US 1273357 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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ELEC'RLYZING APPMMUS.. APPUCATIGN FILED SEPT. 4%, 15H3.
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ELECTBOLYZING APPARATUS. 4 APPLICATION vFILED sEPT. 4. i913.
Patented July 23, N18
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and hydrogen on 1 clectrolyzer.
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nennt ctnnianr tar/.nenne eonenann. or rants, rennen, assrenon, nr nannte ASSIGNMENTS, TU THE LINIDIE A1B A CORJPQRATION 0T? Ol-H0.
niznc'rnotmin Specification of Letters Patent.
PRODUCTS COMPANY, 0F CLEVELAND. UHlI'O,
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Application filed September 4t, 1913. crial No. fiati'd To all wlw/1t t may concern Be it known that l, l'luxni CLMENT LAM- nnu'r (ioUGNAnn, engineer, a subject, of the Kingdom ot l'ielgium; residing at Paris, in the country of lf`rance, have invented irew and useful Improvements in lfilectrolyzing. Apparatus, o1 which the, following-is a. specification.
The present invention relates to an electrollvzing apparat-usl tor obtaining oxygen' a commercial Scale by the electrolysis 'ot' water.
The main objects ofthe invention are to facilitate assembling and taking apart Ythe elements or members of the apparatus; to produce and maintain tight joints between the elements` without special or extra packing: to avoid or reduce the danger incident to explosions; and generally to reduce the weight and cost, prolongl the life and iinprove the construction and operation of apparatus ot' this class.
'll` he accompanying drawings show, by way of example, an electrolyzer constructed according to my invention.
Figure l is a general view of the tus, in elevation;
Fig. 2 is an end view, representing a section on line 2Q of lFig. 1, looking in the direction of the arrows;.
lfig. 3 is a trout elevation on a larger scale ot' an element ot' the elec-trolyzer in lFig. ll, the element being .shown broken into several pieces in order to save space.
Fig. el. is a section along line 4-4f, of lt1`ig. 3 looking in the direction of the arrows.
Figs. 6, T and 8 show a did'erent ar-l rangement ot the fr; mes constituting each element ot' the electrolvzer; Fig. 5 is a front view ot' a frame. broken in order to Save space; Fig. 6 is a front elevation of two portions of frames. similar tol that ot lFig. 5, placed one upon the other; Figs. 7 and 8, are sections on a larger scale along lilies 7*? and S-S respectively in Fig. 6, looking` in the direction of the arrows. with asbestos diaphragm between the trames and electrodes on each side ot' the frames.
l"ig.tl is a detail, partly broken open and partly in vertical section of one of the pres sure regulators which are combined with the a pparas 'lhe electrolyzing apparatus consists essentially (Figs. l and of a framework comprising two end cheeks or standards il., A', connected by two longitudinal parallel rods, li, l, which are insulated from them. rihe elements C of the electrolyzer (which are described later) are supported on the rods by means of lugs c. These elements. C are mounted in the same way as those ot a: tilterpress and are clamped between a central plate or head l) and two end-plates lE, E', by a clamping device lF-ot' any suitable known type. rlhe plates D, E, E', are ltlso supported on the rods li, B by means of lugs d, e, c (Fig. 1).
The electric current enters the apparatus at one end by one of the end elements, and leaves it at the other end by the other end element. Each element constitutes a loipolar electrode, one side -ot' which acts as anode while the other plays the part ot a cathode, in the known manner.
The central plate D is formed with an electrolyte chamber and gas openings or passages corresponding with those of the several elements and a reservoir Ur, provided with a filling funnel g and a gage glass gf', by means of which the liquid level in the electrolyzer can be kept constant, is connected to,t-his chamber b v a pipe d.
The liquid employed as electrolyte is pret erablv a solution o i caustic potash or caustic soda at 250 Baume.
lll represents the outlet pipe t'or one ot' the gases; oxygen for example, and ltilh'the outlet pipe for the hydrogen. A pressure regulator lt is inserted in each of these pipes and will be hereinafter described in detail. 'lhese regulators ll. besides serving to regulate the pressure ot' the gases produced, prevent mnd from rising any higher in thepipe line; they also insure safety by preventing any return oi tlameint-o the electrolyzer iny an iron electrode c of slight thickness (a thickness of 2 mur-has been found in practice to give good results), and of a dia` phragm c2, consisting of a sheet of asbestos which is cut directly out of the sheet without any hem, and is held between the two frames c3, c, ofnvood, ebonite, vulanite, compressed cork or anyother suitable insulating material. 04 and the diaphragm c2 are attached to veach other, for example, by means of pins of wood or other suitable material, and the whole 1s inserted 1n the electrode c', which 1s provided for this purpose along its en- `tire circumference with a bent up flange c5,
and is also provided with supporting lugs c whichhave already `been referred to. `The electrode c is -bi-polar, that is to say 1t forms the anode on one of its faces and the cathode on the other,`as has been mentioned above. The surfaces of this electrode are corrugated, embossed, or formed in some other manner such as will presentan undulatory or extended active surface and one into half the thickness of the frame c, permits the hydrogen produced in the corresponding cell H (Fig. 4) to reach the conduit d.
ce is the inlet conduit formed by registering openings in the frames for the electrolytic li uid and grooves or passages 0S, formed qhalf way through the thickness of the frames c3 and c4 permit the electrolytic liquid to pass from the conduit ce into the cells of theelements.
