|Publication number||US1252254 A|
|Publication date||Jan 1, 1918|
|Publication number||US 1252254 A, US 1252254A, US-A-1252254, US1252254 A, US1252254A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (30), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. 0. FISHER. METHOD or AND APPARATUS FOR INJECUNG rusumo comaus'non CHAMBERS.
KAPPLICATIOR mm mum. I'JII.
, Patented Jan. .1, 1918.
LfOJFISHER. METHUD OF AND APPARATUS FOR INJECTINGFUEL INTO COMBUSTION CHAMBERS.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 10; 1B1?- 1,252,25i; Patented Jan. 1,191b.
- 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 m Joscph ()Fishez; 4
i 1 u Pam,
IIIHOD or AND urana'rus ms fiwnc'rma rum mm comnUs'rIon-onhimnns.
josmrn o. rrsrma, or in 11 m sums uavY.
To all ioholm it may concern: 7
Be it known that I, JOSEPH FISHER, a
I lieutenant-commander int-he United States fore 1 forming a part of fied form of the invention;
Navy, and a citizen of the United'States, residing at Washington, inithe District of Columbia, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of and hpparatus for Injecting Fuel into Combustion- Chambers; and I do hereby declare the foli lowing to be a full, clear, and exact descriptionlof-the invention, such as'will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
This inventionrelates to a method of and an apparatus for injecting fuel into internal combustion engines, and has for its object to improve the methods and'means' heretoroposed. Y VVlth this and other objects in view the in ventio'n consists in the novel steps and combinations of steps constituting the method and in the novel parts and combinations of parts constituting the apparatus, all as will be more fully hereinafter disclosed and'particularly pointed out in'the claims.
' Referring to theaccompanyin drawings, this speci cation, in which like numerals designate like parts in all the views Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional View 'A speclfioatloh ot'Lettera Iii-tent. Patented J an; 1 1918." Application and Jul 10,1917. 's rm ms. 17am.
cylinder 8, 4 a port leading ism said e '1.
inder, 5' 'a lug carrying the port 4, 6a circularcham er carried by the plug 5, and 7' a plurality of inclined ports or passa entering said chamber as shown. he plu 5 fits the cylinder "8, and is screw thrcade into the injector nozzle or body 1 0"as at 9. Said nozzle 10 is provided with the inlet pass'agell lead-in" intothe annular chamber 12 with which the passages 7 also communicate, as shown.-
Said nozzle 10 is hollow or bored out, as.-
illustrated, to accommodate the sleeve 13,
,and inside said sleeve is located the hollow t e chamber-6, and also provided with-the e'r 16 preferably located at the upper shapled portion 21 fitting the lower portion I also carried by said plug/and tan entia'ly annular groove 22. .The said plug 5 is bored out as shown to form said chamber'fi, and inpthe upper portion of the hollow or enlarged chamber thus roduced is fitted the sleeve 23.- Th'e'said va ve member 20 fits the of nIinj ector-made in accordance with this invention;
Fi I2 is a diagrammatic view of a modi- Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail sectional view of the lower portion of the injector, taken on the line 33 of Fig. 6; 1
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on the line 44 of Fig. 3 looking-in the direction of the arrows; 1
Fig; 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 55 of Fig. 3 looking in'the-fdirection of the arrows' Fi 6 is a view similartoiFig. 5 taken on the hue 6-6 of Fig. 3 looking in the direc? .tion of the arrows; J
.Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view of a (Siren-- ilating system that may be employedin this invention; :1.
