US 1260337 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patentd Mar. 26, 1918.
3 SHEET$$HEET I.
lama/a9 an mentor R. M. CRAIG.
PHONOGRAPHIC ATTACHMENT FOR MOVING PICTURE MACHINES.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 6. 1913. 1,260,337.
1 Noun 0 1 R. M. CRAIG. PHONOGRAPHIC AT TACHMENT FOR MOVING PICTURE MACHINES.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 5. I913. 1,260,337.
Patented Mar. 26, 1918.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
R. M. CRAIG.
PHONOGRAPHIC ATTA CHMENT FOR MOVING PICTURE MACHINES. APPLICATION man MAY 6. I913.
1,260,337. Patented Mar. 26,1918.
3 SHEETSSHE EI 3.
O o o o o O Q 0 o g 0 O O o RICHARD M. CRAIG, OF SAN ANTONIO, TEXAS.
PHONOGBAPHIC ATTACHMENT FOR MOVING-PICTURE MACHINES.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Mar. 26, 1918.
Application filed May 6, 1913. Serial No. 765,959.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, RICHARD M. CRAIG, citizen of the United States, residing at San Antonio, in the county of Bexar and State of Texas, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Phonogra hic Attachments for Moving-Picture Mac ines, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to phonographic or talking moving pictures, and more particularly to the art of taking and projecting such moving pictures with the accompaniment of sound recording and sound reproduction respectively.
Man attempts have been made to secure with t e reproduction of moving pictures, the reproduction of sounds correlated therewith. Almost all these attempts have been made by operating the moving picture film in conjunction with the ordinary phonograph or gramophone. The difficulty of using an instrument of this character to reproduce sounds correlated with the film is that the phonograph must of necessity be practically a separate machine from either the camera whereby the pictures are taken, or the projector whereby the are thrown upon the screen, and that wlth either the gramophone or the phonograph it is practicall im omible to secure a sound record whic sha 1 be conterminus with the movi picture film. The maximum sound recor as used today will not run for longer than five minutes, whereas the moving icture scene may be very much longer. urther than this, it is ractically impossible to run the phonograph or gramophone chronism with the film and this is a very vital necessity for the proper correlation of the sound record with the pictures. Again, if the film runs off or breaks, the phonograph must be stopped, and lt'lS almost impossible to again a just the film in proper correspondence and correlation with the sound record. The mere connecting up of the sound reproducing mechanismmith the mechanism of the moving picture machine will not secure a complete correspondence and correlation between the sound and the pictures, for the reason that the film is liable to slip and to tighten or loosen upon the reels, and it would be extremely hard to adjust the sound record so. as to correspond accurately with the motion of the picture. An accurate c rrespond nce ottbe sound in synwith the event with which the sound is cor related, is, of course, absolutely necessary to prevent a disjunction which would entirely spoil the efiect.
Furthermore, the phonographic record can naturally contain only so many words and this requires the film to be made of a certain length only, this length corresponding with the phonographic record, instead of which the sound record should be made for and with the picture record of any possible scene or happening that might occur, and the sound record should have the same length as the scene record and not be limited as to length.
Again, the process of making phonographic records requires extra care and especially repared staging. The phonograph is p aced at or near the screen upon which the picture is to be projected and thus can not be run by the same mechanism which drives the moving picture film. The phonograph requires an extra attendant to place the records thereon. Furthermore the picture record and the sound recordhave heretofore been taken separately and could not therefore be in accurate correspondence, nor could they ever be placed in accurate correspondence under these circumstances. It is a very diflicult problem and requires an elaborate arrangement of costl mechanism to keep a film synchronized wit a phonogra hic record. If the film happens to run of! w ile exhibiting the phonographic record and the pictures on the film get out Of time, it is practical! impossible to get them in time again. f the fihn should happen to et torn in two or broken, which sometimes ppens and the film is cemented together, the words corresponding to the part torn out of the film can never be taken cm the. phonograph record, and this destrogs the further use of the two together.
T e primary ob'ect ofmy invention is the provision of mec anism whereby a sound record may be made or reproduced synchronously with the taking or reproduction of moving pictures.
A further object is to so form .the sound recording or re reducing mechanism that it may be used with ordinal-K moving picture taking or reproducing mec anism so that no change will be required in the mechanism now used for this pu A further object s to provlde means whereby the picture record and the sound record may be recorded simultaneously and by the same machine, under the control of the same operator and not individually and separately as the now are.
