US 1263835 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
0. O. APP.
POWER ACTUATED IMPLEMENT- APPLICATION FILED APR. 3. 19H. v
Patented Apr. 23,1918.
3 SHEETS-SHEET I.
WK l l t l 55K @QT N,
@Wi/mmm 0. 0. APP.
Powea AcTuATEo IMPLEMENT.
APPLICATION FILED APR. 3.1911.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
OLIVER o. Arr, oF NEW YORK, 1v. Y.y
Specication of Letters Patent.
Patented Apr. Q3, 191..
Application 4filed. April 3, 1911. Serial No. 618,543.
, To all whom z'zf may concern:
Be it known that lf, OLIVER` APP, a citizen of the United States, residing at the city of New York, in the borough of Man-` plements, and more particularly to power mechanism for operating chisels, drills, and the like, such as are used in tunneling and excavatingv work and for breaking vstones and other frangible material. My invention has for its object the provision of reciprocable means adapted to forcefully impinge against the tool holding part, or, directly against a portion of the tool itself, said means being preferably' mechanically driven in one direction and .pneumatically driven in the reverse or contrary direction. A vfurther object of my invention is to conserve the pressure-fluid used in the operation of the device, so that waste of the' same is substantially obviated. A still further object4 of my invention is to provide aldriving mechanism for said reciprocable means which is adapted to be driven continuously in one direction. 1 have further devised novel means for angularly or rotarily advancing a tool while thelatter is in operation; this feature being of especial value, in drilling holes in rock, and the like. Another bbject of my invention is to provide novel means whereby a tool carried bythe implement is automatically set in operation when the working portion or edge thereof is forcibly drivenagainst a surface to be loperated upon; while it is correspondingly automatically thrown out of action when pressure upon the said tool is relieved. lf have further devised means whereby the reciprocatory part orhammer `is thrown into such aY position as tobe inoperative when lthe pressure upon the tool is removed yin manner aforesaid. These andother objects V.of my invention will be hereinafter referred to and more particularlypointed outin the appended claims.
In the drawmgs which form a part here` of, and in whichlike characters designate like parts throughout the several views:
' igure 1 is a side elevat-ion of one embodiment of my invention.
Fig. 2 is a plan of the same.
Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal section of the cylinder shown in Fig. 1, taken axially thereof; the parts contained in said cylinder being in operative relationship.
Fig. 1 is a view similar to Fig. 3, but showing the parts in inoperative position.
.Fig.'5 is a detail section drawn to a reduced scale, said section being taken on the line V-V of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is a detail, partly in section,`of the cam and wiping parts hereinafter referred to; the section being taken on line VI-fVI of Fig. 7
Fig. 7 is a detail elevation of the elements shown in Fig. 6; some of said elements being broken away on line VH-VH of said figure.
Fig. 8 is a' detail of the tool and water connection. (l
Fig. 9 is a detail of a non-revoluble tool and parts coperating therewith.
ln the implement shown in the figures, which, as l am well aware, is but one form of many in which my invention, or essential features thereof, may be embodied, a base 1 is provided upon which is mounted a cylinder 2 in any suitable manner, as by means of uprights or standards 3, land 5, 'the cylinder being held in place upon saidstandards by means of straps '6. This cylinder may be of lsubstantially the same bore throughout, and has -positioned interiorly Vthereof a separator block or partitionv 7,
which is secured firmly in position in ,said
cylinder. The joint between said block and the piston rod 10 is preferably headed. asat tion this headv isfhexagonal in cross-section and 1s received into a' `correspondingly 17, and in this exemplification ofmy invenl Miti shaped recess jl8`formed in a sleeve:'19,` which sleeve has substantially the same Outer diam-etwas" ftheboreof the cylinder.: A
ll ity of thecylinder., yThe `forward'endv of plement is intended to be put, the said shankin either case, being preferablyrmly keyed or pinned to the sleeve 19, as at 21.
A second sleeve 22, which may be ofthe same diameter as the first, is arranged in the cylvinder between the outer sleeve 19 and the partition block 7 above referred to, and uniting devices such as the bars or clips 23 are preferably provided, whereby the 'outer sleeve 19 and inner sleeve 22 are held together, clips 23 being preferably substantially U-shaped and being arcuately formed to conform to the bore of the cylinder; the ribs 24 of thesebars or clips being received into correspondingl grooves in respective sleeves.
