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Publication numberUS1232174 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 3, 1917
Filing dateOct 7, 1915
Priority dateOct 7, 1915
Publication numberUS 1232174 A, US 1232174A, US-A-1232174, US1232174 A, US1232174A
InventorsEmile Bachelet
Original AssigneeEmile Bachelet
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electromagnetic engine.
US 1232174 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

E. BACHELET.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE.

APPLICATION FILED OCT. 7. 1915.

HTOZMES 4 SHEETS-SHEET l- Patented July 3, 1917.

E. BACHELET.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE.

APPLICATION FILED 0817.1915- 1,232, 1 '74. Patented July 3, 1917.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

Q U N y O l l to L0 g N i P w. WQQLMNMHN K E. BACHELET.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE.

APPLICATION FILED OCT. 7. 1915.

1,232, 174. Patented July 3, 1917.

4 SHEETS-SHEET 3- E. BACHELET.

ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINE.

APPLXCATION FILED OCT. 7. 1915.

Patented July 3, 1917.

4 SHEETSSHEET 4.

wif ncooco 4 2% w mum NW citizen of the United States, residing UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.

EMILE BACHELET, 0F MOUNT VERNON, NEW YORK. I I ELEGTROMAGl-NE'IIC ENGINE.

T all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, EMILE BACHELET, a

a Mount Vernon, in the county of Westchester and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Electromagnetic Engines; and I hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference belng had to the accompanying drawings, which form part of this specification.

This invention is a novel improvement n electro-magnetic engines of that type 1n which a solenoid and core are employed as the prime movers, and the primary object of the invention is to enable a greater percentage of power to be derived from an electric current of a given strength as compared with the present known forms of apparatus employing a solenoid and a core.

The essential characteristic feature of my invention is that both the core and the sole- 4 noid are movable simultaneously but in opposite directions; and while the core moves a certain distance relative to a fixed object it moves a greater distance relative to the solenoid whereby the electro-magnetic force or attraction can be converted into mechanical energy with efficiency and economy.

The movable core and the movable solenoid are mechanically connected in such manner that all the magnetic force impelling both the core and the solenoid is utilized to impart motion to the object to which the force is to be transmitted. If for example this object should be a rotary shaft then the core should be suitably connected to a crank on this shaft, and the solenoid should also be connected to another crank on this shaft, preferably disposed at an angle of 180 to the crank to which the core is connected, consequently when the solenoid is energized all the electric motive forces tending to move the core in one direc tion and also tending to move the solenoid in the opposite direction ar effectively utilized, and as both core and solenoid are connected with the object to be moved the entire electro-magnetic force developed between the core and the solenoid is utilized to impart motion to such object.

In the construction of an efficient engine it is important that suitable means be provided whereby the solenoid sections can be and out out behind the core, thereby produc- Speciflcation 01' Letters Patent. application filed October 7, 1915. Serial No. 54,583.

Patented July 3, 1917.

ing a traveling field or wave of magnetic flux moving through the solenoid from one end thereof to the other, thus producing a relative of the core from one end and return; and lmear movement of the solenoid to.

the other and return. The contacts may be operated to cause the core and solenoid to move at the desired speed, and the full beneficial effect of the electro-magnetic forces realized.

When the core and solenoid are connected to a rotary shaft to convert the linear movements of the core and-"solenoid into rotary motion of such shaft the contacts can be conveniently operated by such shaft. In some applications of the invention the contacts could be operated by hand, or by other means, so that the core and solenoid can be glven one or more reciprocations as desired.

en the invention is once understood its applicability to many various useful purposes will be readily appreciated by those familiar with the art, and I do not consider the invention in its broader aspect limited to any specific application thereof, but for convenience .in imparting a clear comprehension of the invention to others, I have illustrated the invention as embodied in an electro-magnetic engine, in which the oppositely movable core and solenoid impart rotary motion to the main shaft, and so much of the contacts. and electrical connections are illustrated as will enable others skilled in the art to utilize the invention, and I will explain the invention in detail as embodied in. such an engine and summarize in the claims the essential features and combinations of parts for which protection is desired.

In said drawings:

Figure 1 is a top plan view of a complete" engine constituting one embodiment of the invention.