A further object is to rovide means whereby the icture carrier, t at is, the film, may also be t e sound record carrier so that the pictures and the corresponding sounds shall be at all times in fixed relation to each other, taken simultaneously, reproduced simultaneously and with no ossible chance of the sound record having its'relation to the picture record in any way changed.
A further object is to so form the sound and picture carrier, in this case the film, that the sound may be reproduced without reproducing the picture, or the picture reproduced without reproducing the sound.
A further object is to so form the sound record that the sound vibrations may be translated into electrical vibrations, and these in turn carried to various parts of the hall within which the machine is to be used.
A still further object is to so construct the machine both for taking and reproducing the pictures and accompanying sounds that the method of operation shall be extremely simple, both as regards the taking and making of sound records and the taking and making of picture records, and as to the simultaneous or synchronous taking or reproduction.
A further object is to provide mechanism whereby the sounds may be recorded upon the picture carrying film of moving picture machines and reproduced therefrom, this film being so formed that the picture record and the sound record may overlie each other without the sound record interfering with the picture record or vice versa.
A furtherobject of the invention is to so form the film that the picture record may be taken in the ordinary manner and printed photo phically upon one side or face of i while the sound record may be taken photographicall and printed upon the other face of the Im.
A further object in this connection is to provide a film for carrying moving pictures and accompanying sound records, in which the sound record is formed by a substance which does not affect or impair the transmission of ordinary or white light but which will impair, afiect'or be more or less impervious to the passage of rays beyond the visible rays of the spectrum.
A further object is to form a sound record upon a film capable of transmitting light, this sound record bein formed by material which is pervious to ordinary white light but which is impervious to or affects thetransmission of infravred rays.
A further object is to so construct the mechanism for reproducing a sound record in conjunction with the projection of moving pictures that while the film shall move at one point intermittently to reproduce the pictures, the film shall move steadily at another point to reproduce the sound record, and in this connection to provide mechanism for causing the projection of white light through that ortion of the film which is moving intermittently and causing the projection of invisible rays through that ortion of the film. which is moving steadily, and further in this connection to provide in combination with the means for projecting the invisible rays through said film, sound transmitting mechanism of such character as to be operated by the action of these invisible rays to thereby reproduce the sound record on the fi My invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein:
Figure 1 's an elevation partly sectional of a moving picture machine so constructed as to re re uce a corresponding sound, the figure a so showing the screen upon which the picture record is thrown and a loud-speaking phone disposed behind the screen.
F1 2 is a vertical section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3 of a camera for takin moving pictures making correlated soun records.
Fig. 3 is a front elevation of the camera shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic plan view of a hall or auditorium showing the arrangement of phones for transmitting the sounds reproduced by my mechanism.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view of one side of a film showing moving pictures thereon.
Fig. 6 is a face view of the opposite side of a film showing photographic sound records thereon.
Fig. 7 is a view of a composite film showing the position of the sound records with relation to the pictures.
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary section of the film shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 8 is a face view of the sound record side of,a film but illustrating a plurality of records on one film.
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic view of a bolometer as used by me for the purpose of re- 115 producing sound vibrations.
Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view of another form of soundreproducing mechanism.
Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic view of another form of sound reproducing mechanism.
Corresponding and like parts are referred to in the following description and indicated in all the views of the accompanying drawings by the same reference characters.
My invention is based upon the fact that 125 infra-red rays are invisible but that these rays will affect a properly sensitized hotographic film, and that these infra-re rays wil afiect various forms of electrical phonog ph s r ceiv rs o sound transmitting deno vices. Infra-red rays may be passed through an ordinary photographic film or the film of a moving picture without interfering with the proper projection of the picture by movin picture projecting apparatus. If a film is prepared, therefore, having on one side the ordinary photographic reproductions of pictures, and on .the other side a phonographic sound record, capable of being reproduced only by infra-red rays, the sound record will not interfere with the passage of white light to and through the pictures and the presence of the pictures will not interfere with the passage of infra-red rays through the strip. 011 one side of the film or the strip, therefore, would be the ordinary picture record and on the other side would be a printed photographic record of sound, which latter record would be transparent to ordinary visible light but would more or less intercept the infra-red rays to produce variations in the projection of these rays, these variations being used to affect sound transmitting apparatus as will be later stated. Infra-red rays are below the ordinary visible spectrum. They are invisible to the naked eye and are very penetrating and are subject to the same optical laws as ordinary light.