Fig. -8 is a sectional view of a', somewhat modified form of injecting nozzle; and
' 9 "is a'diagrammatlc view oi annodiof circulating system capable of employing the-hozz e shown in Fig. 8 y1 indicates any suitable engine, 2 a water interior bore of the said sleeve 23 as shown, and the sand annular groove 22', carried by the valve plug 20, thus forms an annular chamber or passage as illustrated. The said valve plug 201s further provided with the inclined or spirally arranged pass'ages'25which communicate with, said annular' groove 22- atone 'endj,'and' at them 7 other end communicate witha similarannu lar groove. 26 wh1ch" also forms an annular chamberwith the interior of :said sleeve 23 'or with the interior of the hollow plug 14 vided with a plurality of radially disposedports 28 which communicate with the above mentioned annular chamber 16, and each of said spirally arranged passages 25 also com- -municates".with one of said ports 28 when the valve plug QO isi'n a certain position, as
will appear more fully below,
. Said valve p1ugiscapable of a longitudi 'nal -movement withjfrespect to the hollow plug or bushing M; and .said bushing is rovided with a suitable stulfing box 30 as i Ins-- L I trated. The lon gitudinal motion is impart-. acket thawing-'3 the mtcrlor of an engine *acco'rdin to the position in which sa1d valve plug fin s itself; The said sleeve 23 is proedto said valveplug .by'means ofan e 5.
illustrated in Fig. 1, the extension 31 and ing said extension 31. Said cup or housing extension may pass.
that as the link or other means 36 reciprotension 31 ,which passes through thestufling box 30 and is provided with a collar or other means 32 against which takes the end 33 of a lever 3x1 pivoted as at 35 and joined as by a means 36 to a moving part of the engine not shown.
.As the link "or means 36is moved downwardly or. in the direction of the arrow valve plug 20 will be moved upwardly as seen in saidfigure, and thuscbnipress the spring 37 carried in the housing or cup 38 resting onthe adjustable nuts surround- 38 conveniently reciprocates in the framework 40 and the upper portion of the-spring conveniently rests-against the cover member 41- 'through which the upper end 12 of said It is thus evident cates the valve plug. 20 will be moved upwardly againstthe compression of the spring 37 and the said spring will return said valve plug to its closed position, so that the said plug will reciprocate the moving part of the engine actuating the link 36. p
The plug 20 is shown in its lowest position in Fig. 1 wherein; it closes the port 1, and it is shown in its raised or open position in Fig. 3. Then the plug is in its closed position, as illustrated, the fluid is forced along the passage 11, it will enter theannular chamber 12, the tangential passages I, the chamber 6, and the port 4 being closed it will next enter the groove 22, the spirally arranged passages 25, the groove 26, the ports 28, the annular chamber 16, and the exit passage 15, all as will be clear from the drawings. On the other hand, when .the valve plug 20 is inits raised position as shown in Fig. 3, the port will be open and fluid entering the tangentially arranged pas 15, all as Wlll appear more fully fluid shpply or inlet' ipe joined to the nozzle member 10,. as ilustrated, and which communicates with the inlet passage 11 as shown. 51 represents an exit pipe also jpined to "said nozzle- 10 and communicating with the exit passage '15 as V showms Joined to the exit pipe 51, is a return pipe 52 provided with an. adjustable valve '53 of any suitable construction: 51
represents any suitable circulating pump to H1 synchronism with speed of the fuel 25 nor to pass vout through the v V fine state ofsu'bdivisiim is joined the inlet pipe 50. Located in the whichileads the return-pipe 52, and to which inlet pipe 50 is any suitable heating coil 55..
'56 represents a connection with the pipe 52,
57 an adjustable valve, 58 a connection between said valve 57 and a .feed pump 59, and 60 a connection betweensaid pump 59 and a fuel supply 61.
The operation .of the invention, so far tllisclosed, may be briefly summarized as folows: a
The circulating pump 54. being in operation, fuel such as oil, gas, or other fluids will be circulated through the heating coil 55, the inlet pipe the inlet passage 11, the annular chamber 12, tangential passages 7, the chamber 6, and said valve 20 being closed, said fuel will pass from said chamber 6 into the groove 22, the passages '25, into the groove 26, through the ports 28, through the annular chamber 16, through the exit passage 15, the exit or return pipes 51 and52and back to the pump. The passages 7 being tangentially arranged with respect-to the chamber 6,. as clearly shown in Fig. 6, the said fuel will be givena rotary motion in said chamber 6, the velocity of which will depend hpon the] diflterence in pressure of the fluid in the chambers 12 and 6, and upon thearea of the said passages 7.