By reason of this construction these two sleeves are constrained to move longitudinally together, `but the sleeve 19 is free to rotate independently of the inner sleeve 22, and to facilitate such action ball-bearings 25 may be provided between the said sleeves, these ball-bearings being of any suitable construction. The clips 23 may if desired each be semicircular, as indicated in Fig. 4,
the extremities of said bars abutting against each other as at 26 in said figure. The inner sleeve 22 is reduced in diameter or grooved as at 27 and` 28 so that in effect this sleeve constitutes a double valve the use of which will be hereinafter set forth. Packing rings 29, 30 and 31, are carried by said sleeve and are so disposed as to prevent leakage from groove 27 to groove 28 or vice versa, or from either of said grooves toward or from either end of the said sleeve. I
The rear extremity of the cylinder is ported as at 32, and the body thereof is correspondingly ported at 33, the said ports being in communication lby means of a passage or conduit 34 which in this instance is formed directly in the wall of the cylinder, although obviously other constructions may be employed. Two additional ports 34 and 35 are preferably arranged between ports 32 and 33, ports 34 and 35 being connected together by means of a conduit 36. 1n the opposite side of the cylinder shown in Fig. 3, an additional pair of ports 37 and 38 are indicated which are in communication with each other through a conduit 39; this conduit in turn opening at 40 into a pipe 41 which communicateswi-th a compressed air tank 42. By reason of the disposition of port 37 with respect to the rear end of the inner sleeve, it is evident that this sleeve and thereby also the outer sleeve 19, will be normally urged outwardly to the position in which they are shown in Fig. 4, if pres- `Isure sufficient to overcome this tendency be not applied to the tool carried by said sleeve.
The sleeves andthe tool may hence be said to have a bias toward this position.
Assuming that such. pressure has been apin cross section plied, and that the sleeves are disposed as shown in Fig. 3; herein the port 38 is in communication with the groove 37 and the said groove is further in communication with ort 33 and, via conduit 34, with port 32. ence, the pressure Huid will pass through the several ports and passages, and will exert its pressure upon the rear wall of the piston 11, thereby urging said piston forwardly and driving its head 17 into contact with the tool-holder shank 20. As the pressure in the tank is maintained substantially constant, unless the piston is forcibly withdrawn from this last mentioned position, it will tend to stay there indenitely so long as pressure is applied upon the working edge or portion of the tool.
Assuming now that the pressure upon the tool is relieved and that thereby the fiuid pressure upon the rear end of the sleeve 22 forces both sleeves into their outermost posi tion, it will be seen that port 38 will first be closed by the passage of the ring 30 and adjacent parts of the sleeve thereover, but will immediately afterward be again opened and thrown into communication y with groove 28, as shown in Fig. 4. The iiuid will then find its way through said groove to port 35, and will pass thence through conduit 36 and port 34 into the chamber formed between the rear wall of the partition block 7 and the front wall of the piston, which will force the piston rearwardly into the position shown inl Fig. 4. The ports 43, which in this instance extend through walls of the cylinder, are so disposed that when the sleeve 22 is in its outermost position groove 27 will be in communication with the outer air therethrough, Which permits the pressure Huid, in this instance compressed air, which had previously been introduced behind piston 11, to escape so that said piston may be driven rearwardly to the end of its travel. v
Referring to Figs. 2, 3 and 4, it will be observed that l additionalV exhaust ports 44-44 are provided which when the sleeve -22 is in its innermost position are in communication with groove 28. Accordingl the chamber in front of piston 11 is at suc time always in communication with the atmosphere, while when the sleeve 22 is moved forwardly into the position shown in Fig. 4, ports 44 are closed by the rear extremity of said sleeve.