Many substances will cut off visible light entirely but will let the infra-red rays pass nearly perfectly. Vulcanite, iodin, bromin and many other substances will permit the passage of these infra-red rays and more or less completely intercept the visible rays. Many substances such as alum, cupric chlorid, water, oxygen, carbonic acid gas, very thin metallic silver and selenite will, on the contrary, permit the passage of visible or white light but will cut off more or less the passage of the infra-red rays.
Ordinary celluloid, of which material the moving picture film is usually constructed, is very transparent, both to the visible light rays and to the infra-red rays. By coating one side of a strip of celluloid, therefore, with a substance pervious to the white light rays and the other side with a translucent substance impervious to the infra-red rays, neither of the coatings would interfere with the passage of these rays and both records, the picture record and the sound record, could be combined on one film.
For the visible light picture record, there are many photographic prints (such as most any of the present forms of positive prints) which would interfere not at all with the passage of the infra-red rays, and it is therefore only necessary to provide a prgper transparent coating on the strip or lm which will intercept more or less the infrared rays and yet will not affect the passage of the rays of white light.
One of the substances which would permit visible light to pass but which is opaque or impervious to the infra-red rays is very thin metallic silver, but I do not wish to be limited to this as any material which would cut off, intercept, destroy or reflect back the infra-redrays would be equally suitable. This would be done by any substance having a high percentage of water of crystallization or a high percentage of water of constitution, a high percentage of selective reflection, or a high percentage of selective absorption. This infra-red rays intercepting substance is to be combined with gelatin, as for instance, the gelatin of the film, this gelatin actin as or being a medium for carrying said su stance and this medium being, subject to the photographic action for obtaining the necessary sound record.
In Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 7 I show a portion of a film or strip of moving pictures designed to be used in my invention, both for the purpose of taking the moving pictures and for the purpose of reproduclng them. Fig. 7 is an enlarged sectional view, as it may be termed, and in this figure, 2 designates the body of the film, 3 a coatin upon which the photographic picture nut is made or taken, and 4 a coating 0 a substance which is capable of being acted upon photographically by ordinary light, and which will act as a medium to carry a sub stance which will act to intercept either partially or entirely infra-red rays to thereby cause the reproduction ofsound by electrical transmission devices. Fig. 5 shows the face view of the film, as it may be termed, with moving pictures thereon. Fig. 6 shows the reverse side of the film and illustrates diagrammatically the sound record as photographed upon the film. Fig. 7 illustrates the compound record and shows that the sound record extends entirely across the film and therefore underlies the picture record.
While in Figs. 6 and 7 the sound record is shown as being made up of lighter or heavier lines or parallel striations extending entirely across the strip from one edge to the other, it is possible to have one record to extend from one marginal edge to the middle of the strip and another record to extend from the middle of the strip to the marginal edge. Such a record is shown in Fig. 8 wherein 4 indicates one sound record and 4 another sound record. The film shown in Fig. 8 is particularly ada ted for use in a manner hereafter described It is, of course, necessary that the sound record and the picture record should be made simultaneously so that there will be complete synchronism between the sound record and the events shown by the pictures.
In Figs. 2 and 3, 5 designates a double camera which will take moving pictures by means of the ordmary moving picture camera mechanism and which is provided with a compartment 6 containing the photo graphic camera proper having a compartment 7 which contains what may be termed the sound camera mechanism for making a negative sound record.
Inasmuch as the mechanism used for taking the moving pictures is of the ordinary form, it requires no special description. This mechanism is actuated by means of the shaft 8 havin the usual crank 9. The compartment 7 w erein the sound photographin mechanism is disposed, is preferably di- .vi ed into an upper and a lower reel compartment in which are located respectively the reels 10 and 11. The film or strip 12 is fed down from the upper reel 10 over the rollers 13 and 14 to the lower reel, this lower reel being mounted upon the shaft 8 and being driven therefore synchronously with the picture apparatus. Immediately behind that portion of the film 12 between the rollers 13 and 14 is a diaphragm 15 having therein a narrow slit 16.
Behind the diaphragm 15 is disposed the tube 17 of a manometric flame ap aratus. The flame 18 of this a 'paratus is isposed immediately in front 0 a mirror 19 whereby the rays of light are focused upon the film through the slit 16. When the film 12 is in position, there will therefore be a bright line of light thrown upon the face of the film. The manometric tube 17 extends down into a chamber 20 from which extends a gas pipe 21 leading to any suitable source of gas. Above the flame 18 is disposed a chimney 22 having bafile plates 23 therein, which chimney permits the outward passage of the products of combustion but prevents the flame 18 from being deflected by down drafts of air.
