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Publication numberUS1255924 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 12, 1918
Filing dateJan 17, 1917
Priority dateJan 17, 1917
Publication numberUS 1255924 A, US 1255924A, US-A-1255924, US1255924 A, US1255924A
InventorsWillis D A Peaslee
Original AssigneeWillis D A Peaslee
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gas-turbine.
US 1255924 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

W D. A. PEASLEE. GAS TURBINE. APPLICATION FILED JAN. 17. 1917.

1, 55,92%. Patented Feb. 12, 1918.

3 SHEETS-SHEET I.

I INVENTOR. Will is DAfemlee (A TTORNE YS.

W. D. A. PEASLEE.

GAS TURBINE.

APPLICATION FILED JAN. I7. 1917.

Patented. Feb. 12, 1918.

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- Be it known that I, WILLIS DHU AINE PEASLEE, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Corvallis, in the county of Benton, State of Oregon, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Temperature-Reducing Means for the Blades of blade; in this way permitting the Gas-Turbines, specification.

My invention relates to turbine motors. The remarkably high efliciency of these motors is well known, but, nevertheless, the gas turbine has heretofore failed because of the destructive action .on the blades of high temperatures of the gas jet.

Various means have been utilized in attempting to solve this difficulty in one of two methods, namely, either to cool the as 'jet before its impact on the turbine bla es, or to cool the latter after the gas jet has been played upon them. In the first method-*which consists in introducing steam into the gas and so cooling the latter to a temperature which will not corrode or melt the blades-the efficiency of the jet is very largely sacrificed. The second method which consists in playing a jet of steam on the blades after the as jet has passed over them-was not efliclent in preventing the meltin of the blades. Making the blades of a hollow water-cooled construction was also not successful on account of the poor circulation of the water due to the necessary small water passageway. This resume ofthe present state of the art, 'as understood by applicant, is given so that the purpose of this invention may be more clearly understood.

The object of my invention is to maintain the temperature of the blades. of the gas turbine. below a destructive point.

I attain the object of my invention by maintaining a coating of cooling medium upon the backs of the blades of the motor at all times while the gas jet is in contact with the opposite working faces of the as jets ciency,

of which the following is a to be applied at their maximum e but rendering the blades capable of resisting the high temperatures; in other words, the coating of the cooling medium keeping the temperatures of the blades below the destructive point. In practice my invention may be carried Specification of Letters l atent. Application filed January 17, 1917. swarm.

to the driven shafts drawings, in which:

Fi re 1 is a view of the rotor, the upper half fling in elevation and the lower half 1n diametric section;

Fig. 1 is a central section of the rotor perpendicular to its axis of rotation;

ig. 2 is a section of the combustion chamber and vanes of the rotor, taken through the center of the nozzle plane parallel to the axis. of rotation of the rotor;

Fig. 3 shows a possible modification of my device to adapt itto multi-stage operation, and is a section throughthe vanes of the rotor and the fixed directive vanes;

Fig. 4 is a section throu h the center of the fixed directive vanes s own in'Fig. 3, e113 perpendicular to the plane of the latter; an

out as illustrated in the accompanying Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic plan of the complete device.

Referring first to Fig. 5, 13 is the rotor casing within which the motor is mounted Patented rat. is, rate.

on shafts 5, 6, supported in bearings 14, 15.

8 1s a combustion chamber in which the oil or other gas-producing fuel is burned. Oil is admitted to this combustion chamber through valve 9 from oil pump 24, and air is admitted to the combustion chamber 8 through valve 10 from air pump 25. 12, 26, 27 represent a means for igniting the fuel when starting the device. The shaft 6 is made hollow and water supplied to it through stuffing gland and valve 28 from pump 26. Valves 9, 10 and 28 are controlled by means of linkage 23, by governor 21 driven by abelt 22 from the shaft 6. 16 is a passageby which the products of operation of the gas turbine are led to an auxlliary turbine 17, thence through passage 19 -to condenser 20. Instead of being used for driving an auxiliary turbine, the mixture of steam and exhaust gases may of course, be used in any other heat converting or transferring device.

Any means for utilizing the power, such as an electric generator 18, may be attached of the gas and steam turbines.

Referring to Figs. 1 and 1, the rotor of my device consists of two halves 1, 1, separated by means ofspacers 2 and held firmly together by means of bolts 3, thereby forming a. cavity within the rotor. The periphcry of the rotor is provided with vanes for transformin the velocity energy of the gas jet issuing from the combustion chamber 8 through nozzle 11 into rotation energy of the rotor. These vanes 4 are so arranged that a passage 7 through the eriphery of the rotor is provided, where y water or other cooling medium, introduced b means of the hollow shaft 6 of the rotor into the cavity of the latter, is directed against the backs'of said vanes 4, forming and maintaining a film 'of water over the entire back surface of these vanes.

