|Publication number||US1253871 A|
|Publication date||Jan 15, 1918|
|Filing date||Feb 26, 1914|
|Priority date||Feb 26, 1914|
|Publication number||US 1253871 A, US 1253871A, US-A-1253871, US1253871 A, US1253871A|
|Inventors||Henry Gibson O'neill|
|Original Assignee||Conrad Hubert, Henry Gibson O'neill|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (1), Classifications (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. G. ONEILL.
ENGINE STARTING APPARATUS.
APPLlCATlON FILED FEB. 26. 1914.
Patented Jan. 15, 1918.
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ENGINE STARTING APPARATUS. 7 APPLICATION FILED FEB. 26.1914. 1 ,253,87 1 Patented Jan. 15,1918.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
INVENTOR WITNESSES 41W W m MM [W A? 101 J W H. G. O'NEILL. ENGINE STARTING APPARATUS. APPLICATION FILED FEB. 26. 1914.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
Patented Jan. 15, 1918.
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l 7 10 1 i i R A A?! A WITNESSES INVENTOA? 040 M JZC WWW i BY UNITED STATES P TENT @FFTCE.
HENRY (mason ONEILL, on NEW YORK, n. Y., ASSIGNOR, or ONE-HALF T0 comm]: HUBERT, or NEW YORK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 15, 1918.
Application filed February 28, 1914. Serial No. 821,177.
New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Engine- Starting Apparatus, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawings, forming part thereof.
Myinvent on relates to electrically operated engine-starting apparatus for starting internal combustion engines, particularly those of automobiles or motor cars, and the present improvements relate more particularly to that type of engine starting apparatus in which a dynamo is employed for generating electrical energy which is stored and utilized in an electric motor for starting the engine.
An important object of my invention is to produce an engine starter of the type mentioned particularly well adapted for application to automobiles which have been built without provision having been made for the accommodation of the engine starter, and likewise to produce such an engine starter capable of being built into new cars without requiring alterations or re-arrangements of any vital or important parts of the cars as previously built without starters, and further to produce such an engine starter particularly adapted to be installed at the front of the car. Another important object is to produce an engine starter of the type mentioned in which the dynamo, the motor and their adjuncts are embodied in a unitary device or single structure. Other objects of my invention are inexpensiveness of manufacture and installation, convenience of installation, simplicity and compactness of construction, durability. reliability, accessibility, coolness of the apparatus, neatness and symmetry of appearance. Other objects and advantages of my invention will hereinafter appear.
My invention includes features of construction and combinations of parts, as will appear from the following description.
I shall now describe the engine-starting apparatus embodying my invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings and shall thereafter point out my invention in claims.
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal section, as seen from the front, of the starter casing with the inclosed mechanism mostly in clevation, but partly in section.
Fig. 2 is adiagram of the electric circuits, starter mechanism and circuit controllers.
Fig. 3 is a much enlarged vertical longitudinal section, partly in elevation, of the parts of the casing and mechanism appearing at the middle and immediately to the right thereof in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4: is an enlarged transverse section on a plane indicated-by the line 44 of Fig. 1 as viewed from the left.
Fig. 5 is a similar view indicated by the line 55.
Fig. 6 is a partial transverse section on a plane indicated by the line 6-6 of Fig. 5 as viewed from the right.
Fig. 7 is a horizontal section of the starter at the middle of Fig. 1, some of the mechanism appearing in plan.
The starter mechanism is for the most part inclosed in a symmetrical casing, shown as made up of cylindrical right and left shell parts 1 and 2 closed at theirouter ends, a middle part 3, a partition part 4 and a rear cap part 5, all the parts of the casing being rigidly joined to form a strong and rigid combined casing and supporting frame, of which the end parts 1 and 2 are provided with lugs, as shown, for bolting to the side frame of an automobile chassis at the front of the engine.
Any suitable construction of direct current generator or dynamo 6 and direct current electric motor 7 may be employed. The commutators of the dynamo (3 and motor 7 appear in Fig. 1, but the brushes are omitted. The armature shaft 8 of the dynamo 6 is shown as mounted in ball bearings in the closed end of the left shell part 2 and middle part 3, and the armatureshaft 9 of the motor 7 as similarly mounted in the closed end of the right shell 2 and in the partition 4.