The front of the chamber 20 is provided with a diaphragm 24 and from this diaphragm there extends a megaphone 25 which as illustrated forms part of the camera body, this megaphone being of course enlarged at its forward or front end and gradually converging until it opens into thedia hragm cham er.
t is to be understood, of course, that the film used for taking the moving pictures is shifted intermittently by mechanism as ordinarily used in moving picture machines,
. while thefilm which is used for taking the sound record moves steadily and continuously. The film or strip 12 and the film or strip upon which the moving pictures are to be taken is the same as the ordinary n'ega tive moving picture films.
While I have illustrated a manometric flame for the purpose of hotogra hically recording soun upon the 1m 12, I wish it understood that I may use a speakin arc in place of the manometric flame and t at I do not wish to be limited to any particular thin metallic silver.
apparatus for making this photographic sound record as it is obvious that many different forms of apparatus may be used for this purpose. The manometric flame appa ratus is shown purely for purposes of illustration.
With the manometric flame apparatus, the operation of the camera is evident. The camera is intended to be used precisely the same as an ordinary moving picture camera. While the picture is being taken, the film of the picture taking apparatus moves intermittently as before stated while the film of the sound a paratus moves steadily. The vibrations o the air caused by the sound waves being recorded, aflect the diaphragm in a way well understood, and this in turn affects the manometric flame. The variations of pressure in the manometric tube 17 will cause variations in the intensity of the flame and consequently variations in the rays of light passing through the slit 16. As a consequence a photographic record of the sound will be made upon the sensitized strip, this sound record showin the variations in intensity of the light )ust in proportion to the amplitude of the sound vibrations. The sound record shows in the developed negative film as alternately light and dark striations which while having the appearance of great irregularity, are in reality exceedingly regular and harmonic, only changin their order with the change in the sound v1 rations of which they are a record.
The record so produced and above referred to is the same form of record as is used in the photographone of Ruhmer and the reproduction of speech or sound from such a photophonographic record has been found to be astonishingly clear and quite strong, much clearer an purer than the reproduction of the ordinary wax cylinder phonograph. From a photographic sound record as above described, it is possible to secure man reproductions, each of which will repro uce the original sounds with equal exactitude.
It will be noted from what has gone before that so far the negative of the sound record and the negative of the picture record have been made upon separate strips or films. It is necessary, therefore, that these two negatives should be photographically printed u on one film or upon op osite sides thereof. 11 printin these recor s, the picture record would e printed as usual on one side of the moving picture film and fixed, the fixing solution however not being allowed to touch the other side of the film or strip. On the other side of the film there is a coatin 4 of the substance before referred to w ich is impervious 0r opaque to infra-red rays, one such substance being very This substance which is opaque or impervious to the infra-red rays is combined with gelatin or other suitable medium. After the picture side of the film has been printed, this coating 4 is sensitized by brushing on a solution having a proper proportion of bichromate of potassium or bichromate of ammonium. This sensitizes the gelatin and makes its sensitive to light for photographic action. This coating 4 could not be sensitized previously as in printing the pictures the sensitiveness of the coating 4 to light would be destroyed. The gelatin medium wherein the thin metallic silver for instance is carried, would simply act to hold this metallic silver or like substance and act as a transparent medium subject to the photographic action of light to thereb obtain a photographic record of the soun variations or sound record. The sound record which has been'taken as previously described would be printed on the coating 4 of the film shown in Figs. 5 to 7 by means of ordinary light, ordinary light affecting the now sensitized gelatin, and after printing in this manner the face 4 of the film is soaked in water which dissolves the gelatin that has not been acted on by the light. This soaking of the film will eave and take off horizontal stretches of transparent gelatin extendin across the film, and therefore leave or cut 0 the element or substance carried in the elatin and which acts to cut off the infra-re rays. The horizontal stretches or lines of gelatin left upon the side 4 of the film correspond to the sound record.
Thus on one side of the film 2 there would be a picture record to be reproduced by means of ordinary light, which light passes uninterruptedly through the clear transparent gelatin while on the other side would be the sound record formed by bands of elatin corresponding to alternate light an dark lines on the negative and adapted to be reproduced by means of infra-red rays which would pass readily through the entire film except where purposely cut 011' by the substance impervious to red rays contained in the gelatin left u on the film. It is reiterated that the white light would be entirely unaffected by passage through the coatin 4 and that the infra-red rays while being a fected by the coating 4. would beunafi'ected by the coating 3 containing the picture record.