Referring again to Figs. 1 and 2, and
. cam plate.
i piston rod, and being secured firmly there-- or lll-shaped frame 53. This frame is secured to the rear extremity of the reduced portion 15 of the piston rod and in suchmanner that the said piston rod is journaled therein, and is free to rotate when drivenin the manner hereinafter described. The cam plate 48 carries one or more wipers 54 which are preferably adjustably mounted thereon as shown in Figs. 6 and 7 wherein the cam plate is ldovetailjrecessed or grooved at 55 for the reception of the shank 56 of a wiper 54, the shank being clamped in its position in the groove by means of a bolt or screw 57, said shank being slotted as at 58 to permitradial movement inwardly or outwardly of said Wiper with respect to the' The linger-like portion 59 of the wiper is adapted for engagement with a frict1on bevel wheel 60,'the latter being carried upon the threaded extremity 4of the to so that said rod may be rotated by means of said" bevel wheel. 1t. may be notedin this connection that the bifurcated frame'53 is revolubly mounted upon a sleeve 61, the
i extremities of which latter are in engagement with washers 62 and 63, washers 62 bearing against the hub of wheel 60, land the respective washers and the said wheel being adapted to be clamped firmly to this sleeve by means of nuts 64 and 65.
Considering next the details shown in Fig.` 8, the tool-holder shank, 20, has integrally formed therewith a chuck or toolholder 66 which is annularly grooved as at 67 for the reception of a ring 68, which latter is held in place by means of a washer 69, which latter may be secured to thel chuck in any suitable manner, as by means of screws `70. The ring 68 'is apertured and threaded as at 71 for the reception of a water pipev 72- and an annularconduit or space 7 3 is prfided between the chuck and the inner side of the ring 68, which is in communication'with this pipe, while a cross conduit 74 extends through the chuck from one side of this space tothe other, and affords means for delivering flushing or lubricating fluid, such as water, from the pipe 72 to a centrally disposed vent 75. Y
The chuck is laterally apertured as at 76 for lthe reception of gripping blocks 77, which maybe of wood, or other suitable material, said blocksl being held in contact with the shank of a tool 78, which is inserted axially into said chuck, by means of 84 are provided upon the respective legs of the U-bolt 80.
In positioning av drilling tool 78, or the like, inthe chuck, the shank of said tool is inserted into the chuck, and the gripping blocks are caused to iirmly grip said shank therebetween; pressure being applied to said blocks first by means of nuts 84, and when.
these have been tightened up as far as practlcable, the wedge 81 is drawn downwardly by means of nut 82 so that the tool shank is lheld very securely by the chuck. The shank of this type of tool is preferably apertured longitudinally thereof as at 85, and in order to substantially prevent leakage of the water, ,which is intended to be passed through this ape'rture, l provide a packing ring or sleeve 86 which is received into a recess 87, in the rear end of the tool-shank and into a corresponding vrecess 88, which is disposed around the opening or port 7 5. This packing ring may be of rubber, 'or any other suitable material, and it is obvious that, when the tool is in position in its chuck, the water,
or other flushing or lubricating fluid, may be delivered to the working edge or portion 89 of the tool from the pipe 72, and this in spite of the fact that pipe 72 is stationary, while the chuck and tool are rotating more or less rapidly.
The shaft 46 is extended beyond the uppermost bracket 45, as viewed in Fig. 2, and operates a pump 90 by means .of an eccentric strap 91, the construction employed for effectmg the operation of the pump being that of any well known type.v This pump is in communication with the compressed air tank via a pipe' 92. It Will hence be seen that the tool and the` necessary equipment for operating the same are so united as to constitute substantially a unit.
The operation of the apparatus is as folshaft 46, and will deliver compressed air, if
that be the pressure Huid used, to the tank- 42. i Assuming that .the tool has not been ap# plied to 'the work, the sleeves v19 and 22 will then bein their outermost positions, and the pressure fluid, will exert its pressure upon the forward face of the piston, driving such piston to the rear.- In this position the l rollers 50 which are indirectly carried by the piston rod, will be driven toward the shaft 46 and will thereby clear the cams 49 when the latter are being rotated. The piston will therefore remain stationary; while correspondingly the sleeves 19 and 22 will be held in their outermost position by the action of the pressure fluid upon the rear end of sleeve 22.
Assuming now that the tool is brought to bear against a rock surface, sleeve 19 and vthereby sleeve 22, will be. driven inwardly.