Referring to Fig. 2, fuel, for example hydro-carbon oil, is introduced through an aperture controlled by the valve 9 by means of a pump 24, and air for combustion ofthis fuel is admitted through an aperture controlled by the valve 10 from pump 25. The combustion fills the chamber 8 with gas at high pressure and temperature. Nozzle 11, as common in devices of this kind, is designed to change the pressure energy of the gas into velocity energy, and the jet of gas issues from the nozzle 11 at very high velocity and temperature, impinging on vanes 4, which are driven at high velocity, there by rotating the rotor of my device. This gas jet is at a very high temperature tending to reduce the strength of common structural materials, and it is therefore necessary to keep the vanes 4 below melting point by some cooling means, for example, provided by the passage 7, which furnishes and maintains a volume of water in contact with the back of the vanes 4. This water, being turned into steam, extracts the heat from the vanes so rapidly that their temperature is maintained at a safe working value. The mixture of steam from this cooling water and the exhaust gases then iiL's the casing 13 of the gas turbine, and this mixture might be discharged into the atmosphere and wasted, but I conceived the idea of utilizing it in an auxiliary turbine 17, which may or may not be connected to the same shaft as the gas turbine rotor, though shown connected to the gas turbine shaft in Fig. 5. In this way the energy extracted from the gas turbine in cooling the vanes is usefully employed, so the total output of my device is the sum of the available energies of the gas and auxiliary turbine.

In order to maintain the temperature of the vanes 4 at approximately a constant point, the amount of water, or other cool- 1ng medium, introduced by means of the pump 26, through hollow shaft 6, is varied by means of the governor 21 and its connec-. tions, simultaneously with the variation of the fuel required, so that an increase in fuel carries with it. a corresponding increase in the cooling medium.

As shown in Figs. 1, 1 and 2, this device is a single stage machine, and since the vanes 4 extract a large portion of the velocity from the gas jet, the speed in revolutions per minute will be rather high. It is entirely possible and feasible to reduce this speed by making the device a multi-stage unit, extracting the velocity from the gas jet in increments. The means for accomplishing this is shown in Fig. 3, wherein the gas jet, after leaving vanes 4 with approximately half its original velocity, and in a direction opposite to the movement of the vanes 4, is turned in direction by the vanes 29, which are fixed in the casing 13 by means of the shroud rings 32. After being turned by these fixed vanes 29, it is directed onvanes 4, which are mounted on the rotor of the turbine in a row parallel to the vanes 4. A large portion of the velocity is extracted by said vanes 4', which are cooled by means of the passages 7 exactly as are the vanes 4 above described. llhe fixed vanes 29 are cooled by means of water, or other cooling medium, projected against their backs by means substantially as shown in Fig. 4, wherein the cooling medium is carried in pipe 31, and from thence by pipes 30 through the casing 13, so directed as to perfo"m and maintain a film of water against the backs of the vanes 29.

While my deviceis shown as an impulse turbine, of course I do not confine myself to such specific use.

I claim:

1. In a gas turbine motor, the method of maintaining the blades at a safe workin temperature consisting in projecting and maintaining a coating of cooling medium upon the backs of the blades.

2. In a gas turbine motor, means for constantly applying a covering of cooling medium to the backs of the blades of the motor, and an outlet for the waste products.

3. In a gas turbine motor, means for constantly applying a covering of cooling medium to the backs of the blades of the motor,, an outlet for the waste products, and

means for regulating the amount of cooling stantly applying a covering of cooling medium to the backs of the blades of the motor, an outlet for the waste products, a valve controlling the fuel supply. a valv'e'controlling the supply of cooling medium, andautomatic means for controlling said valves relatively to the change of load.

6. In a gas turbine motor, means for conmamas stantl appl ing a coverin of cooling liquid to the backs of the blades or' the motor, an outlet for the waste products, an auxiliary turbine, and means for directing the vapor generated from said liquid in its appllcation to said gas turbine blades against the blades of said auxiliary turbine.

7. In a gas turbine motor, means for constantly applying a covering of cooling liquid to the backs of the blades of the motor, an outlet for the waste products, an auxiliary turbine, means for directing the vapor generated from said liquid in its application to said gas turbine blades against the blades of said auxiliary turbine, and means for applying the energy of the gas and steam turbines combined as a driving power.