Generally speaking, for the reproduction of the picture. record and the sound record, ordinary white li ht ispassed through the picture record while infra-red rays (invisible to the eye) are passed through the sound record and all upon suitable instruments to be hereafter described whereby these infra-red rays will cause the reproduction of sound vibrations. There are a number of instruments that are sensitive to infra-red rays. The tasimeter invented by Thomas A.
Edison will measure heat accurately down to the ten-thousandth part of one degree, but this instrument is probably too sluggish for the purpose of reproducing sound record. The selenium cell when sensitized by Abneys process is sensitive to infra-red rays and may be used for the purpose. I believe, however, that the bolometer is best adapted for the purpose for several reasons, but principally because the element upon which the light falls can be made more nearly to coincide with the small horizontal lines of the photographic sound record. The width of the horizontal lines of the sound record would be regulated according to the speed of the film. Thus for instance where the Urban-Smith natural color films are used, these horizontal lines would be wider on account of the greater operating speed of these natural color films.
In the reproducing apparatus such as is hereafter described, infra-red rays are proj ected against the film containing the sound record and the picture record by suitable prisms such as prisms of rock salt, fluorite or Jena glass and focused through a narrow slit onto the film and after passing through the film fall on the reproducing instrument such as the bolometer. Connected in series with the bolometer or through similar apparatus would be loud-speaking phones such as the auristophone, the Edison or the Duroeret loud-speaking phones.
Moving pictures are reproduced by inter mittently moving the film. It is therefore plain that it would be impossible to use this film during its intermittent motion or at the point through which the white light rays are projected for the purpose of reproducing the sound record, it being plain that the sound record must be reproduced as it was taken, namely, by a continuous movement of the film. I overcome this difiiculty therefore by passing the infra-red rays through the film at a point on one side or the other of the point where the picture projecting rays are passing through, that is, at a point where the film is moving continuously and steadily.
An apparatus whereby the moving pictures may be projected and the sound record synchronously reproduced, is illustrated in Fig. 1. This figure shows an ordinary mov ing picture projecting apparatus comprising a table or base 26 supported in any suitable manner and supporting u on it the lamp housing 27 wherein there is disposed unrolled from an upper film reel and passes down through the usual moving picture projector 29. This mechanism contains means for intermittently shifting the film while the shutter of the mechanism is closed. Inasmuch as there are various types of this mechanism and it is thoroughly well known, it is not deemed advisable to describe the mechanism in detail.
The white light after passing through the film 2 at the point a, is pro]ected onto a screen A in the usual manner. The film after it passes below the aperture plate of the moving icture machine no longer moves intermittently but is moved continuously v and I have illustrated the film 2 as being assed around a series of rollers 30 and in rout of the aperture of a selenium cell or like apparatus, this cell being designated 31. After assing in front of the aperture of the selenium cell the film 2 passes around a lower or receiving reel 32 which may be connected up with any suitable mechanism whereby the reel may be rotated continuously in a direction to wind up the reel 2 at a suitable rate of speed.
Disposed immediately below and in line with the meeting point between the carbons of the angular arc lamp 28, there are series of lenses 33. These lenses are preferably made of rock salt or fluorite. The infrared rays passing through these lenses 33 are transmitted by means of prisms 33' of Jena glass or other suitable material to the aperture of the selenium cell 31. A diaphragm 34 is so dis osed as to cause these rays to fall in the orm of an elongated narrow or transversely extending beam upon the face of the selenium cell 31. Preferably the lenses 32 and the prisms 33 are contained within a casing or housing 35.
The selenium cell 31 18 formed in any usual or suitable manner and requires no articular description as it is the ordinary orm of cell except that preferably the cell is treated by Abneys process so as to make it extremely sensitive to the infra-red rays. Mounted behind the screen or in any suitable portion of the exhibition hall is a loudspeaking phone desi ated 36 in Fi 1. This is a. loud-speaking electric telep one and is connected in series by the wires 37 with the selenium cell 31.