-Thatis to say, if the passages 7 are made much smaller in cross sectional area than are the exit passages from the chamber 6 or the inlet passages to the chamber 12, then the s will be greatly increased, and therefore, the velocity of said fuel in the chamber 6 will also .be greatly increased. So long as thefuel thus circulate in a closed system, such as isillustrated in Fig. 7, the valve 57 will remain closed and the said pump 59 will not bev called upon to supply any additional fuel to the system. On the other hand, Whenthe valve 20 is raised, in
the manner above disclosed, and the exit passage 15 is cut ofif, the fuel will pass down I through the port 1 into the space 3 of the engine cylinder ,8 and this passage of the fuel into said cylinder will occur even though the said space 3 may be filled full of gas under considerable pressure from the engine piston not shown. In other 'words,
as is vwell known, prior to my invention, it has been proposed to forcibly inject fuel from a state of rest into an engine cylinder 1 filled with gas under pressure, but it has been invariably found that assoon as a valve such as 20 liftslinsuch cases, the first P01? tions of the fuel which pass said valve and enter the port 4 must of necessity have a very small velocity, and. therefore their speed is not sufiicient to cause the individual particles of the fluid to break up into a very in portions of this said fuel, however, at-
tain higher and higher velocities so that the .Other or follow last portions of the charge may mix fairly well with thegases under pressure ,in the space 3. But, on the other hflnd, tll6 fact] remains that in said prior' devices .ithas not been heretofore possible. to impart. a sufiicient vehowever, the particles offuel at all times may have aivery high velocity, and there fore, as soon as the valve 20, lifts, the initial as well as theoncoming particles enter the space 3 filled-withlgasunder pressure at a I very highvelocity, they. are each-and all posses'sedof'a great dealbf-momentum, and
- consequently, they suffer avery fine subdivision, and therefore, they mix thoroughlywith said compressed ."gas throughout the ,period of-injection. 2t It results from this that the subdivision and themixing of 'a char of fuel injected into a combustion chain r according .to' 'myprocess is much more perfect andthe explosion and combustion ismu'ch'more rapid 80 and perfect than it is" possible to attain under the old system,
Further, by suitably adjusting the valve- 53 and'the static or dead pressure 'in-pipe 50, the stat-icor dead pressure in the pipe" 51, 8.5 and in the chamber 6 may be made tohave an value desired, While by providing a su table s eed for the pump 54, the velocity of the fue in said: chamber may also be made to have any value desired." In other words-,1 40- by employing-the closed system, above illustrated, fuel in the chamber 6 may not. onlygiven avery high velocity, but it may? also, at the same time, be maintained insaid chamber at a pressure. higher than the pressure in the space 3.- It results from-this that. I am enabled tosuccessfully .use fuels of'a higher viscosity-than. heretofore, to attain a etter mixing effect in the space -3 of the 1 cylinder, and .to prevent the compressed gases in the space 3 from entering the pipes 50 and 51, a combined result nothere-.
' tofore possible, so far as I am aware.
As the fuel is injected into the cylinder 8, the pressure inthe pipe 521s reduced,and the valve 57 having been set at the proper point will lift, whereupon the pump 59 automatically supplies a suflicient amount of fuel to replace the fuel-lost from the closed system, and maintains the ressure that has 60 been previously fixed in t e pipe 52 by the ad'ustment-of the valve 57. n addition to theabove, bypassing the fuel through the heating coil- 55, before it reaches the chamber 6, I am enabled to im-' at part any desired temperature to said ,fueb
before igniting it in 'tliecylinder. By thus preheatin the fuel be'foreit is injected into the cylin er, ignition isrendered moree'asy',
and certain an'd the smoothoperation of the engine is insured.
In the form of the inventionshownun.