8. In a gas turbine motor, means for constantly applying a covering of cooling liquld to the backs of the blades of the motor, an outlet for the waste products, an auxiliary turbine, means for directing the vapor generated from said liquid in its application to said gas turbine blades against theblades of said auxiliary turbine, a valve controlling the fuel supply, a valve controlling the supply of cooling liquid, and means for controlling said valves.

9. In a gas turbine motor, means for constantly applying a covering of cooling liquld to the backs of the blades of the motor, an outlet for the waste products, an auxiliary turbine, means for directing the vapor generated from said'liquid in its application to said gas turbine blades against the blades of said auxiliary turbine, a valve controlllng the fuel supply, a valve controllingthe supply of cooling liquid, and automatic means for controlling said valves relatively to the change of load.

10. In a gas turbine motor,

a rotor provided with an internal cavit said rotor having peripheral blades, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity, peripheral apertures connected with said cavity and adapted to dlrect a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said blades, and a discharge for waste products.

11. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity, said rotor having peripheral blades, means for mtroducing a cooling medium into sald cavity, peripheral apertures connected w1th said cavity and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said blades at an angle, and a discharge for waste products.

12. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity, said rotor having peripheral blades, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity,

peripheral apertures connected with said cavity and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said blades, a discharge for waste products, and

means for regulating the amount of cooling medium su plied proportionately to the amount of uel consumed.

13. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity, said rotor having peripheral blades, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity, per pheral apertures connected with said cavity and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said blades, a discharge for waste products, a valve controlling the fuel sup lied, a valve controlling the supply of cooling medium, and means for controlling said-valves.

14. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity, said rotor having peripheral blades, means for introduc ing a cooling medium into said cavity, per pheral apertures connected with said cavlty and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said blades, a discharge for waste products, a valve controlling the fuel supply, a valve controlling the supply of cooling medium,

.and automatic means adapted to con rol said valves relatively to the Ina gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity and having parallel rows of peripheral blades spaced apa an ntermediate row of stationary blades on the interior periphery of the turbine case, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity of the rotor, peripheral apertures connected with the cavity of the rotor and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of the blades of the ing medium in the circumference of thecase, and apertures connected with this passageway adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said intermediate blades.

16. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity and havin parallel rows of peripheral blades space apart, an intermediate row of stationa blades on the interior periphery of the turbine case, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity of the rotor, peripheral apertures connected with the cavity of the rotor and adapted to cooling medium against the backs of the blades of the rotor, a passageway for a cooling medium in the circumference of the case, apertures connected with this passageway adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said intermediate blades, and means for regulating the amount of cooling medium supplied proportionately to the amount of fuel consumed.

17. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity and having parallel rows of peripheral blades spaced apart, an intermediate row of stationary blades on the interior periphery of the turchange of load.

direct a stream of rotor, a passageway for a coolbine case, means for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity of the rotor, peripheral apertures connected with the cavity of the rotor and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against thebacks of the blades of the rotor, a passageway for a cooling medium in the circumference of the case, apertures connected with this passageway adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the 'backs of said intermediate blades, a valve controlling the fuel supplied, a valve controlling the supply of cooling medium, and means for controlling said valves.

18. In a gas turbine motor, a rotor provided with an internal cavity and having parallel rows of peripheral; blades spaced apart, an intermediate row of stationary blades on the interior periphery of the turbine case, vmeans for introducing a cooling medium into said cavity of the rotor, peripheral aperturesconnected with the cavity of the rotor and adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of the blades of the rotor, a passageway for a cool ing medium in the circumference of the case, apertures connected with this passageway adapted to direct a stream of cooling medium against the backs of said intermediate blades, a valve controlling the fuel supply, a

" valve controlling the supply of cooling medium, and automatic means adapted to con- {roll said valves relatively to the change of ,WILL'IS. D. PEASLEE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2628064 *Jan 2, 1948Feb 10, 1953Daniel And Florence GuggenheimMeans for cooling the blades of turbine rotors
US2858101 *Jan 28, 1954Oct 28, 1958Gen ElectricCooling of turbine wheels
US4314442 *Jun 11, 1979Feb 9, 1982Rice Ivan GSteam-cooled blading with steam thermal barrier for reheat gas turbine combined with steam turbine
US4384452 *Jun 17, 1981May 24, 1983Rice Ivan GSteam-cooled blading with steam thermal barrier for reheat gas turbine combined with steam turbine
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/39.17, 60/39.54, 60/39.27
Cooperative ClassificationF02C6/003