The operation of the picture and sound reproducing apparatus illustrated in Fig. 1 is of course 0 vious. The pictures are reproduced in the usual manner, but after the strip or film has passed beyond the specific moving picture mechanism, the strip passes in front of theselenium cell and the transverse bands or lines of the sound record on the film will act to more or less intercept, absorb, reflect or otherwise stop or im ads the passage of the infra-red rays. ere the infra-red rays fall with full force upon bolometer as used for this purpose.
ihe selenium cell, the cell will have, a certain degree of electrical resistance. Where the infra-red raysare intercepted or their intensity changed in any manner, the electrical resistance of the selenium cell will vary correspondingly. There will therefore be a constant variation of the electrical resistance of the cell as the record film passes in front of the cell, and this continual variation of resistance will, in a manner well known, affect the mechanism of the telephone transmitter 36 and thereby cause vibrations of the air corresponding to the sound vibrations and the sound will be reproduced. All of the mechanism heretofore described is well known by itself. The photophone operates on the same principle as the sound reproducing mechanism heretofore described, but using ordinary white light.
Inasmuch as sound reproductions may be secured by a large variety of electrical apparatus, aflected by variations of rays falling upon it, I do not wish -'0 be limited to the use of a selenium cell or any other specific apparatus for the purpose of translatin the photographic sound records into air vibrations as any other mechanism having the same general function may be substituted for the selenium cell.
For purposes of illustration, I have shown in Figs. 9 and 10 two other forms of mechanism adapted to translate the vibrations of light rays into sound. Fig. 9 illustrates the The bolometer will measure heat accurately down to the ten-millionth part of a degree. In Fig. 9 38 and 39 indicate two thin platinum strips forming the two arms of a Wheatstone bridge normally in perfect balance. The infra-red rays passing through the film 2 in the form of a thin beam fall on one of these arms or strips, namely the strip 39. This disturbs the balance of the bridge. This Wheatstone bridg is connected as illustrated in the diagram to a telephone transmitter 40 which is the transmitter of any one of the loud-speaking phones previously referred to. The current passing lhrough this transmitter will vary in correspondence with the variations of the red rays falling upon the strip 39 and therefore the photographic sound record will be reproduced as air vibrations. The action of this instrument is virtually instantaneous in its operation and extremely sensitive.
Fig. 10 is a diagram of the Edison tasimeterwhich may also be used for the purpose of translating photographic sounds into sound vibrations. In this figure 41 illustrates a rod of vulcanite supported against a fixed abutment at one end and at the other end abutting against a movable disk 42. This disk bears in turn against a carbon button 43 dis osed between the movable disk 42 and a xed disk of metal 42. The
two metal disks 42 and 42" are connected in circuit to a loud-speaking phone the current passing more or less between the disks 42 and 42 throu h the carbon button as it is compressed. he variations in these red rays cause this vulcanite to contract and exand thus compressing the carbon button 43 tween the metal pieces 42 and 42, causing variations in the current corresponding to the variations in the strength of the rays.
lVhile I have illustrated three forms of electrical sound reproducing apparatus, I wish it understood that I may use other forms. Thus I might use a thermopile, especially a Bi-Ag, a selenium cell made sensitive to infra-red rays by Abneys process, or any other delicate heat measuring instrument of like character.
While in Fig. 1 and Figs. 9 and 10 I have shown only one telephone transmitter, this transmitter being shown in Fig. 1 as being dis osed behind the screen A, it will be understood that with the electrical sound reproducing apparatus I may use a plurality of telephone transmitters disposed at various portions of an amusement hall, not only behind the screen but at the sides of the hall. This is obviousl of great advantage and is not possible were ordinary sound reproducing mechanism is used.
Such an arrangement of phones is illustrated in Fig. 4 wherein the picture and sound projecting apparatus is designated 47 and illustrated diagrammatically, the picture being received upon the screen 48. As illustrated, there are three loud-s eaking telephone receivers 49 disposed behind the screen 48 and a plurality of loud-speaking transmitters disposed along the side of the, hall and facin toward the audience. Thus the sounds reproduced may be distinctly heard by everybody in the audience. While I have illustrated in Fig. 4 all of the phones as being connected in one circuit and asheing actuated by one selenium cell, bolometer or tasimeter, it is to be understood that when a film like that shown in Fig. 8 is used with two records placed in parallel position upon the film, a plurality of sets of sound reproducing apparatus is to be used. Thus with the film shown in Fig. 8 there will be two beams of infra-red rays projected through th film, each falling upon a separate bolometer, tasimeter or like apparatus, and each such reproducing mechanism being electrically connected to one of a series of sets of phonographictransmitters. By usin the film shown in Fig. 8, a dialo e may be reproduced so that the sounds Wlll issue from transmitters set at opposite sides of the hall or at opposite polnts behind the screen, thus causing the dialogue to seem more natural than if it apparently issues from one point only. It is obvious that a larger number of records could be placed upon the same film and thus the sounds be caused to issue from a plurality of points behind the screen or around the hall.