Fig.2 is a side elevation of said engine. Fig. 3 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the core and solenoid.

Fig. 4 is a transverse section on line M, Fig. 3.

Fig. 5 is an end view of Fig. 2 looking toward the outer end of the solenoid. Fig. 6 is a diagrammatical side elevation of the commutator of the engine shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 7 is a sectional tor on line 77 Fig. 6.

Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic sectional view of view of the commutanoid and of the solenoid relatively to the core; and for this purpose the solenoid may be wound in sections, each section being a complete solenoid winding, and such sections so connected to one another and so placed (preferably regularly spaced apart,

and also preferably closely adjacent) along the solenoid that the traveling field may include several adjoining sections simultaneously energized in series.

The electric connections of the sections may be such that they can be controlled by the core in its movement along the solenoid, or by othersuitable means, in such a manner as will give a traveling (and preferably uninterrupted) field or wave of flux synchronizing with the speed of the core relatively I to the solenoid. This prevents the collapse of the field of flux. Only a small portion of such field is dropped at a time, and an equal portion is picked up in the direction of travel of the core, until the final section or sections of the solenoid are energized; when suitable means may be used to reverse the direction of such traveling field.

In the example shown in Fig. 1 the solenoid is shown as five times the length of the core. This solenoid is preferably electrically divided into a series of annular sections each of which may be independently energized by the electric current so that instead of the whole solenoid being simultaneously energized the sections thereof may be energized successively. In the example shown the solenoid is indicated as having sixty sections which are numbered from 1 to 60 inclusive, as indicated in Fig. 3; these sections may all be connected in series, but in practice only a suflicient number of these sections are simultaneously energized in series to create sufficient magnetic flux to cause the core and solenoid to move relatively. For example, as indicated in Fig. 3, twelve of the sections may be energized simultaneously, and then the section behind the core is cut out While another section in front thereof is energized, and so on until the magnetic flux or field has traveled through the entire length of the solenoid. Then the sections in rear of this core are successively energized and the sections in front thereof successively cut out until the shifting mag netic flux or energy hascaused the core to travel back through the solenoid. The object of such successive energizations of the solenoid sections is to cause the core .and solenoid to .progressively and simultaneously move, and reciprocate, in opposite directions.

The solenoid might be arranged to slide or move horizontally on rollers or sliding supports, or might be arranged to move vertically between suitable guides, or in other desired manner.

As shown the solenoid 1 is endwise movable and is preferably mounted upon suitable anti-friction supports. In the drawings the solenoid is conventionally shown as mounted upon wheels 1 attached to shafts 1 journaled in yokes or castings 2 fastened to the solenoid; said wheels running on rails 1 fixedly attached to the engine frame, the object being to have the solenoid movable lineally with the least possible friction. The yokes 2 may also be provided with guide wheels 1. engaging under guide bars 1 attached to standards 1 on the main frame; so that the solenoid is caused to move truly as it reciprocates.

Within this solenoid is arranged a movable core 2, which may be supported if desired upon an axially disposed shaft 2*, which may be slidably supported in bearings 2 and 2 on the main frame beyond the ends of the solenoid and beyond the range of movement thereof.

The core may be made of any suitable material and of any desired construction which will increase or enhance the magnetic pull or attraction between the core and solenoid when the proper sections of the solenoid are' energized.

The core shaft 2 may be connected at one end by a pitman 2 to a crank 3 on a shaft 3 journaled in suitable bearings 3 on the main frame; and shaft 3 is preferably also provided with two cranks 3 disposed at an angle of 180 to the crank 3, and cranks 3 are connected by pitmen 1 to rods 1 attached to bracket 1 on the yokes 2 attached to the solenoid as shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

It will be seen that with this construction the power derived from the opposite movements of the core and the solenoid is directly exerted through the pitmen upon the shaft. 3 to impart rotary motion thereto. The shaft 3 may be provided with a fly wheel 3 which will by momentum carry the cranks past the dead centers when the core and solenoid are at the ends of their respective strokes.

