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Publication numberUS1271010 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 2, 1918
Filing dateSep 25, 1913
Priority dateSep 25, 1913
Publication numberUS 1271010 A, US 1271010A, US-A-1271010, US1271010 A, US1271010A
InventorsWilliam W Billington, William Burnett
Original AssigneeBay City Dredge Works
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ditch-dredging machine.
US 1271010 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)




I APPLICATION FILED SEPT-25,1913- V 1 ,Ti ,QJlU Patented July 2,1918.




Pittllted July 2, 1918.





nrronmnnnsme MACHINE.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented July 2, l9ld.

Application filed September 25, 1913. Serial No. 791,728.

and we do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof.

Our invention relates to ditch dredging machines, the object being to provide a machine for dredging ditches which is supported above the ditch, and adapted to span the portion of the ditch already dug, and to Work along the ditch in such Way as to provide for the rapid digging of the same, and for the disposition of the earth removed on either side of the ditch.

The usual custom in the digging of these ditches with power driven machines, has been either to place the ditch machine in the ditch and work along the bottom of the ditch, or to place the machine on the solid ground to one side or ahead of the ditch, and work with a scoop bucket to one side or behind the machine. Both these methods have been found to be objectionable and slow and costly in their operation. By the present invention weare enabled to operate more rapidly, accurately, and to do the work much more cheaply, and also are able to obtain a better control of the machine in the manner of operating upon the earth to remove the same, and also in the manner of moving the dredging machine,and also in the handling of the machine itself and in making the same extensible, so as to suit the different widths of ditch, and to go around curves, bonds or angles, or over small obstructions, and by reason of our machines lightness, over softer or marshy earth.

It comprises, generally stated, a ditching machine having a frame adapted to span the portion of the ditch already dug, and ditching mechanism mounted. at the forward end of the frame and operating in its digging stroke on a level below the ditch and forward thereof, so the strokes in the digging operation are either horizontal or at an upward incline and it is not required to carry the dirt to any great height above the body of the frame. It comprises also the combination with the frame of pgrtable tracks therefor on oppo ite sides the ditch being dug, of connections to said tracks for the moving of the machine frame as t the work progresses, of means for extending the axles transversely of the machine,

to provide for wider or narrower tracks, and

trucks formounting the frame on the track to allow of its following an irregular track both as to Width and height. It also comprises other improvements as hereinafter fully set forth.

In the accompanying drawings Figure 1 is a side view of the ditching machine; Fig.

2 is a plan View thereof; Fig. 3 is a front view of the machine, these views showing the posltion of themachine 1n spanning the ditch. Fig. 4: is a detail view'of the truck and extensible axles and their support; Fig.

5 is a sectional view on line 5-5 Fig. 4:; Fig. 6 1s a SGCtlOIl on line 6-6 Fig. f; Fig.

I 7 is a detail of the axle frame; Fig. 8 is a view on line 8-8 Fig. 4E; and Figs. 9 and 1.0 are detail views of thetrack.

The dredge is mounted on a suitable ma chine frame which is preferably rectangular in shape and is built of suitable structural beams. As illustrated in the drawing the frame has the longitudinal beams 1 con nected to the cross beams 2, two such cross beams being placed at the front of the machine and two at the rear thereof. These cross beams sustain and carry the machine and contain the extensible axles, which can be adjusted according to the width of the ditch to be dug, as hereafter described. Rising from the front of the machine frame is the A-frame 33 and midway of the same is the vertical mast 4; whichis connected to the machine frame in a suitable manner and is also connected to the A-frame through the casting 5. This i l-frame is properly braced by means of the equalizing and stay cable 6 extending back to the rear of the machine frame which allows for the warping of frame when going over uneven ground. Extending across the fill-frame above midway of its height is the cross beam 7 which is connected. both to the A-frame and to the mast, and has itsend portions connected to the machine frame by the braces 8-8. Mounted. in a suitable casting secured to the main frame nner tattle l9 carrying; the s nne at boom 9 being supported bythe-holding cable 13 extending to the casting 5 at tlie'npper swing on the-casting I mounted on its pivotcasting 14 by means ofthe cables or chains mounted at the ends of the cross-beam 7 andthence "through suitable guide sheaves -to the drums. The mast and A-fra ine lean slightly forwardso; the boomnnddip'per al- Ways swing back't'o their central position. In like manner the dipper or bucket i'sraised and lowered by means'of'th cables'17 Opelating'around'the pulley 18 connected to'the dipper and passing around sheaves 19 at the outer end of the boom and thence over a sheave on the A-frame to the drum 20. The dipper and handle are controlled' by means of a cable'2l' connected to each end'of' the handle and passing 22 on boom to drum 23 on boom'controlled by brake band 24. The lo'wer end' of the dipper is connected by the chain 25 extending through the base of the boonrand'mast to the drum 26 which ehain is to pull'the dipper back'in place to dig, and byshort connectingchain 27 is to pull'the latch and open'bottom of dipper so contents drop out and are deposited where wanted. The inachinefra'me is mounted to travel upontracks" 28 on each side of the ditch, these tracks ofthe bank, which are resting on the edges known as ber'ms. The'berms do notneed to be'specially level,';th'e only requirement bei'ng'that' the tracks on either side-of the ditch'be"approximately the same distance apart, though as 'the"wheels have double" flangesand have wide bearing faces, the" bearing faces'of thewheels being, say, 6