Figs. 8 and 9, instead-of providing-for a a plug 62' to the annularchamber 63 whence it passes out through the exit 64 if the. valve fifi be'closed, or it passes down through .the
ort4 if said valve 65 is open. .In this case it will be seen that a continuous motion is also imparted to the fuel by means of the -rotary motion of the fuel before it reaches the port 4, the fuel is merely forced through the inlet60,' and passages 61 of the valve pump 54 through the ipes 50 and. .52. 66 represents a fuel supp y and'the valve 65 may .be operated by. any suitable means not shown. t a a I In the still further modified invention shown in Fi combustion flask such r example as a tur bine chamber, 71, 72 and 73 injectors' of the types above disclosed each associated with c osed circuits not illustrated, but each capa-' ,ble of delivering a fluid to its corresponding injector,landvthere imparting to said fluid a predetermined continuous velocity. For example, injector 71 may deliver a hydrocarbon oil, injector 72may deliver air, o'r'oxy-c' i gen," and injector- 73 may-deliver Water, their location being so arranged thatan intimate mixture of the sprays from injectors 71 and- 72 takes place-forv combustion or explosion,
and the .spray from injector 73 be ng arformof; the 2 70 represents a ranged to cool or be heated from the prod; I i
" ucts of combustion.- 'The final gaseous mixture escapes through the directing nozzle. 7 5 against t efbuckets 7 6. of a turbine wheel.
In all the forms of the invention it will be seenthat I have provided .a method of and app ratus for injecting fuel, whether-liquid orgaseous or a mixture'ofithe two, or amixture' of one or, both with finely divided solids, into an engine cylinder or combustion chamber. That in each form I impart to said fuel'a continuous motion, by virtue of which the fuel is injected into and mixed with the contents'of the-combustion chem her. By this mode ofprocedure it will be the last portions of each charge, a result not .heretofore'attained, in so far as Ia'm aware.
clear that I am enabled to cause the very first or initial portions of the: fuel entering Further, it will befobserved that I am one abled to ,regulate the constant continuous .or static 'ressure existing in theclosed ci'rcuits so t at said compressed gases in said combustion chamber do-not leakput into the fuel circuit;
It will alsobeobservedl'thatll era was,
. quantity of fuel.
tween the opening and closing of the port fl,
and thus eliminate the necessity of employing the devices for measuring the quantity better control the quantity I may readily. reduce the temperature at any of fluid or fuel that are now ordinarily employed. 1 a
, It is further evident that when a plurality of injectors are employed on the same cylinder, or combustion chamber, (see for example Fig. 2), each of said injectors may independently control the admission of a separate fluid such as a fuelhydrocarbon, air and water, and thus greatly improve the control of the combustion in the cylinder, and the efliciency of the engine.
It will also now be clear that an important feature of this invention is to be found in the fact that I am enabled to eliminate all atomizing or spraying agents such-as compressed air, and their accompanying complicated apparatus, as well as their attendant objections. Where the engine is of small horse power and only a very smallquantity of fuel is injected at a time, into the cylinder, I prefer-to so control the movements of the valve 20 as will permit the passage of the major portion of the fuel, or fluid, through the system at all times, in order to and velocity of the fuel injected.
It will be circulationof oil around the valve stem the latter is kept cool, provided the oil itself is cool, but of course, the heat acquired by the oil gradually raises its temperature. Should this heat 'become'excessive from any cause,
" time by employing the coil 55 as a cooling cooling the same.
coil instead of a heating coil. In fact, should there develop any tendency of the oil to decompose bon, I could employ the said coil 55 as acooling coil, or in some cases, I could employ two coils in the circuits 50 and 52, the one for heating the oil and the other for While one coil is being employed the other may be cut off. In additionto the above, foreign matter appear in the oil it will be then desirable to employ a filter in the circuit. Such filter maybe of any desired construction and .placedat any convenient portion-of the circuit."
It is obvious that those skilled in the art may vary the steps] and combinations of the moving said fuel suificient -a continuous predetermined observed that by the continuous with a consequent deposit of carshould carbon or other said fuel; and means for steps constituting my process as well as the details of the construction and the arrange ment of parts constituting the apparatus,
Without departing from the spirit of the mvention, and therefore, I do not wish to. be
- limited to the above disclosure except as may to said fuel; increasing the velocity of said fuel at a point inits path; and automatically at said point'admitting a portionof fuel into said combustion cham ber, substantially as described.