The two main features of my invention upon which the invention is based are in the first place the provision of a film capable of receiving not only the photographic prints of the pictures to be projected, but also the photographic record of the sound and the use with these films of invisible rays for the purpose of reproducing the sound record. The other important and vital feature of my invention resides in the provision of means whereby the sound record may be taken from that portion of the film which is moving continuously while that part of the film through which the rays of Whllie light are projected is moved intermittent y.
In printing the sound record upon the strip or film 2, the sound record is started a suliicient distance beyond the starting point of the picture record so that at the instant that any one event is being projected on the lines, the sound record 'corres ouding to this event is assing the axis of line Z. Inasmuch as in ta ing or making the picture record and the sound record two separate negative films or strips are used, it is entirelyl possible in printing these records upon t e film 2 to displace the sound record with relation to the picture record in the manner stated. While I have shown the axis Z of the infra-red beam as being about twelve inches below the axis a: of the white light beam, I wish it understood that the two axes may be much nearer than this and that the drawing in Fig. 1 is purely illustrative in this regard, and further that I may pass the in ra-red rays through the strip 2' above the picture projecting mechanism and above the axis :0.
While I have referred to the lenses and prisms for focusing and transmitting the invisible rays as being made of rock salt, or Jena g ass, 'it is of course obvious that they may be made of other material such as fluorite or that I may use metallic reflectors for deflecting the invisible rays along the 'line Z.
It is obvious also that in place of using a camera having a megaphone for transmitting sounds to the speaking are or the manometric flamc, sensitive microphone transmitters might be used at various portions of a stage upon which actors were acting a moving icture play, and that the v1- brations of t ese microphones could be transmitted electrically to diaphraglns placed within a camera to thereby transm t the sounds proceeding from the several m1- crophones to the several flames or speaking arcs to be recorded 1n separate columns upon the sound record film.
In 'Fig. 11 I show diagrammatically a Bi-Ag thermopile as above referred to. As this thermopile is well-known an extended description .is not necessary. The thermopile consists of a frame 50 having an opening at its middle and extending across this openin are a plurality of con les 52 composed 0 connected bismuth an silver wires. lapping lates of tin, the junctions formed by the p ates being covered with platinum black. The frame 50 with its couples of platinum and silver is supported 1ns1de of a casing 51 having a narrow slit through which the infra-red ra s are projected upon the junction plates. he couples of s lver and bismuth ar connected in circuit with a receiver of a lou peaking tele hone in the manner heretofore, escribed. thermopile of this character is fully described in Bulletin No. 4 issued by the ureau of Standards on Instrument and Methods of Radiometry. Therefore no' extended description of the thermopile is necessary.
In case the talking picture machine before describedis desired to be used in very large theaters where it would take a sound a per ceptible time to travel the distance and where it would be possible to see the picture, therefore, before hearing its corresponding sound, the following arrangement could be made. After the system. has been brought to a standard the instrument sensitive to the infra-red rays would always be just a certain distance from the lens or just a certain number of pictures below the lens. Ina large theater. therefore, it would be only necessary to slightl advance the instrument, that is. move it a bit nearer to the lens, in which case the sound of a given event would slightly precede the picture but the sound would reach the observer at the same time that the picture was shown.
What I claim is:
1. A composite picture and sound recording film having on one side thereof a series of consecutive picture records and on the other side thereof a correspondin photographic soi'md record, the records dieing in overlapped relation.
A composite picture and sound recording film having on one side a series of consecutive ictures formed to permit the assage of invisible light rays without a ecting said rays and on the other side thereof a These couples are joined by over-.
4. A composite picture and sound recording film having on one side a series of consecutive pictures adapted to permit or afl'ect the passage of visible rays of white light and aving on the other side and super osed upon the pictures a corresponding pliotographic sound record adapted to permit the rec passage of rays of visible light but to intercept or affect the passage of rays of invisible light.
5. A composite picture and sound recording film having thereon a series of consecutive pictures adapted to affect or intercept the passage of rays of visible light and on the other side a corresponding photogra hic sound record adapted to intercept or a cot the passage of infra-red rays, the records being in overlapped relation.