The dynamo 6 is permanently connected to the engine to be operated thereby through a set of gearing arranged to act as speedmultiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, and, in the apparatus illustrated in the drawings, spiral gearing is employed which gives a multiplied ratio of three to i one. A spiral-toothed pinion 10 is fixed on the inner end of the dynamo armature shaft 8 and meshes with an engine-connected spiral-toothed gear 11 which constitutes an engine-connected member in axial alinement with the engine shaft. In the en gine -starting operation, this spiral gearing operates as speed-reducing gearing, and the spiral teeth of the pinion l0 and of the gear 11 are therefore disposed at a suitable angle to permit either the gear or the pinion to be the driver. In the spiral gearing shown in the drawings the spiral teeth on the pinion 10 are at an angle of 285 to a plane of rotation and those on the gear 11 are at (51.5", but other suitable angles could beused.
The armature shaft 9 of the motor 7 is in axial alinement with the dynamo armature shaft 8, and the inner reduced end portion of the motor armature shaft 9 telescopes into and is provided with a bearing in the spiral-toothed pinion 10, as clearly shown in Fig. .3. The common axis of the dynamo shaft 8 and armature shaft 9 is transverse to the axis of rotation of the spiral gear 11. Clutching means and a second set of gearing, constituting speed-reducing gearing for the motor 7, are provided for effecting an engine-starting operation through the clutching means and both sets of gearing operating as speed-reducing gearing.
The motor armature shaft 9 adjacent to its reduced portion has thereon teeth forming a small pinion 12, which meshes with one or more, shown as two, planetary gears 13 mounted, by means of journal pins 14, in a rotative gearing carrier 15 concentric with and shown as mounted on the motor armature shaft 9 at both sides of the small armature shaft pinion 12, this gearing carrier being shown as rigidly formed in a single'piece. The planetary gears 13 mesh with a stationary internal ear or circular internal-toothed rack 17 rigidly secured, as by screws 18, to the middle casing part 3. It will be observed that rotation of the armature shaft 9 of the motor 7 will impart rotation to the gearing carrier 15 at a greatly reduced rate, the ratio of this reduction in the construction illustrated in the drawings being about one to fourteen.
In effecting an engine-starting operation, the gearing carrier 15 is clutched to the spiral-toothed pinion 10, which is provided with inclined clutch teeth 19 projecting toward the gearing carrier 15. The bearing of the gearing carrier 15 on the reduced end portion of the motor shaft 9 projects in the form of a boss or sleeve, and a clutch member 20 is splined on such sleeve portion of the gearing carrier to be shiftable longitudinallv thereof although rotative therewith. The slidable clutch member 20 has clutch teeth inclined correspondingly to the clutch teeth 19 of the spiral pinion l0 and solenoid 28, respectively.
wease cooperative therewith. An electrically controlled clutch lever 21 operatesthe clutch member 20 to move it into engagement with the clutch teeth 19 of the spiral pinion 10. A coiled thrust spring 22 interposed between the clutch member 20 and pinion 10 will shift the clutch member 20 to the disengaged position shown in the drawings and maintain it there.
A solenoid 23 (Figs. 4c, 5 and 7), shown as mounted at the outside of the casing at the rear thereof, has its core 24 connected to the clutch lever 21, which projects to the outside of the casing, as shown. The solenoid 23 and the motor 7 are connected in the same circuit for concurrent operation, as appears in Fig. 2 and are included in the circuit in multiple or parallel relation. Referring to Fig. 2, the electric circuit for operating the solenoid 23 and electric motor 7 includes a storage battery 25, line conductors or circuit wires 26, a circuit-controlling switch 27, and shunt or multiple connections 28 and 29 for the motor 7 and The switch 27 is shown as open and is represented as a spring-retracted pedal, although obviously it could be of other form, for example, an ordinary push button;
The switch 27 is interposed in the circuit between the battery 25 and both the motor 7 and solenoid 23, so as to effect joint control of the motor and solenoid. It will be understood that when the switch 25 is closed, the solenoid will be energized to shift the clutch member 20 into engagement with the clutch teeth 19 of the spiral pinion 10, and concurrently the motor 7 will be energized to start the engine through the electrically operated clutch, the perpendicular faces of the cooperating clutch teeth engaging and rotatively locking the gearing carrier 15 to the spiral pinion 10 so that the latter will be rotated by the former. The engine will now be started through the planetary gearing and the spiral gearing, both these sets of gearing now acting as speed reducing gearing at a combined ratio of about one to forty-two. During the engine-starting operation, the armature of the dynamo 6 will be slowly rotated idly, due
to the fact that the spiral pinion 10 is fixed on the dynamo armature shaft 8.
When the engine starts, its speed under self-actuation is immediately accelerated, with the result that. the spiral pinion l0 speeds ahead of the clutch member 20 and the inclined clutch teeth automatically disengage and the switch lever 27 may now be released and permitted to open the common circuit of the motor 7 and solenoid 23. thereby stopping the motor and permitting the spring 23 to maintain the clutch member 20 at disengaged position.
