US 1239762 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. H. BENNERS. umm ns Pnonucm nvm@ BLOCKS.
PPPLICAUUN FILED IAN-3l. 19N.
Patented hept. 11, 1917,
1,239,762 l 2 suemsr'snier x.
E) woon/toa Eday/:Ln H Benner.;
E. H. BENNERS.
METHUD 0F PRODUCING PAVING BLOCKS.
nPPLicATloN FILED Mmm. :aim
1,239,762. Patentedsepml, 191?.
EDWm' H. 'BENNERS, OF ELIZABETH, NEW JESEY.
liLlETHOD OF PRODUCING PAVING-BLOCKS.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Sept. 11, `191 7.
Application tiled January 31, 1914. Serial No. 815,607.
i To all whom it may concern.' i
Be it known that I, EDWIN H. BENNERS, a citizen ofqthe United States, residing at Elizabeth, county of Union, and State of New Jersey, have invented a certain new and useful Method of Producing Paving- Blocks, of which the following is a specifi cation. l
This invention is a process of producing paving blocks, an essential feature of which block is a body portion comiposed of a molded concrete mass, the latter being bound at the wearing surface of the block with a. metallic reinforcement..
In my present invention the body of the block is composed of concrete, usually cement, sand and a minera aggregate of one kinf or another, the same being molded to the desired form and size, whereby the sand undv cement in a semi-liquid condition serves as a grout in binding the mineral aggregate into a solid, compact and homogeneous mass. The concrete mixture constitutes practically an artificial stone wherein the steel reinforcement is so embedded and combined as to become an inseparable and in divisible part of the paving block structure.
Such artificial stone or concrete mixture resists the elects of surface traiiic to as good, or even better advantage, than an asphaltic block, the steel reinforcement being of such va form and so positioned as to produce a surface of such nature that the concrete resists the tendency under street traiiic to chip out of the block.
A distinctly novel feature of the invention resides in the molding ot' the block in a manner to secure an accumulation of the coarse mineral aggregates :it the wearing surface of the block. Thisis obtained by molding the -block face downward. for which purpose thel steel reinforcing hand is deposited upon the bottom part of the ol lapsible `steel or other mold, after which the concrete mixture, previously prepared so that the cement and sand is relatively thin or of creamy consistency to serve as a grout, is poured into the mold, whereupon the coarse and heavy pieces of the mineral aggregate settle by gravity tothe botton part Loi the mold, `and thus the grout of unent and sand is free to flow into the inter-smoes between the `mineral aggregate for the pur pose of obtaining a bond which not only unites the concrete mass into a homogeneous body but operates as a binder between the sur a'ce steel reinforcement and lthe concrete. As a result, the block, when removed from the mold and turned up to assume a normal position, is characterized by a solid surface con'xposcd of the steel band and an accumulation of the coarse large pieces of stone all bound up into a solid whole, the mineral aggregate being thus disposed at or in the surface of the block where its wear resisting qualities are most desired and are made-most available.
In the drawings,
Figure 1 is a plan view of a reinforced concrete paving block embodying this invention.
Fig. 2 is a vertical cross section on the line`2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a view in end elevation of the paving block looking toward the left of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4f is a vertical section illustrating the method of molding the paving block face down or in an inverted position.
Figs. 5 and 6 are detail views in cross section. through different forms of the steel A reinforcement.
Fig. 7 yis a plan view oi a portion of a roadway paved with concrete blocks in accordance with this invention.
Fig. 8 is a cross section through the roadway paved with reinforced concrete blocks of this invention.
`Fig. 9 ,is a plan View of a portion of a roadway and a street car track paved with reinforced concrete blocks of this invention.
The reinforcml concrete block of my invention is illustrated more particularly in Figs. 1, 2 and of the drawings. The body A of the block consists olf a homogeneous mass of concrete, and this block is provided with a metal :,i-.ini'orcenient li in the form ofa hand which constitutes a part of the wearing surface of the block. The concrete body izcomposed of Portland cement 1 part", Saud 2 parts, and a suitable mineral aggre gate Il parts, although the particular ingredients and the proportions may he modified or varied as found necessary or desirable.
The mineral aggregate may be trap rock, gravel or slag, but, obviously, the particular aggregate employed will depend somewhat upon conditions.