6. A composite picture and sound recordmg film for moving picture talking machines, of transparent material having on one side a picture record alfectin rays of ordinary visible li ht but not affecting invisible light rays an on the other side a sound recorc permitting the passage of ordinary visible ight but affecting or intercepting the passage of invisible light rays, the records being in overlapped relation.
7. A composite pictureand sound recording film for moving picture talkin machines having on one side a series 0 consecutive pictures interce ting or afiecting the passage of white and visible li ht and having on the other side and exten ing ontlrely across the film a photographic sound record formed of a substance permitting the free passage of ordinary white light rays.
but afl'ectin or intercepting the passage of invisible lig t rays.
8. A sound recording film having thereon a photographic medium and a medium adapted to cut off intercept or otherwise affect rays of invlsible light, the mediums being in overlapped relation.
9. A sound recording film having thereon a photographic sound record composed of a substance having a high percentage of water of crystallization or a igh percentage o'f Water of constitution, a high percentage of 4 selective reflection or a high percentage of selective absorption.
10. A photographic sound record' comprising a transparent film having thereon a sensitive coating comprising a substance having a high percentage of water of crystallization or a high percentage of water of constitution, a high percentage of selective reflection or a high ercentage of selective absorption, and a mem ium carrying said substance and subject to the photographic action whcreb the sound records may be photographica ly obtained.
11. A sound reproducing and moving icture film of mater al transparent to visible and invisible light having on one side a picture record and on the other side a photographic sound record, the picture record being of'matcrial permitting the free passage of light rays beyond or below the visible spectrum but interce )ting or affecting light rays proceeding withln the visible spectrum, the sound record being formed of material permitting the free passage of visible light rays but affecting or interce ting the passage of rays beyond the visi le light spec trum, the records being in overlapped relation.
12. The method of producin a motion picture and sounds correspon mg to the action of the pictures which consists in passing rays of visible light and invisible light rays separately throu h a film, one side of said film being provi ed with photographic picture records acting to affect rays of visible li ht but not affecting invisible light rays, t e other side of said film having superim osed thereon a hotographic sound recor of a substance w ich will affect invisible light rays'but will not affect the visible light rays, causin the film to move at one point intermittent y and at another oint continuously, causing the rays of visi le light to pass through the intermittently moving portion of the film and the invisible rays to pass through the steadily moving portion of the film, and translating the variations in the invisible light rays into sound vibrations.
13. A film for use in reproducing pictures and sound in s nchronism having thereon a plurality of p otogra hic records, each adapted to intercept or afigct a certain class of light rays and permit rays of another class to pass unimpeded therethrough, each record intercepting or affecting that class of light rays which is permitted by the other record to pass freely, the records being in overlapped relation.
14. A film for use in reproducing pictures and sound in synchronism having thereon a the picture record with a plurality of superimposed photogra hic records, each adapted to intercept or a ect a certain class of light rays and permit rays of another class to pass unimpeded therethrough, each record intercepting or affecting that class of light rays Wl'llCh is permitted by the other record to pass freely, the records bein in overlapped relation.
15. The metho of reproducing a plurality of difi'erent records from a single moving film, consisting in moving a film across the paths of a plurality of different classes of light rays, said film havin thereon a plurality of superposed recor s, each of said records affecting or being more or less opaque to the passage of a certain class of light rays but permitting the free passage 0 another class of light rays, the rays permitted to pass by one record being of another set or class from those permitted to pass by any other record.
16. A composite picture and sound recording film having on one side thereof a photographic record and on the other side a. photographonic record, the records being overlapped.
17. A composite picture and sound recording film having opposed'photogra bio. and transparent photogra honie recor s.
18. A composite picture and sound recording film having opposed surfaces sensitized for the individual impression thereon oflphotographic and photographonic rec- ()l( s. I
19. A negative film for the negative impression of picture and sound records having its opposed surfaces sensitized one for the photographic impression of a picture and the other sensitized for the photographonic impression of a related sound, the sensitized medium of the last-mentioned surfaceof the film being pervious to visible light rays.
20. A positive, film for the reproduction of picture and sound records having upon one surface a positive picture record pervious to invisible light rays and provided upon its other surface and directly opposite ositive sound record pervious to visible light rays and more or less impervious to invisible light rays. I
In testimony whereof I afiix in presence of two witnesses.
RICHARD M. CRAIG. [1 5.]
G. M. Boox, G. H. Snmnn.