Gommunication'between the respective ports will be established as'per Fig. 3, which will result in fluid pressure being exerted upon i the rear face of piston 11, while the forward wardly, before the rollers encounter one of the sets of cam surfaces 49. lIn practice, usually, inthis initial actuation of the tool, the pressure block of the piston will, owing to the relative slowness with which the ports .are opened when the sleeves are being driven inwardly, be insufficient at first to so move thel piston rod its entire stroke before the rollers 50 encounter the rapidly moving cams 49 and the respective rollers will hence each be struck by a cam at some point alon the surfaceof the latter, before the head 1 has actually encountered the tool shank.
This, however, merely concerns the initial operation of the device. The cam surfaces .Hui
of the cams which are in engagement with 49 havingengagedthe rollers 50, will retract the (piston against the action of the pressure but as soon as the respective points 93 the rollers, pass -said rollers, the piston will be free to be driven abruptly and powerfully forward by thepressure fluid, the piston being thereafter periodically pulled back against the action of the pressure fluid and suddenly released. In this exempliication -of my invention there are three sets of cams upon a cam wheel, and`as the said wheel is rotating at the rate of, let us say, 1,000l revolutions per minute, it is obvious that the pistonl head 17 will impinge against the tool shank approximately 3,000 times per min ute, and that the force which the said head will exert under said conditions will be relatively enormous if the pressure fluid be Y highly compressed.
. available at the instant that the hammerv In 4pneumatic tools as ordinarily con-A structed, the fluid operates expansively, and hence lthe full pressure ofthe liuid is not strikes the tool or tool-carrying part. In Amy construction, however, practically; no expansion whatsoever need occur and substantially the full pressure of the fluid is available to urge the head or hammer forward, and to drive the same into contact with .the tool -or'tool-carrying part up to the very instant of impact. y
The tool further is held firmly to the work so that it does not tend to rebound by reason of the pressure exerted upon the sleeve 22. Should it be desired to revolve or rotate the tool while operating the same, the wipers 54 are moved outwardly with respect to the shaft 46 until they are adapted to successively engage the surface of the bevel wheel, each at an instant when the said wheel is in its most rearward position. Asa result the wheel will be wiped, preferably somewhat lightly, by the wipers, and will accordingly be rotated a small amount each time that a wiper engages it. As the bevel wheel is firmly secured to the piston rod and as the head of the rod, in this instance, is non-circular, z'. e., hexagonal, the -s'leeve 19 will rotate'with the rod and wheel, and will thereby impart a step by step angular or rotary movement to the tool; and by adjusting the wipers with respect to the wheel the amount of rotary displacement of the tool, at each step, can be regulated.
Of course it *is to be understood that it is not always desirable to'employ a rotarily acting tool, as for instance when it is desired to merely use a chisel. In such case means are provided for preventing the tool and the sleeve 19 in which it is preferably directly held in such case, from rotating; auxiliary hold-ing or locking means being provided. Figs. 2 and 9 exemplify one form of such means, the cylinder having therein a transverse aperture 94 adapted for vthe reception of a key 95, which may be driven thereinto. The outer `surface of the sleeve 19 at one point is correspondingly surfaced off as at 96, said surface bearin against the inner side of the key 95 and thereby preventing the sleeve from rotating, while the depression or recess so formed in the surface of the sleeve is of sufiiciently greater width than that of the said key to permit of the necessary longitudinal `displacement of the sleeve with respect to the cylinder. A normally non-revoluble tool, has been Shown in Fig. 9, and in this case no chuck being necessary, the shank of the tool is made hexagonal, in correspondence with. the shank of the holder previously described, and is inserted directly int the hexagonal bore ofthe sleeve 19; the key 21 serving in this instance to maintain the tool directly in position in said sleeve, instead of being in engagement with the shankl of a tool holder.
In lits broad aspects, the invention contemplates'the provision, in combination with other parts, of a chamber of variable capacity which is adapted to be maintained distended by the action of the pressure-Huid,
a part of which chamber is periodically. movable by means of a suitable appliance so as to reduce Vthe volume of said chamber,
' against the action of the pressure-fluid; the
abrupt action of the fluid in Vre-distending the chamber being utilized to drive the tool.