inches, allowance' 'isthns madei for'tlie machinefollo'wing the tracks eventhough the tracks are inaccurately spaced apart. tr'acksare ma'de inshort sections of'a few feet "and each-"SeCti0n29,F 10, has one around an idler roller track.


or more'cross" ties or planks "3h bolted there to to reston the berm. As shown in 'Fig.= 10 f each 'sueh section of track -th'ereof the fish 'plates'3l bolted thereto, and extending out "in' front thereof, so that the nextadj oinin'gsect-ion canbe fitted between these fish plates'8l an'dlbolted theretofsay, by -a single pin or'bolt, 'thus allo wing'for the trac k'sections tofollowthe surface"of in'gs 33 whena very has at one end i further travel of the I cording end of the A-frame, SftlClbOOlH is caused to w '35 therefor, inches, whilefthe"rail he'ads are, say, 2'

the ground, even though it may be irregular. It is the duty of the men on each side of the ditch'to take-up these traclfiscctions after the machine'has passed offthem, and carry them forward and make them ready for the machine, which usually pullsitselfahead 8 feet or more at a shift.

Tliese ditches are made of different widths and it'is oftendcsired that the same ditch shall be of different widths, for example, being gradually increased in avidth from its head down to its mouth, or vice versa, ac-

as the machine is operated. It is alsovery desirable that the machine shall not be too wide in order to overcome the necessity of carrying and dimming the dirt 15 extendmgaround the" sheave pulleys 16 farther than necessary or to prevent the fronrinterfering with the track. vide for this, we employ a laterally extensible solid or hollow axle adapted for the mounting, spreading and contracting of the wheels supporting the frame toany desired distance from the center of the ditch, and thus provide for the tracks to correspond in width to the ditch being dug. This can beaccomplished in any suitable way. .\s illustratedin Figs. l 'to 8, we employ to that end extensible axles for wheel cxtonsions mounted in the cross beams 2 -2 of the main frame at the front and the rear of the machine. Such mounting, is illustrated and arranged as follows:

Referring to the means for mounting the rear wheels, said wheels are mounted on the h'illl le To proends of axles 32 which extend transversely of the-machine body, and bctwceirthe cross beams 22 thereof, and are fitted within axle chair castings 33. These castings are securedin place bybolts 3labove and bclow the axles. The frame itself is intended to be quite wide, say, from 12 to 40 feet, and these extensible axles or wheel cxlcnsions may be 1 to 8 feet in length, and they extendthrough several such chairs so that as found desirable, the axles can be drawn out to extend the width of the The axle chair castings are made in two sections, one fitting on either side of the axle, and having se1ni-circular seats while their outer edges 36 conform in shape to the inner faces of the web of'ea'ch 'I-beam 2 against which such sections are to fit. The chair castings do not entirely envelop the axles, spaces being left between them so that by tighteningup of the bolts 34, the chair castings can be made to grip the axles andhold them firmly to place and width desired. The cross beams 2 of the main frame have a limited adjustment in the frame to permit this clamping action. The cxtensibleaxles or wheel extensions can, of course, be extended out a considerable distanceby being drawn out through the loosened inncr chair castwide track is desired,

imipmzar and pushed inor closed. widthlof machine or lengthlofucross beams 2 when narr'ow. lfliLOlClS required;