2 The process of injecting-fuel into an,
engine cylinder containing a gas under pressure, which consists in imparting a continuone and uninterrupted motion to sufficient to enable it to overcome the resistance of-said gas; and intermittently admitting the moving fuel stantially as described. r
3. The process of injecting fuel into an engine cylinder against the resistance of a compressed gas therein, which consists in imparting a continuous rotary motion to to overcome said resistance; and intermittently admittingsaid rosaid fuel into said cylinder, subparting a continuousmotion under pressure p tating fuel into said cylinder, substantially as described.
4. The process'of injecting a fuel into an engine cylinder which consists in imparting velocity andpressure tosaid fuel outside said cylinder;
and automatically at predetermined inter- A ,vals opening communication between saidfuel and said cylinder, substantially as described.
' 5'. The process of" injecting fuel into an" engine cylinder containing a gas under pres imparting a continuous motion in a closed circuit to said preheated fuel sufficient to ensaid cylinder, substantially as described.
, 7. In an apparatus for injecting fuel into 'an engine cylinder the combination of a fuelfor imparting a continuous f supply; means rotary motion in aclosed circuit to saidfuel outside said cylinder; means for preheating automatically and intermittently admitting saidlpreheated fuel into said cylinder, substantially asdescribed;
8. In an apparatus for inj fuel into sure, which consists in preheating said fuel and intermittently admitting said fuel to 1 an engine cylinder, the combination of a pump and connections for continuously 01I-- culating the fuel in a closed system; an injector nozzle in said system connected to said cylinder; a valve controlling communication between said nozzle and cylinder; and meansassociated With said nozzle for increasing the velocity of said fuel as it moves past said valve, substantially as described.
9.. In anapparatus for injecting fuel into an engine cylinder, the combination of a pump and connections for continuously circulating the fuel in a closed. system; an" injector nozzle in said system connected to said cylinder; a valve controlling communication between. said nozzle and cylinder; and means associated with saidfnozzle for imparting a rotary motion to, and incr'easing the velocity of said'fucl as it moves past said valve, substantially. as .described.
10. In an apparatus for injectin fuel "into an engine cylinder the combination of an injector nozzle provided with a port entering said cylinder; a valve controlling said port; means for automatically operating said valve; and means for continuously imparting .a rotary motion at a high velocity to said fuel as it passes said valve,
"said cylinder; a valve controlling said port; means for automatically operatin said valve; means for preheating sai fuel;
means for supplying fuel'to thesystem as.
fast as it is taken therefrom; and mean for continuously imparting a'rotarymotion at a high velocity to said fuel as it passes said valve, substantially as described.
13. The process of injectin a fuel and a fluid into a combustion chain er which consists in impartin continuous motions to said fuel and flui and automaticall independeiitly and intermittently admitting the moving fuel and fluid into said chamber,
substantially as described.
14. The process of injecting a fuel and water into an engine cylinder which consists in imparting continuous motions to said fuel and water; and automatically, independently, intermittently and successively admitting the moving fuel and water into said cylinder, substantially as described.
The process of injecting a fluid. into an inclosui'e which consist in continuously circulating said fluid along a predetermined path and at a predetermined point not 10-.
catedxat the end of said path imparting a rotary motion to said fluid; and admitting a predetermined portion of the same into said .inclosure, substantially as described 16. In an apparatu forinjecting fuel means for continuously circulating the fuel in a closed system, an injector nozzle in said system connected to said cylinder; a-valve controlling communication between said nozzle and cylinder, means associated with I said nozzle for. increasing the velocity of sa d fuel as it moves past said valve ,and
means associated with said valve for increasing the pressure of the moving fuel when said valve opens and admits fuel into the engine cylinder, substantially as described.
17. The process of injecting fuel into a' combustion chamber which consists in imparting motion and pressure to saidfuel;
increasing the velocity and decreasing the pressure of said fuel at 'a predetermined point" inits path; and then automaticallyv and intermittently at said point increasing the pressure of said fuel wli'ile admitting the same into said chamber, substantially as described.
In' testimony whereof I afiix my si ature *JOSEPH O. IfIS ER,
75 into an engine cylinder, the combination of
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|U.S. Classification||123/294, 123/306, 239/488, 239/463, 239/95, 239/584, 239/90|