In the construction shown in Figs. 1 to 5 the energizing of the core sections may be accomplished by means of a rotary contact device indicated in Figs. 6 and 7. This commutator comprises two concentrically disposed semicircular insulated contact plates A and B which are fixedly attached in any suitable manner to, a support 6 preferably surrounding the shaft 3 adjacent one end thereof. To the opposite side of this support and diametrically opposed to the plates A, B are two similar insulated contact plates A, B'.- ,The plates A, A are respectively connected to one terminal of an electric generator or supply (not shown), and plates B, B are electrically connected to the other terminal of such generator or supply.

Upon the support 6 adjacent the plates A, B are arranged a series of insulated segments or contacts 6 corresponding in number to the sections in may be correspondingly numbered. And on the opposite side of the support adjacent the plates A, B is a similar series of segments or contacts 6". These contacts are respectively suitably electrically connected with the correspondingly numbered or arranged sections of the solenoid.

Upon the shaft 3 at the side of the disk 6 adjacent the segments A, B is mounted a frame 7, carrying a brush 7 adapted to contact With the plate A, and a brush 7 adapted to contact with plate B, said brushes being suitably insulated from each other. The brush 7 is electrically connected With another brush 7 mounted on the frame 7 and adapted to contact with the series of segments 6*. The. brush 7 is similarly electrically connected With another brush 7 on frame 7, which brush 7 is also adapted to contact With the segments 6. It Will be seen by reference to Fig. 6 that allcurrent entering brush 7 will pass to brush 7 to one of the segments 6 and thence to the related coil in the solenoid, and from said coil will pass through a number of sections in series in the solenoid back to the segment With which the brush 7 contacts, and from brush 7 Will pass to brush 7- to plate B, thus completing the electric circuit through a predetermined number of sections in the solenoid; and it Will be seen that as the brushholder 7 travels, certain of the sections of the solenoid Will be successively cut out of circuit, and others successively cut into circuit, during the movement of the brush holder past the series of segments 6*, thus creating a traveling wave of magnetic flux in the solenoid Which causes the core to travel lengthwise of the solenoid, and as the solenoid is movable, as above stated, it also travels oppositely to the core and preferably at the same speed as the core.

second brush holder frame 8 is mounted on the shaft 3 adjacent the support 6 but at the side thereof opposite the brush holder 7. This frame 8 carries a brush 8* engaging late A; a brush 8 engaging plate B; a rush 8 electrically connected With brush 8 and adapted to engage With the contact segments 6"; and a brush 8 electrically conthe solenoid, and Which B in the solenoid and the operation and close the circuit nected with brush 8" and also adapted to en- Wave of electro-magnetic energy or fiuX to traverse the solenoid in the reverse direction, or from right to left, during the time that the brushes on frame 7 are out of contact With the segments 6 and plates A and The parts are so arranged and connected, as will be readily understood by a skilled electrician, that the Wave of magnetic energy or flux is caused to travel alternately back and forth throughout the entire length of the solenoid, and thus reciprocatory movements Will be imparted to the core and to the solenoid in opposite directions, for and during each rotation of the shaft 3.

The series of contact segments 6*, 6", overlap at the ends of theseries as indicated in Fig. 6 sufiieiently to enable one set of brushes to take control of the electric circuits through the end sections of the solenoid before the other set of brushes passes out of operative relation therewith. Thus, for example, as the last section 60 of the solenoid is energized bythe closing of a circuit therethrough by brushes on frame 7; brushes on the frame 8 also close the circuit through the same section; and as the brushes on frame 7 pass out of contact With the segments 6 the brushes on frame 8 reverse the movement of the Wave of energy or fiux core and solenoid begin to move in'the reverse direction. As the brushes on frame 8 close the circuit through the last of the contact sections in series 6 the brushes on frame 7 come into through the same sections, and thereafter as the brushes on frame 8 pass out of operative position the brushes on frame 7 reverse the direction of the flux in the solenoid sections, and the direction of movement of the core and solenoid is again reversed. In this Way the field of electrical energy or flux is always maintained at its highest efiiciency, but at the end of each stroke of the core and solenoid the direction of travel of such Wave of flux through the solenoid is reversed; and consequently the movements of the core and solenoid are corresponding y reversed.