In practicexwe find it very desirableto mount at; least i the forward .i? supporting wheels in trucks capable of both vertical and liiorizonta l swing'ito conform to the irregularities of the track, and to provide for the guiding of the machine frame around curves, angles and corners, suchas where there are bends or .the like inthe ditch. We find the machine operates well. with such trucks only at thev forward end ofthemachine frame, through, oficourse, theyv may be employed .at both; ends Such truck mounting isxillus'trated in Figs. 4; to 6, and its objectistolprovide for :both the vertical; swinging of the trucks and their wheels thereby adapting the frame to vertical ir-.. regularities inthe track, swing of the same as indicated above, or to enable the truck to conform to lateral irregularities in the track or for guiding purposes as; lbOVQJ StihtQd, and any. suitable mountingto this end may belemploye'd.

l Ve will now describe vthatillustrated in the drawing. f Mounted at'the outer end of the extension shaft or aXl6l 32 of the machine framerisacast steelhub. 37 fitting looselyyaround the, aXle shatt;;which'has collars er pins. 387.0111 either side thereof to hold it in, place. {This hub hasatv the .ii pper andlower edges there and for the lateral so providing ing heightaoriwidthlor on acsounl'cofthe a the sides iofth.e ditclr. i 1

ruthe lateral swiitig of the 2 To pro vide. J

trucks oirlthevextensible shafts or axles the.

inner sidcr frame .41 liasthe oblongnslot 4-6 i exten'ding through the web thereof. Tlhis slot may beymade of any desired length and its. end portions may act as stops limiting the swing-lofthe truck the tracks I provide the wirecable or chaln 47, Fig. 2 carrying hooks at its ends which engage directly with the base of-track sections, or maybe-looped around the rails of the track sections. These connections are usually made close up tothe forward wheels -or trucks "and the cable or chain" extends back to the sheave pulleys 48 mounted: near the inner ends of:rear cross beam, thenceto sheave pulleys l) hung'near center of rear. cross beam, thence to equalizing sheave This equalizing pulley .is connected to drum In order to zinc re the machine bodily along pulley 50. which runs on trolley or track 51.

the machine ahead. It will he noted thatin for the forward movement of the machine,-the connection is made between the wheels supporting the frame on the track and near thetwo front trucks, so that the track (portion to which connection is nade is held in place bythe considerable weight of l the machine, and liability of of the two cylindrical-journals 139 which .fit in holesioriscatin the top.and bottoniiswivcl drawing the machine forward is overcome. plates 4l0,;respectivelyi Such swivel plates Thus byathewinding of the rope upon the i are illustrated in Figs. i lvrto 6. These swivel .drum 52 themachine can be moved forward plates: conform. tofandnfit within andlaie isteplby'step as desired through the operabolted toilthe ltruckwsideframes 41 centrally tionnof acontrolling lever, and a mechanism.

of the length-thereof. The' ;bolts -l2 extend ,ofsuflicient strength for this'purpose is pro e movementlofthe track under the strain of through. the bolt holes in theswivel plates and through the web Iportionslofthe; cha-n nelss aThe sideframes form the bodiesflof;

vided, even though the track may be of irregular heighttor width'as above referred :to or. one-or both the rear wheels should be oifthe track. The machine may beblocked in positionin any suitable way to sustain itheirstrain in operating thedipper, though find that this maybe easily. accomplished by the laying ofxchairis in front and behind and close to'the wheels on the tracks'so that i i and through these bearing blocks and the; if. the double flange wheels are-forced back 15.