When the engine is running, the armature shaft 8 of the dynamo 6 will be rotated through the spiral gearing acting as multiplying gearing, and, under suitable speed of actuation, will generate electrical energy for replenishing the storage battery 25.
The dynamo 6 is connected in circuit with the storage battery 25 for charging or supplying electrical energy to the latter, and conductors or circuit wires 30 for the dynamo 6 are connected to the circuit wires 26 between the storage battery 25 and the starter switch 27 and between the battery and the multiple connections 28 and 29 of the motor 7 and solenoid 23, so that the engine starting and energy storing operations may be independently controlled. In the construction illustrated in the drawings, the motor solenoid and dynamo connections. 29 and 30. respectively, are shown as arranged in parallel relation between the common circuit wires '26. with the dynamo circuit wires 30 connected to the circuit wires 26 nearest the storage battery 25. The dynamo 6 is shown as of the shunt wound type. having a field circuit 31 and armature circuit 32.
In the present invention, the armature of the dynamo 6 should be free to rotate easily during the engine-starting operations. so as not to put anextra load on the starting motor 7, also. in accordance with well recognized principles. neither very low dynamo speeds nor the excessive current output of extremely high speeds can be utilized for charging the storage battery In the present invention I have provided automatic regulating or controlling means by reason of which the armature of the dynamo 6. having the armature shaft 8, rotates idly either below or above certain predetermined speeds, and such means comprises a centrifugal device having a rotativc speed relation to the speed of rotation of the armature shaft and in control of the circuit of the dynamo to first close and then open such circuit as the speed of the dynamo armature shaft increases.
A common form of centrifugal governor has governor balls 33. a collar 34 fixed on the dynamo armature shaft 8, a slidablc collar and an interposed coiled thrust spring 36. A circuit-controlling lever 37, pivoted in the casing, is operated by the slidablc collar 35. The circuit-controlling lever 37 carries a movable contact member 38, which is insulated from the lever, as shown. Two stationary contact members 39 and t0 are located in the path of the movable contact member 38 and with which the movable contact member has awiping con tact relation. It is apparent that various circuit arrangements and connections could be made, and in the apparatus illustrated, the armature circuit 32 is shown as connected to the movable contact member 38,
the field circuit 31 is connected to one of the stationary contact members 39 and one of the dynamo delivery wires 30 is connected to the remaining stationary contact member 40, but it is evident that any one of the conductors 30, 31 or 32 could as well be connected to any one of the contact members 38, 39 or 40, each conductor to a separate contact member, of course, and similar results secured.
When theengine is not running or at low speed thereof, for example, when the automobile is traveling at less than seven miles per hour, the movable contact member 38 is at the position shown in Figs. 1 and: 2 of the drawings and both the field circuit 31 and armature circuit 32 of thedynamo 6 are open. This permits the starting motor 7 to be operated to start the engine without any retarding magnetic drag or braking effect of the dynamo, the armature shaft 8 of which rotates freely and idly during the engine-starting operation. After the engine has started and reached the desired speed, the centrifugally-operated wiper 38 will be brought into contact with the stationary contact members 39 and -l0 and will thereby connect both the field circuit 31 and the armature circuit 32 with the adjacent main dynamo circuit wire 30, and charging of the storage battery will take place. This charging will continue between the desired predetermined speeds, the wiping contact member 38 moving over the stationary-contact members 39 ad 40 in contact therewith, but should the. speed exceed that at which it is practicable to effect charging of the storage battery 25, the centrifugally-operated wiper 38 will be shifted to the other side of the stationary contact members 39 and 40 from that appearing in the drawings and out of contact therewith to open the field and armature circuits of the dynamo 6, and the. dynamo armature shaft 8 will be rotated freely and idly at all speeds above the predetermined maximum speed. In the shunt wound dynamo 6 shown as employed it is preferable to open both the field and armature circuits, for if only the delivery circuit 30 should be opened, the field and armature circuits 3'1 and 32 would be left closed in a local circuit which in the running of the engine. particularly at high speeds, would waste power and develop heat, also an objectionable drag and unnecessary load would be placed on the starting motor in the engine-starting operation.