Thereinforcement B is ai skeleton frame, preferably composed of steel and havingr the form shown more particularly in Figs. l, 2, 3,' 5 and 6. The steel reinforcement is substantially rectangular in shape consisting of side bars b, an end bar bVand a divided bar c. The end portions of the metal band are extended inwardly thereof so as to produce a long member d and a short member il. The long member ci' ex tends for practically the length of the reinforcin band, and is `positioned substantially centrally thereof, whereas the short member rl extends into the material of the concrete body for :a suitable distance parallel 'to the` long memher d, it boing preferred to give fan. abrupt. bend d to the free end of the short member in order that the same may have' a' iirm anchorage in the concrete material. The divided end c of the metal reinforcement provides for the necessary expansion and contraction of the metal so as to make it responsive to changes in the temperature or weather conditions, Whereas the arrangement of the `members rl d within the block divides the surface of the hlockso as to interrupt the continuity of the concrete surface and .produce relatively thin lengths or strips of metal in-alternate relation to the sections of concrete.
The 'metal band embraces the marginal portions of the block so -as to confine the concrete material at the Wearing surface of said block, andl said metal hand is practically "embedded in 'the concrete material of the block, and, furthermore, it is positioned at the Wearing surface thereof so that the Wearing surface is composed in part of concrete motorini Aand of steel. y
` Myinvention is characterized by a novel mode of moldingr the concrete block so as to secure an accumulation of the rough mineral aggregate at the surface of the block where vit is mos-t desired or required; said method of molding being illustrated in Fig4 4. According to this invention the block is molded in an inverted position and in molds of suitable constructiom'it being preferred to deposit the materials in collapsible steel molds represented diagrammatically at C in Fig.V 4:. The metal band B is deposited Within the mold so as to rest upon thc bottom thereof, and thereafter the plastic concrete material is,poured into the mold. The concrete mal terial is4 prepared by mixing together the ingredients heretofore specified, a proper quantity of water heilig added to produce a groot of the sandand cement, the trout `being of a semi-liquid oricreamy consistency;
m met, i ,vini
Now when the concrete material is intro duced into the mold and in contct E'with the the groot of sahd and cement acting as e bond in order tobirid themineral aggregate `and the metal reinforcement into a homogeneo'us mass, thereby securin a permanent union between themetal an' the concrete materials. The concrete mixture is-allowed to rest for a proper length of time in order that the mixture may become sufficiently' dry and secure the union of the several ingre diente, after which the block is removed from the mold and set aside for sp1-oper len th of time so as to searpn it.` c,
Igty is preferred to construct the metal reinforcement substantially as shown in Figs. 5 and 6 in order that said reinforcement may be anchored firmly in the concrtemeterlal within which the reinforcement is partially embedded. As shown in Fig. 5, each part of the metal strip or bend maybe provided with inwardly extending ribs or fianges having the form shown egt e or c', but, again, the metaln band may be provided at its lower edge with an inwardly extendsY ing hoop-shaped lip, indicated at e in Fi 6. It is ap arent that the inwardly extendin lip of t e band of whatever form shown wi 1 become embedded in the concrete material so as to form a firm anchorage of the reinforcement to the block.
It may be, and preferably is desirable to water-proof the blocks, and the invention makes provision for securing this condition. After the blocks are thoroughly dried or seasoned, they are made Water-proof by the addition of an oleaginous substance thereto, which substance can be in the form of a hot wax solution. The seasoned blocks ere immersed in this wax `solution for a'suitable length of time, and owing to the more or loss porous nature of the concrete mixture, the Water repellant'V agent is absorbed into the concrete mateIia-l so that the surface of the block is saturated for l suitable depth with said moisture repellent agent. ()bviously, tbelolock may be treated with the moisture rcpollant agent on the wearing sur face only thereof, but it. is apparent, 'furtliermore, that this agent mayV be applied to ythe sides, ends and bottoni surface of the' molded block. l
In Figs. 7 and 8 of the drawings there is shown a roadway paved with the reinforced concrete blocks of this invention, from which it appears that the blocks are laid in end to end relation and in rows, the-:blocks extending'I in the direction of their length across the roadway; Of course, the blocks should be laid as closely as possible, the expansion :uid contraction of said blocks due to temperature changes beingr taken up by an asphaltic cement filler E. This filler is about an inch in width alongV each eurbing? and it performs three several purposes; first', it serves a waterproof joint between the paving blocks and the curbinw, for the purpose of precluding;l water from llowing through the sand base upon which the blocks a re laid second, it takes up unevenness in the ends of the rows ot blocks, due to various causes, and, third, it constitutes an expansion joint so as to provide a means Jfor getting at any single row of blocks for the purpose of removing the saine without breaking any of the blocks7 it being possible to always replace the blocks exactly as originally laid. It is apparent that the cement liller ean easily be removed with an ordinary pick,
and, further, that any block can be separated from the joining ones by the oi'ieration ot a piek.