wheels 4:3 extend the axles 45 whichxare heldlii against -tlief chains they clamp the same at the end by suitable cotter pinsgn llhlius th'e'f around the rail head, this being found suftwo wheels are supported in the truck frame ficient to resist the heavy strain for the on both sides of the extensible axle 3'2 and 1 operation of the dipper in its regular digthe truck is free to swing on horizontal gingor-ditching strokes. planes, that is, to the right or left accord- As so constructed, the operation is as foling as the flanges 0f the wheels 43 may conlows: tact with the head of the rail forming the The tracks being laid and the machine track, thus overcoming the necessity of proerected thereon, the first operation is the riding perfect alinement of the track on opdigging of the pit. When this is accomposite sides of the ditch as above referred plished the machine is operated with one to. The trucks can also move vertically as man on each side of the ditch and one man the hub piece 37 may roll around the shaft operating the dipper, boom and pull ahead or axle 82 and this enables the trucks to device. The men on each side of the ditch follow the track though it may be of varyunfasten the track sections from which the machine has passed, and carry them forward and fasten them in front of the front section of the track, and if necessary make some rough leveling of the berm to receive the ties and blocking carrying the rail and see that they have as solid a support as possible. They also from time to time arrange the pulling ahead cable or chain 47 disconnecting its ends from the rails when the machine has traveled close up to the points of connection thereto, carrying them forward and connecting them to other rail sections close to the front wheels. 7 The main operator proceeds with the ditching by the operation of the boom and dipper. The operation differing, however, in the fact that all the digging is below the machine frame, and the strokes of the dipper or bucket'are either horizontal along the base and sides of the portion of the ditch close to the machine, or at an upward incline where the ditch is being extended, while it is only necessary for the dipper to be lifted to a height sufficient to swing it Over to the sides and deliver the dirt to the embankments or roadway along the berms, no great lifting of the dipper or frame of the machine is and this allows the boom a lower incline, and, therebucket above the usually required to be supported at fore, have a much longer range for the ditching operation, and to reach farther forward in the strokes extending the length of the ditch and for a longer sweep in extending the side walls thereof and dumping the dirt farther away. The operator can also dig the ditch to a fairly accurate depth as he has only to lower the dipper to the proper position for horizontal travel over the bottom of the ditch, and thus is enabled to regulate its depth, or its incline or fall as desired. As these strokes of the dipper are either horizontal or at an upward incline, the digging is made much easier and the workcan proceed rapidly. The operator from time to time moves the machine forward by the connections with the rails, and the work proceeds more accurately and rapidly than in the ordinary ditchin operation where the work is done within tie' ditch itself and the dirtlifted so high, or where the machine is located ahead or to one side of the ditch being dug and the scoop bucket dragged by cable, or over a guided boom as is now customary. Practical use has shown that the operations can be carried on with our dredge even Where a large portion of the ditch is under water, and the proper depth of ditch is attained according to the surveyors stakes usually driven along the edges of ditch to be dug, by operator occasionally measuring depth with a pole and watching the marks on the dipper handle.

No special care is necessary in laying of the tracks, the only requirement is that the berm or edge portion of the ditch shall be sufficiently solid to support and permit the travel of the machine along the same, and in swampy places grass and brush is cut and employed with good results in carrying the tracks.

What we claim is:

1. In a ditching machine, the combination of a machine frame adapted to span the ditch, chairs supported in cross beams of said machine frame and axles clamped in said chairs and longitudinally adjustable to varythe width of the machine, said axles carrying the supporting wheels at the ends thereof.

2. In a ditching machine, the combination of a machine frame having transverse beams set close to each other, ChZL lIS fitting between said beams, and axles fitting within and adapted to be clamped by said chairs to provide for the lateral extension of the axles to conform to different widths of track.

3. In a ditching machine, the combination of a machine frame having the cross beams set close to each other, axle chair castings fitting within said beams and having axle seats formed on their inner faces, an axle fitting within said chairs and means for clamping the chairs around said axles, and supporting wheels at the ends of the axle, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.

In testimony whereof, we the said WIL- LIAM W. BILLINGTON and WILLIAM BURNETT, have hereunto set our hands.



Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the Commissioner of Patents,

Washington, DQC.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2461500 *Oct 4, 1944Feb 8, 1949Chain Belt CoApparatus for constructing vibration-compacted concrete slabs
US3135177 *Feb 21, 1961Jun 2, 1964Abg Werke GmbhRoad making apparatus
US4941408 *Dec 15, 1988Jul 17, 1990Lovitt Jr Estel LAdjustable frame for rail wheels on motor vehicles adaptable to ride on railroad tracks
U.S. Classification105/178, 105/179, 105/180, 404/101
Cooperative ClassificationB61F7/00