Instead of being formed as just described, the frames c3 and 0^* of each element may be constructed as shown in Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive. An orilice. c, preferably of rectangular shape, made in oner side of each frame (right hand side Figs. 5 and 6) forms a. part of the collecting conduit for one of the gases, oxygen for example, produced in the severa-l elements.
rI`his oriice 0 communicates laterally with the interior of the frame through a ,notch or opening 01, which constitutes the outlet for the oxygen cell 0.
On the opposite side (left hand side Figs. 5 and 6) each frame is formed in a correspendingl position with an orifice c, which The two 'frames c3 and is of the same shape as the orilice c, but has no lateral opening' into the interior of the frame, and which constitutes a part of the collecting conduit for the other gas, hydrogen for example.
When assembling the apparatus, two frames c3 and c, formed in this manner,
4are placed together face to face in such a.
way that the asbestos diaphragm c (Figs. 7 and S) is clamped between them so that the side of the frame c. in which is formed the notch ci lies against the nside of the other frame c4 which has no such notch or lateral opening.
Fig. 6 shows two frames thus placed iogether and constituting with-a diaphragm interposed between them and with an electrode, one element, and Figs. 7 and S, which are sections along lines 7 7 and SMS respectively, Fig. 6, looking in the directions indicated by the arrows, show clearly the, above described arrangement of the frames. The letters O and H represent'respectively the cell in which is produced the oxygen, and that in which the hydrogen is produced.
)Vhen the frames are made of wood the orifices c, c, through which the gases pass can be lined with small blocks of ebonite, vulcanite or other suitable material fitted to the frame by any suitable means, and exactlyY filling the orifices and provided with channels of varying number andsiiie` so as to enable circulation to take place. In the arrangement shown in Figs. 5 to 8, the flanges c, provided all around the eletl` trodes in the arrangement shown in Figs. 3 and 4 are dispensed with.
It will be understood that instead of being formed in the upper portions ot the two vertical sides of the frames cn or c, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the orifices c C10, c may be formed in the upper horizontal sides of the frames adjacent to their ends.
The frames of the several elements (l, being made of wood or other relativelyv soft, compressible or elastic material., when clamped together between the central plate or head I) and the end plates E E, form tight joints between the electrodes.
The two pressure regulators I with which the apparatus is furnished are identical. Each consists essentially (Fig. 9) of a c vlindrical body or chamber i, in which is arranged a sheet metal float, which regu- 'lates the pressure of the gas which arrives` l a worm or coil z" for circulating water iu order to coolthe gas produced.
The pressure regulators and safety devices I may be supplied with sealing hq- 4lll A 'tension of the inlet connections 2 terasse p uid from the reservoir G, and the requisite liquid level is maintained therein by the eun upwardly into the float chambers z'.
llt will he understood that the invention 'is not strictly limited to the details of construction shown in the accompanying drawings and described above, and that it will he possible in practice to make certain changes in the construction of the apparatus, and to modify it to a certain extent without departing from the spirit of the invention.
l. ln electrolyzing apparatus the con'lbination of two supporting standards, parallel rods connecting the standards and insulated therefrom, an intermediate hollow plate forming an electrolyte chamber andend plates supported on and adjustable lengthwise of said rods, electrolyzing elements also supported. on and adjustable lengthwise of said rods between the intermediate and end plates and each comprising a diaphragm interposed between two insulating trames, and a bipolar electrode applied to one of the frames vparallel with the diaphragm, the frames of the several elements forming with the diaphragms and electrodes a seriesof cells, clamping means between the end plates and standards for pressing the elements togethcr and forming tight joints between them, and ,connections with the intermediate plate for supplying electrolyte to and conducting the liberated gases from the apparatus, the diaphragme, electrodes and frames having registering openings forming electrolyte and gas conduits, the electrolyte conduit communicating with the several cells and each gas conduit with alternate cells through passages in the frames.