Preferably the starter mechanism, including the clutching means and planetary gearing, should not be subjected to the abnormal strains which would result from a possible premature ignition and consequent back firing of the engine, and accordingly I prefer to employ a back fire clutch in the connections between the engine-connected gear 11 and the engine shaft. In the construction illustrated in the drawings, I employ a starter shaft ll which is adapted to be rotatively coupled to the engine shaft by means of a coupling member 42 adapted to engage a complementary cooperative coupling member on the engine shaft, but it should be understood that, so'far as my present invention is concerned. the starter shaft 41 could be a projecting end portion of a one-piece engine shaft; however, it is usually preferable to employ a separate short starter shaft in alinement with and coupled to the engine shaft and of which it, may be considered as forming a continuation.
The starter shaft i1 is journaled' in the rear casing cover and in a bearing sleeve *3 projecting rearward from the front wall of the middle casing part 3. A flanged or cupshaped clutch ring H is shown as keyed on the starter shaft 41 between the casing cap 5 and the free end of the bearing sleeve 43. The engine-connected spiral gear 11 is journaled on the bearing sleeve 43 and has at the rear a boss or hub portion which is surrounded by the skirt or flange of the clutch ring 44.,
The flange of the clutch ring it is provided internally with cam-faced clutching recesses or cavities 45. Clutch rollers 4:6 are carried by the boss portion of the gear 11, being mounted in recesses therein and supported by slidable plugs 47 guided in transverse radially angular bores. The clutch rollers 46 are pressed out-ward into the recesses 45 by strong coiled thrust springs 48 in the bores back of the roller-bearing plugs 47. The general arrangement, including the angle of the plugs at? and the slope of the cam faces of the recesses 45, is such as to lock positively in one direction of relative torque between the clutch ring 4-]: and the gear 11 and to lock also in the other direction under normal working conditions but to yield under abnormal strains. In the construction shown, the arrangement is such that the dynamo armature shaft 6 will be positively driven from the engine through the back fire clutch and other connections. In an engine-starting operation, while the direction of rotation of the parts concerned in common is in the same direction as in the energy-generating operating operation, there is a reversal of the torque. In starting the engine the back tire clutch will hold with sufficient strength to startthe engine, but
should the engine back fire this clutch will release under the abnormal torque thus produced, and protect the mechanism from pos sible injury. Also the back fire clutch obvi ates the necessity of providing parts of excessive size and strength.
The starter shaft 41 projects forward to the outside of the casing, for starting the engine directly by means of a crank in the usual way in case the starter apparatus should break down, and the projecting shaft end is provided with a cover cap 49.
It should be noted that the Weight of the apparatus is substantially the same at each side of the starter shaft 41, which is axially alined with the engine shaft, and that the apparatus when installed at the front of the automobile will be of synn'netrical appearance. The placing of the dynamo 6 at one side of the shaft 41 and the motor 7 and the set of planetary speed -reducing gearing therefor at the other side of this shaft, with the set of spiral gearing common to the dynamo 6 and motor 7 placed at a middle position, provides for effectively combining the several parts of the mechanism in a unitary device including the dynamo 6 and motor 7 and embodying the hereinbefore de scribed features of the invention by reason of which effectiveness of operation and other advantages are secured, including the utili- Zation to the best advantage of the available space on the automobile, and also the keeping cool of the apparatus by reason of the draft of air to which it is exposed in the traveling movement of the automobile.
It is to be understood that the storage battery 25, in addition to providing electrical energy for engine-starting operations, may be drawn upon for other purposes, for eX- ample, to light the car, provide ignition, operate a horn, et cetera, and it is common practice thus to utilize a storage battery and dynamo in a coi'nbined electrical equipment. It is to be further understood that, if desired, any suitable automatically operating regulating device may be provided to prevent overcharging of the storage battery 25; also the usual electrical instruments to indicate the condition of the battery, etc. The installation and operation of the lighting equipment, indicators and other devices being Well understood in the art, it is stiflicient to mention them, without burdening the present specification and drawings with detail descriptions and illustrations thereof.
It is obvious that various modifications may be made in the construction shown in the drawings and above particularly described Within the principle and scope of my invention.
1. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, an engine-connected gear, a dynamo at one side of such gear having an armature shaft arranged transverse to the axis of such gear, a pinion on the armature shaft meshing with the engineconnected gear. an engine-starting electric motor at the other side of the engine-connected gear from the dynamo and having an armature shaft in axial alinement with the armature shaft of the dynamo, speed-reducing gearin for the motor at the same side of the engine-connected gear as the motor, and a clutch for connecting the speed-reducing gearing with the pinion on the armature shaft of the dynamo for effecting an enginestarting operation.
2. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, an engine connected gear, a dynamo at one side of the enginevconnected gear having an armature shaft arranged transverse to the axis of such gear, a pinion on the armature shaft meshing With the engine-connecte 1l gear, an enginestarting electric motor at the other side of the engine-connected gear from the dynamo and having an armature shaft in axial alinement With the armature shaft of the dynamo and telescoping into and having a bearing in the pinion, a rotative planetary gearing carrier mounted concentric of the armature shaft of the motor between the motor and the dynamo pinion, planetary speed-reducing gearing connecting the gearing carrier and the armature shaft of the motor, and a clutch for connecting the gearing carrier and the dynamo pinion for efiecting an engine-starting operation.
3. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, tric motor, means including a clutch for connecting the motor to the engine to effect an engine'starting operation, a dynamo having a rotative part, means for permanently connecting the rotative part of the dynamo to the engine so that such part will be rotated when the engine is self-actuated and also during an engine-starting operation, and speed-controlled means for preventing a flow of current in the dynamo during an engine-starting operation, whereby braking efiect by the engine-connected dynamo is prevented.
4. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, a dynamo having an armature shaft, a set of gearing for permanently connecting the engine and the armature shaft of the dynamo operative as speedmultiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, an engine-starting electric motor, a second set of gearing constituting speedreducing gearing for the motor, a clutch for connecting the two sets of gearing to effect an engine-starting operation through both sets of gearing operating as speed-reducing gearing, electric circuits for the dynamo and motor, a manuallyoperable circuit controller for the motor, a centrifugal device hav ing a rotative speed relation to the rotative speed of the armature shaft. of the dynamo, and an automatically-operated circuit con troller operated by the centrifugal device in control of the circuit of the dynamo to maintain such circuit open during an enginean engine-starting elecand the dynamo operative as speed-multiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, an engine-starting electric motor, a second set of gearing constituting speed-reducing gearing for the motor, an electrically operated clutch for connecting the two sets of gearing to effect an engine-starting operation through both sets of gearing operating as speed-reducing gearing, electric circuits for the dynamo and motor and clutch, and a manually operable circuit controller in common control of both the clutch and motor.
6. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, a dynamo, a set of gearing for permanently connecting the engine and the dynamo operative as speed-multiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, an engine-starting electric motor, a second set of gearing constituting speed-reducing gearing for the motor, an electrically operated clutch for connecting the two sets of gearing to effect an engine-starting operation through both sets of gearing operative as speed-reducing gearing, electric circuits for the dynamo and motor and clutch, a manually operable circuit controller in common control of both the clutch and motor, a centrifugal device having a rotative speed relation to the speed of the dynamo, and an automaticallyoperated circuit controller operated by the centrifugal device in control of the circuit of the dynamo to maintain such circuit open during an engine-starting operation and then to close such circuit as the speed of the dynamo increases under self-actuation of the engine.
7. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, in combination, a dynamo having an armature shaft, a set of gearing for permanently connecting the engine and the armature shaft of the dynamo operative as speedmultiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, an engine-starting electric motor, a second set of gearing constituting speedreducing gearing for the motor, a clutch for connecting the two sets of gearing for effecting an engine-starting operation through both sets of gearing operating as speed-reducing gearing, a storage battery for receiving electrical energy from the dynamo and delivering it to the motor, electric circuits including the dynamo and motor in multiple with the storage battery, it manually-operable circuit controller for the motor circuit, a centrifugal device rotated by the armature shaft of the dynamo, and a cir cuit controller operated by the centrifugal dwice in control of the circuit of the dynamo to close or open such circuit according to the speed of rotation of the armature shaft of the dynamo.
8. An engine-starting apparatus comprising, incombination, a dynamo, a set of gearing for permanently connecting the engine and the dynamo operative as speed-multiplying gearing from the engine to the dynamo, an engine-starting electric motor, a sec-. ond set of gearing constituting speed-reducing gearing for the motor, an electrically operated clutch for connecting the two sets of gearing to effect an engine-starting operation through both sets of gearing operating as speed-reducing gearing, a storage battery for receiving electrical energy from the dynamo and delivering it to the motor, electric clrcuits lncluding the dynamo and motor and clutch in multiple with the storage 20 battery, a manually operable circuit controller in-control of the circuits of theclutch Y and motor, a centrifugal device having a rotative speed relation to the speed of the dynamo, and acircuit controller operated by 25 the centrifugal device in control of the cirouit of the dynamo to close or open such circuit according to the speed of the dynamo.
In testimony whereof I have aflixed my
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6089112 *||Feb 6, 1998||Jul 18, 2000||Case Corporation||Method and apparatus for starting an engine|
|U.S. Classification||290/36.00R, 123/179.28, 123/179.25|