. sufficiently adhesive. The transfer basis of Waxed paper a or the. likeis now peeled off, its SGPaI'EtIOII being aided, if necessary, by the application ration of the transfer basis, andsecondly by l of warmth or of a solvent which dissolves or softens the wax; benzol for example. Warmth or heat thus applied may funct1on doubly, first by facilitating the sepaso far softening the rubber or resinoid substance as to insure a fuller degree of ad-' hesion' than would otherwise be realized. When the transfer basis has beenremoved without heat, with heat, or by the aid of a solvent, heat may be applied tothe trans ferred film in order to further promote its adhesion. This application of heat may be made by using a gentle pressure with a Warmroller or a laundry iron, it 'beingexpedient to lnterpose a protective medium such as a paper with the double aim of protecting the transferred film and absorbing any trace of wax which may remain. a
The mode of effecting the transfermay be varied by only coating one surface with india rubber or resinoidsubstance, for ex ample the receiving surface preferably or alternatively the photographic film.
A hlghly lmportant function of the 'india rubber as a cementlng material in efiecting the transfer is its yielding quality or elasticity, whereby separation of a'flexible base and film is prevented; such separation being often due to the minute shift of the base and film in relation to each other in bending. The india rubber as usedin carryingout the present. invention may be replaced wholly or in part by other resinoid substances having the characteristic of .yieldingness andelasticity, as for example gutta percha, balata, gutta jettong, 'gutta grek, gutta horfoot, or gutta lumbut. Substances of the class known as rubber substitutes or artificial rubbers may be used provided that there is a suflicient degree of solubility.
Rubber or an equivalent as defined above may be used on one of the surfaces to be conjoined and a somewhat harder resinous or resinoid body on the other surface as for example dammar, or the like; these by the becoming united'and conjointly giving the desirable degree of yieldingness and of elasticity. 'Mixed rubber and dammar in benzol forms a convenient adhesive for transfer, the strengthbeing for example 2 grams of application of Warmth as already described well masticated rubber and 2 grains of dammar to a 30 cubic centimeterof benzol. If when dry this or other resinoid stratum is not sufliciently adhesive it may be softened on the surface by exposure to the fumes of benzol or like fluid. As an alternative the dammar or equivalent cement may be used alone as described. I
The transfer having beeneflected, as 211-,
ready described to the receiving surface;
e. 9., of wood, textile, enainel, celluloid, or paper; and if desirable over or upon: any existing sketch or design, another transfer may be superimposed, the outer surface of the first transfer having been treated or pre- 5 pared as described, in order that the second transfer may adhere. In a similar manner any required number of transfers may be superimposed.
As the transfer basis of waxed paper or I claim and desire to secure by Letters Pat exit is p .1. Process for transferring photographs which consists in completely saturating with Wax a sheet of paper so that it becomes wholly non-absorbent of aqueousfluids and repellent of aqueous emulsion, coating the paper with gelatin and pyroxylin dissolved in acetic acid, and over this coating with a sensitive stratum, forming a picture-by exposure, development and fixation, transferring the picture to an adhesive surface, and stripping off the wax saturated sheet.
2. Process for transferring photographs which consistsin completely saturating with, Waxa sheet of paper so that it becomes wholly non-absorbent of aqueous fluids and repellent of aqueous emulsion, coating the paper with gelatin. and pyroxylin dissolved tion, transferringthijpieture to'an adhesive surface, and stripping oi the wax saturated acetic acid and: -@5 @115 ren thi coating wlth a .sens itivfejjstratui'n, forming a picture by .exposure,fdefieiopment and fixa:
3. Photographic paper for printing and subsequent transfer consisting of a base of wax saturated paper carrying a substratumconsisting of gelatin and pyroxylin, and over this carrying a sensitive stratum.
paper consisting of a base of Wax saturated paper carrying a stratum consisting of coll odio-gelatin emulsion.
In testimony whereof I afix my signature in presence of two witnesses.
FRAN WILLIAM KEN-T,
ALBERT G. BARNES.
-= ,4: Photographio "printing and transfer I