As above stated, the set of brushes on frame 7 may control the successive energization of the sections of the solenoid from left to right end thereof; and the brushes on frame 8 may control the energization of the sections of the solenoid successively from right to left; and at each end of the strokes of the solenoid and core one set of brushes to brush 8 toinsure the relative movement of the core and solenoid.

The frames 7 and 8 may be so made that the brushes 7 and 7*, (or 8, 8) may be adjusted nearer to or farther from each other and thus include a greater or less number of segments between them. For instance if brushes 7 and 7 were set 12 segments apart the current would pass through 12 sections of the solenoid in series, or with the brushes in position shown in Fig. 6 the current would pass from brush 7 to and through section 1 of the solenoid and then in a series through the sections of the solenoid from 1 up to 12 inclusive and pass from section 13 back to brush 7 This would energize a sufficient number of the solenoid sections 1n advance of the core 1- to start the latter toward the right and the solenoid toward the left; but as the frame 7 also starts to rotate it brings into circuit a section of the solenoid in advance of the core and cuts out a section of the solenoid behind it; and thus the magnetic flux is caused to travel, and the core is kept under greatest magnetic pull during its entire movement from the left to the right hand end of the solenoid; and as it reaches the right hand end of the solenoid the brushes on frame 8 come into play and reverse and change the energization of the solenoid sections, so that the magnetic flux begins to travel from the right to the left hand end -of the solenoid, and consequently the core begins to travel back from the right tothe left hand end of the solenoid.

By setting the brushes 7, 7 farther apart or nearer together the extent of magnetic flux in advance of the core can be increased or diminished, and the pull correspondingly increased or diminished; and if more power is desired from the engine when the core is moving to the right than when it is moving to the left, for example, the brushes 7 and 7 could be set farther apart than the brushes 8 8 so that upon the reverse movement of the core there would be less magnetic" flux or pull, and the current and power might be economized, or the speed of movement of the core and solenoid might be altered on alternate strokes.

In Fig. 8 I have shown another application of the invention in which the solenoid 18 is divided into 12 sections which are adapted to be energized in the manner above described by means of a contact device indicated at 18, provided with brushes carried on a frame 18 which can be shifted back and forth by hand if desired or other suitable means. This solenoid is movable upon a track 18 substantiall as in Fi 1.

The core 9 is shown as a out one-t ird the length of the solenoid .and the solenoid and core will be moved in opposite directions when the current is turned on as above described. In this instance the solenoid and core are operatively connected bymeans of two cables 9, 9 the cable 9 running over a pulley 9 fixedly mounted on the main frame at a point beside of and beyond the range of movement of the solenoid and being connected at its ends respectively to the core and to the solenoid; and thecable 9 running over a pulley 9' mounted on the main frame at the other end of and beyond the range of movement of the solenoid; so when the parts are energized the core and solenoid move in opposite directions and each helps to move the other mechanically, apart from the electrical or magnetic flux. The energy developed by this engine may be transmitted from either core or solenoid by I suitable connections to the object to be oper- If desired the contact device might be operated manually, or by independently controlled means; or by indirect means, so that the solenoid sections would be energized in such time and manner as would cause the desired speed or extent of operation of the engine. 1

The invention could be readily adapted for use as a motor for operating small machinery direct, and also be useful as a pump for pumping fluids, or for air compressors and for numerous practical purposes in the arts which it is unnecessary to refer to herein and which will be readily seen by electricians and mechanicians when the invention is understood by them.

The power of the engine could also obviously be increased. by increasing the number of solenoids and cores employed. Two or more solenoids or cores, or both, might be arrangedin tandem and respectively con nected so that their combined power would be utilized in operating the object to which the power is to be applied. A plurality of solenoids with their cores,

connected,

their combined power could be applied to the same object; but in all such cases the underlying feature of an oppositely moving core and I ployed, and broadly speaking such duplication of cores and solenoids are within the scope of the invention, as their arrangement broadly speaking would be a matter of mechanical and electrical design rather than of invention, as the principle of the invention being once understood its capability of embodiment in various mechanical forms will be obvious.