The rows of blocks are positioned on a leveled or rolled sand base l the latter being imposed upon a foundation G o con crete. lVhen the blocks are laid.y an opening of about oneouarter of an incl should be left between the rows, and subsequent to the laying of the blocks sand is swept over the surface ot' the pavement. The loose sand ills the spaces between the ron's of blocks and the crevices between the blocks in the rows, after which a liquid grouting of cement is flooded over the surface of the pavement so that the ,groot will run down through the sand filler, thus pron ducing a concrete filling between the blocks and forming practically a monolithic pareV ment.
At street crossings and at one or more points in a city block the pavement should he laid by installing an inch plank between the rows of blocks, and after the pavement is laid the plank is removed, this space and the curb joints are filled with asphaltio cement to serve as longitudinal expansion joints. By havingr an expansion jointA on all four Sides at street crossings il is possible to remove the joint when it is desired to obtain access to sewer and underground structures at the street crossing, experience having shown that it is necessary to make repairs and alterations at such crossings more frequently than at other places.
A pavement laid in accordance with this` invention is characlerizcd b v u'cll-drtincd linesy of clcanlifl nl :ill four sides ol' every block, tlnrclu' making' it possible to remove an)Y liroltcu or defective liloclts or to open up an)r particular spot in the surface with little labor and 'no destruction olt lnalcrial` and. also, to replace lhc stri-et surfaces. so that thev replaced surface will he honiogcncn ons with itsl surrouiulingrs` and identical with it in surface and wearing 'pialities.
This is not the case with sheet. asphalt, Belgian block, or any other road sui-fari with which l am familiar, except a pavo nient made of asphalt block having steel rointorcing` as in my prior patent.
ln Fig. il ot the drawings there is shown a roadway wherein the tracks of a tramway are laid `with my reinforced concrete bloc 's The space between the curl/)ing H and the rails ll' of the tramway is filled with the blocks laid in end to end order and in rows, and these blocks also lill the spaces between the train ails ll and the slot rails H2 of the underground railway. In thus' installing the paving blocks between the rails and the curhiincr it is recommended that the asphalt filler be used in place of sand, for the reason that the expansion and contraction of tho blocks and their metal reinforce is comparatively small owing to short lengths of steel. The employment of the asphalt filler not only compensates for all expansion and Contraction, lout will act to deaden the sound and relieve any tendency lo pinch the slot.y 1i. r. exert undue pressure thereon. in addition to which advantage it is apparent that anybloek or row ol' blocks between the rails can be removed and relaid within a very short time and at minimum cost for labor and material.
lVhile l have particularly shown and described the blocks as adapted for paving purposes, it will be understood that the reinforced concrete block of my invention may, also, be used for various other purposes, ,auch as lining for reservoirsq underground consti-tation. footings for foundation v r concrete tanks, etc. The \\'atcrproo ed blocks for reinforced monolithic construction in units to lit unusual 'shapes tillen long-telt want in the engineering and irnlustrial arts. Y
Haring' thus fully described the invention. what l claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. The method ot' producing a reinforced concreteparing block which consists` in positioning al metal band upon the bottom portion ot a mold, depositing a concrete mixture including a mine al aggregate and a grout within the mold -and into contact with said metal band, whereby the mineral aggregate will stratit'y at the surface of the liloclt and adjacent the inet-al band. and uniting the concrete and the metal band into a homogeneous mass bythe bonding action ot' the gfrout enteringr into the concrete niix ture. Y
L. The proress of producingr a reinforced concrete paringlilorlt which consists in poing' a mineral aggregate and a seuil-liquid atout ot sand and cement, deijmsilnig said (-ormmc mixture Within the nwd und im Contact with the metal bnmh nlnwng thu miner-dl aggregato to nucunmute by grmity thm-enf mtu :t @trata m' .buyer at the buh imm 3f the mold and next tu the; metal eaaza; und binding ab@ whule mm :l huumgcm l muss by he action of the` mfznviflif-gm gewin