2. .ln electrolyzing apparatus the combination of two supporting standards, parallel rods connecting the standards andinsulated therefrom, clamping plates supported on said rods, one of said plates being movable lengthwise of the rods toward and from the other, electrolyzing elements each comprising a diaphragm held between two insulating frames which form cells on opposite sides of the diaphragm and a metal plate electrode secured to the face of one of the frames parallel with the diaphragm and provided on opposite sides withl lugs adapted to rest on said rods, clamping means connecting' one of the standards and the adjan.
cent clamping plate for pressing the elements together and maintaining tight joints between them, the severalk elements having registering openings forming electrolyte and gas conduits', the electrolyte conduit communicating with all the cells and each gas conduit with alternate cells through passages in the frames.
ln electrolyzing apparatus thecombi nation of parallel insulated supporting rods ange fitting and a series of electrolyzing elements each comprising a diaphragm held between two insulating frames which torni cells on opposite sides thereof, anda metal plate electrede applied to one of the frames over the cell therein 'parallel with the diaphragm and provided on opposite sides with lugs adapted to rest on and shil'tlengthwisc of said rods, andy means for clamping the elen'lcnts together' on said rods, the several elements having registering openings forming electrolyte and gas conduits, the electrolyte conduit communicating with all the cells and each gas conduit with alternate cells through passagesin the frames.
Ll. ln electrolyzing apparatus an element comprising a diaphragm, two frames of non-conducting material secured together with the diaphragm between them and form ing cells on opposite sides of the diaphragm,
land a metal electrode plate secured to the outer face of one et the frames parallel with the diaphragm and having openings regis? tering with the conduit openings in the frames.y
ln electrolyzing apparatus, an element comprising an asbestos diapln'ae'm, two insulating vframes secured together withthe diaphragm between them and forming cells on opposite sides thereof, and a sheet metal electrode secured to the outer face of one of the frames parallel with the diaphragm and having an extended undulatory face opposite the cell therein, the iframes, diaphragm and electrode having registering openings forming an electrolyte conduit in the lower part thereof and gas conduits in the upper part' thereof and the frames heing formed with passages electrolyte conduit with both cells and each gas conduit with one cell on the opposite side of the diaphragm from that with which thc other gas conduit is connected.
6. ln electrolyzing apparatus, an element comprising an asbestos diaphragm, two insulating frames secured to the diaphragm and torming cellson opposite sides thereof, and a sheet, metal electrode applied to the outer face of onel of said frames parallel with the diaphragm and formed with a over the edges ofthe frames, the frames, diaphragm and electrode having registering openings formingan electrolyte conduit and gas conduits and the frames comiecting Vthe j,
ltlli being formed with passages connecting the electrolyte conduit with both cells and each gas conduit with one cell on the opposite side o ip4 the diaphragn'i from that with which the-other conduit is connected.
7. ln electrolf/*zing apparatus the combination of a hollow head having electrolyte supply and gas delivery connections, a series or" electrolyzing` elements ha ving electrolyte anc gas conduits in communication with the supply and delivery connections of said head, pressure regulating and safety devices in sai( gas delivery connections each coinprising chamber having a gas outlet from the upper part thereof and a gas inlet ex tending upwardly into the lower part thereof, and an inverted cupsliaped oatsui rounding and extending below the gas inlet, and an electrolyte reservoir connected with said hollow head and extending above the gas inlets o i5 the pressure regulating and safety devices.
8. ln electrolyzingapparatus the combination of a hollow head havin, ,0 electrolyte supply and gas delivery connections, a series of eleetrolyzing elements having electrolyte and conduits in communication with the supply and delivery connections ofA said head, pressure regulating and safety devices in 'said delivery connections each comprising a float chamber having a gas inlet extending;- upwardly into the lower part thereoi2 and a gas outlet from the upper part thereof, an inverted cup-shaped ioat surrounding a-nd extendingl below the gas inlet, a cooling coil surrounding the ioat, and an eleetrolytereservoir connected with said hollow head and extending above the gas inlets Levage? ing ay diaphragm supported therein and hai`- ing transverse gas passages through the top of the frame and a transverse ehwrolyie passage through the bottom of' thc traine; of thin sheet metal electrodes clamped between said diaphragm frames haring open ings therein for registration with said traiisverse passages. i
1l. n an electrolytic battery oiI the lilter press type, alternate iframeless sheet metal, electrodes and frames containing asbestos diaphragms.
12. n an electrolytic apparatus oi the filter press type, the combination with diaphragm frames each having a diaphragm mounted therein to divide the interior ot the frame into two compartments and having two transverse gas passages through the top thereof, one of said passages being connectial with the compartment on one side of the diaphragm and the other of said passage-s being connected with the other compari ment, and electrodes alternating with the diaphragm frames and having holes registering with said passages.
u HENRI CLMENT LMBERT GOUGNMH),
llitnesses D. HORACE BRANDON, ARTHUR V. DAvins.