It will be observed that when the current is turned on and the solenoid is energized the core is impelled in one direction by the magnetic flux or force, and of course the force impelling the core in one direction reacts upon. the solenoid in the opposite direction, and the solenoid being movable also moves oppositely to the core and simultaneously therewith; and as both core and solenoid move it results that for a given length of stroke of the core (assuming that the core and solenoid move with equal speed) there would be a relative movement between the core and the solenoid equal in extent to twice the length of travel of the core.

With this invention, by having both the core and the solenoid moving oppositely the full magnetic flux or force is utilized upon the work, such magnetic flux traveling twice as fast as either the core or the solenoid, because both are moving in opposite directions, and therefore the full kinetic energy of both the core and the solenoid are utilized upon the object being operated upon; and without using any more current as much effective magnetic energy is developed from a given current as would be developed by such current to move such core through a fixed solenoid.

Of course the amount of power developed in my engine depends upon the strength of the electrical current employed; the size and number of windings of the solenoid sections; the size and make of the" core, and the length of relative linear movements of the core and the solenoid. By properly calculating these factors an engine of any desired power can be built, as will be readily understood. The possibilities of useful applications of the invention in the art are many, as will be readily understood by an electrical engineer, and I do not consider the invention in its broadest aspect restricted to the herein described particular embodiment thereo What I claim is:, 1. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a solenoid and a core adapted to move simulmight be arranged side by side and adjacent solenoidssolenoid would be em-' taneously in opposite directions when energized, and means for roducing a progressive field of magnetic ux through the solenoid.

2. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a reciprocatory solenoid, a reciprocatory core within and moving oppositely to the solenoid, and connections between the core and the solenoid whereby they assist each other.

3. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a reciprocatory solenoid, a reci rocatory core Within and moving opposite y to the solenoid, mechanical. connections between the core and the solenoid whereby the assist each other, and means for roducing a progressive field of magnetic ux through the solenoid.

4. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a solenoid and a core adapted to move simultaneously in opposite directions when energized, and means for producing a limited field of magnetic flux in the solenoid, and means for causing such field to travel lengthwise of the solenoid.

5. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a reciprocatory solenoid, a reciprocatory core within and movable oppositely to the solenoid, connections between the core and the solenoid whereby they cooperate; means for producing a limited field of magnetic flux in the solenoid and means for causin such field to trave alternately back and forth lengthwise of the solenoid.

6. In an electro-magnetic engine the combination of a longitudinally movable solenoid comprising a series of adjacent sections arranged side by side lengthwise of the solenoid, and a core within the solenoid movable longitudinally thereof and oppositely thereto; of means for successively energizing series of said sections adjacent the core to create a traveling magnetic'field and impel the core and solenoid to move, and means for causing such field to reverse.

7. In an electro-magnetic engine the combination of a longitudinally movable solenoid comprising a series of sections arranged side by side lengthwise of the solenoid, and a core within the solenoid movable longi tudinally thereof and oppositely thereto; means for energizing a number of said coils in series adjacent the core to impel the core to move, means for successively energizing the sections longitudinally of the solenoid thereby creating a traveling magnetic field or flux, and means for causing such magnetic field to shift longitudinally back and forth lengthwise of the solenoid whereby the core and solenoid are caused to reciprocate in opposite directions.

8. An electro-magnetic engine comprising a solenoid and a core adapted to move simultaneously in opposite directions when energized, and means for producing a progressive wave of ma%1et1c flux through the solenoid; with an o ject to be moved and mechanical connections between said object and the core and the solenoid, substantially as described.

9; An electro-magnetic engine comprising a reciprocatory solenoid, a. reciprocatory core withinv and moving oppositely to the solenoid, and mechanical connections between the core and the solenoid whereby the assist each other; with an object to be move mechanical connections between said object and the core and the solenoid, a contact device and electrical connections for producing a progressive magnetic flux through the solethe solenoi and means for causing such magnetic flux to travel back and forth lengthwise of the solenoid; with an ob ect to bemoved and mechanical connections be tween said object and the core and the solenoid, substantially as described.

11. In an electro-magnetic engine the combination of a longitudinally movable solenoid comprising a series of sections arranged side by 'side'lengthwise of thesolenoid, and

a core within the solenoid movable longitudinally thereof and oppositely thereto; an object tobe moved and mechanical connections between said object and the core and the solenoid; with means for energizing a number of said sections in series adjacent the core to impel the core for successively energizin the sections longitudinally of the solenoi thereby creating a traveling magnetic field, and means for causing such magnetic field to shift longiback and forth lengthwise of the the core and solenoid are caused to reciprocate in opposite directions.