In the form of my device shown in the accompanying drawings this chamber is con stituted by thex rear end ofthe cylinder, its cap and the piston; but it is evident that many types of chamber may be provided and that this distending action ,of the pressure-fluid may be taken advantage of in many ways; a number of which I am' well aware of. i
I am also aware that some attempts have been made heretofore t0 utilize some of the underlying principles hereof and hence do not attempt to lclaim such a pressure chamber and means, broadly, for reducing its Vvolume against the action of the pressure fluid; that the employment of a cam as a part of the actuating means renders the device most practical and economical in operation. Especially is this the case when the cam is revolubly mounted and when auxiliiary means such, for example, as thoseI shown are provided for automatically throwing the tool out of action when it is removed from its wprk.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a power-actuated implement, a fluidpressure reservoir, a tool, a cylinder, a piston therein, a movable valve for alternately admitting fluid-pressure to and exhausting fluid-pressure from each end of said cylinder, and means for retracting said piston against the action of the fluid-pressure admitted to one end of said cylinder.
2. In a power-actuated implement, a fluidpressure reservoir, a tool, a cylinder, a reciprocably mounted element therein adapted to actuate said tool, a movable valvular means for alternately admitting and exhausting fluid-pressure from each end of said cylinder, said means normally admitting pressure to the front end of said cylinder and eX- hausting it from the rear end and means operatively associated with said tool for moving said valvular means to admit pressure to the rear end. and to exhaust pressure from the front end of said cylinder, and means for retracting said element against the force. of said fluid ressure admitted to the rear end of said cylinder.
3. In a power-actuatedimplement, a Huidpressure reservoir, a tool, a cylinder, a piston therein, a valve for controlling the admission of Huid-pressure to each end of said cylinder, said valve normally admitting pressure to the forward end, a tool, and
means operatively associated with said tool for moving said valve to cut ofi the supply of pressure to the-forward end and to admit it to the rear end of the cylinder and separate means for retracting said piston against the action of the Huid-pressure on the rear end of the piston. l
4. In a power-actuated implement, a cylinder, a piston therein, a tool adapted to be actuated thereby, means for alternately admitting duid-pressure to and exhausting fluid-pressure from each end of said cylinder, and means for retracting said piston against the force of said fluid-pressure in one direction.
5. In a power-actuated implement, a fluidpressure reservoir, a tool, a cylinder, a piston therein adapted to actuate said tool, movable means for alternately admitting fluid-pressure to and exhausting fluid-pressure from each end of said piston, the movement of said movable means-being controlledby the fluid-pressure in one direction, and means operatively associated with said tool for controlling it again in the other direction. f
' rate means for retracting said piston against the action of said fluid-pressure.
7. In a power actuated tool, a cylinder, a. piston therein, a longitudinally displaceable sleeve therein, movable inwardly toward said piston and away therefrom, said sleeve normally occupying the latter position, means for admitting pressure-fluid to one side of vsaid piston when said sleeve 1s moved 1nwardly, means for retracting said piston against the action of said pressure-fluid, a tool carried by said sleeve, means for cutting olf the admission of said pressure-Huid to said side of said piston when said sleeve and tool move outwardly with lrespect to said piston. l
8. In combination, a ported cylinder, a piston therein, a plurality of sleeves in said cylinder one of which is rotatably mounted, 1,15 one of said sleeves having pressure fluid passages therein, the movement of said last mentioned sleeve with respect to said cylinder controllin the admission of pressure fluid into said cy inder, a tool opera whereby pressure upon the working portion of the tool controls the admission of pres- 125 sure fluid to parts of said cylinder, means for positively displacing'said piston against the action 'of said pressure uld, and means for rotating said rotatably mounted sleeve.
9. A power-actuated implement comprisist le by said piston, said tool being operatively connected to one ing a reciprocably mounted element, a tool adapted to be actuated thereby, pneumatic means fortactuating said reciprocating element in one direction, mechanical means for 5 actuating said element in the other direction, said pneumatic means being normally inoperative and said mechanical means being disassociated from. said element under normal conditions and means controlled by 10 the backward movement of the tool for rendering said pneumatic means operative and.
for connecting said mechanical means to said reciprocably mounted element to thereby cause the periodical reciprocation of said element. v i5 In Witness whereof, subscribe my signature, in the presence of tWo Witnesses.
. OLIVER O. APP.
' Witnesses: 4
WALDo M. CHAPIN, JAMES DE ANTONIO.