12. In combination with a solenoid composed ofa series of sections; of a contact device comprising a double series of segments, each series having the segments therein respectively electrically connected with the to move; means related sections of the solenoid, brushes adjacenteach series adapted to engage the segments, and means for producing relatlve movement between the brushes and the series of segments whereby the two series are engaged in alternation, and the solenoidsections are energized, substantially as and for the purpose described.

a movable solenoid and an op- 13. In combination composed of a series of sections,

. tively positely comprising two series of segments re'speo tively electrically connected with the related sections of the solenoid, a frame adjacent such series of segments, brushes on said frame adapted to engage the adjacent series of segments, and means for producing a relative rotary movement between the frame and the segments, whereby the two series of segments are engaged in alternation and the solenoid sections may be properly energized successively, substantially as described.

14. In combination a movable solenoid, an oppositely movable core, said solenoid being composed of a series of sections; of a contact device comprising a double ments the segments in each series respectively electrically connected with the related segments of the solenoid, a'frame adjacent each series 'of segments, brushes on said frame adapted to engage the adjacent segments, and means for producing relative rotary movement segments whereby the series of segbetween the brushes and the two series of segmentsare engaged in alternation and the solenoid sections may be energized successively, substantially as described.

15. In combination with a solenoid composed of a series of sections; of a contact device comprising a doubleseries of segments respectively electrically connected with the related sections of the solenoid, a frame adjacent each series of contact segments, brushes on said frame adapted to engage the adjacent segments, and means for producing relative rotary movement between the frames and brushes and the series of contacts whereby the solenoid sections may be energized'successively, the said series of segments overlapping at their ends so that the brushes on one 'frame take control of the solenoid before the brushes on the other frame release control thereof.

16. In combination a movable solenoid, an oppositely movable core, said solenoid being composed of a series of sections; of a contact device comprising a double series of segments the segments in each series respec electrically connected with the related segments of thesolenoid, a frame adjacent each series of segments, brushes on said frame adapted to engage the adjacent segments, and means for producing rela-. tive rotary movement between the brushes and the segments whereby the solenoid and sections may be energized successively, the series of segments overlapping at their ends so that the brushes on one frame take control of the solenoid before the brushes on the other frame release control thereof.

17. The combination of a longitudinally movable solenoid comprising a series of secthereto, a rotatable shaft tween said shaft and said core and solenoid respectively whereby the shaft is rotated; of a contact device comprising a double series of segments respectively electrically connected with the related sections of the solenoid, a frame adjacent each series of contact segments, brushes on said frames adapted to engage the adjacent segments, and means for producing relative rotary movement between the brushes and the segments whereby the two series of segments are engaged in alternation and the solenoid sections may be energized successively, substantially as described.

18. An electromagnetic engine comprising a solenoid and a core adapted to move simultaneously in opposite directions when energized, and means 19. An electric-magnetic engine comprisa ing a solenoid and a core adapted to move simultaneously in opposite directions when energized and develop mechanical energy, means for utilizing the mechanical energy thus developed, and means for electrically energizing the solenoid in sections.

In testimony that I clalm the foregoing as my own, I aflix my signature in presence of two witnesses.

EMILE BACHELET.

Witnesses:

ARTHUR E. DOWELL, W. WALLACE NAUN, Jr.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2734139 *Apr 27, 1951Feb 7, 1956 murphy
US3541362 *Feb 19, 1969Nov 17, 1970Pouit RobertElectromagnetic generators
US7207299Sep 14, 2004Apr 24, 2007Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7255070May 18, 2006Aug 14, 2007Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7383796May 18, 2006Jun 10, 2008Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7469664Jun 25, 2004Dec 30, 2008Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc.Internal combustion engine
US7728446Jun 25, 2004Jun 1, 2010Advanced Propulsion Technologies, Inc.Ring generator
Classifications
U.S. Classification310/23, 310/35
Cooperative ClassificationH02K7/065