US 1276351 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
l. T. HALSEY. DECD.
s. n. u. mun. mmmstflunlx.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
- "memo" FILED mu: :4. m3. ngnzwco D'EC. 1.1. m1.
3 SNEETS-SNEEF I.
Patented Aug. 20, 1918.
J T. HALSEYv DEC'D.
s. n. M. uussv. ADMINWSTKAIRIX INIERNALCUMBUSTION ENGINE:
APPLICATION men JUNE PM 1913. RENEWED DEC. Ian.
1 ,27 6, 35 1 Patented Aug. 20,1918.
3 SHEETY-SHEET 2.
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5 id fl-gg J. 'T. HALSEY, DEC'D.
8.. M. HALSEY, ADIINISTRATRIX.
INTERNAL comausnou ENGINE.
I APPLICATION FILED JUNE H, l9l3- RENEWED DEC: l7- l9l7- Patented Aug. 20, 1918.
JAMES T. HALSEY,
F PHILADELPHIA, PENNSY LVANIA; SUE MASON MAURY HALSEY,
OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ADMINISTRATBIX OF SAID JAMES T. HALSEY,
v Application filed June 14,1913, Serial No. 773,682.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JAMES T. HAnsnr, a citizen of the United States, residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, have invented certain Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to internal combustion engines, and my present improvements 10. are directed more particularly to engines of the multiple cy inder type. which are mounted for rotation upon suitable hubs; one, of the latter containing a revoluble shaft to which motion from the series of rotatingcylinders may be imparted, while the other contains a crank bait for eifecting changes in the direction of motion of such revolving shaft and for advancing or retarding the ignition of the explosive charge.
An important feature of my invention 15 the arrangement of a series of two-cycle explosion engines in which the pistons are movable radially with respect to a series of relativel fixed cylinders while the. latter rotate. '1 1e cylinders are arranged in pairs, and in order to balance the volume of explosive mixture and pressure within the sameathey are arranged to communicate with each other and to be ignited simultaao 'neousl' the initial ignition beingfrom 1ndepen ent sparkin elements, while subsequent ignition is e a preceding ignition or explosion, and an important feature of my invention isthe arrangement providing for communication between adjacent or successive cylinders passing the ignition point so that the charges ofsucceedingcylinders, after the engine has started, are exploded by heat or flame of the advance explosion.
A further feature. of lny inventionis to providesuitable means whereby the direction of movement oftheengine may be retversed,.and to advance or retard the time of 4:51 igrlition.
. These and other features df'my invention f aremorefully described hereinafter, referencebein'g had to the; accompanging' drawiormmgpart thereof, .in ch on; at a -m l irlwyl nd ns- .0
Bna eng ne madeinac'cordahce' with my inv mm, 3:"; I
F1 ...2, is a side elevatron of-one set oi 1 v mi w en br ws-e ement b..-
Specification of Letters Patent.
ected from the flame of v outer gur 1.; is end elevation, ssuy' in 'tion of said.
Patented Aug. 20, 1918.
Renewed December 17, 1917. Serial No. 207,822. ing shown in section, and one qf the cylinders being shown in section;
Flg. 3, 1s a diagrammatic plan view of thestru'cture showing the conduit or passage for the admission of explosive mixture to 130 the respective cylinders; V
Fig. 4, is an enlarged sectional view of one of the hubs around which one set of cylinders rotates, showing the ignition chamber and the chamber receiving the inlet charge formed therein; such view being on the line 4-4,;Fig. 1, and
Fig. 5, is' a sectional view of a part of one of the hubs, taken on the line 5-5, Fig. 4.
In the drawings, 1 and 2 re resent two sets of cylinders, each of whic sets may be in the form of a single castingin order that all difliculty of properly alining the same with their respective pistons may be avoided, and each of said sets of cylinders has a common hub 1" and 2. While I have shown sets of six cylinders, it will be understood that a greater or less number of cylinders may be employed in a set without departing from my invention, and that a single set may be used.
These cylinders are adapted to rotate on journals 3 and 4, as indicated at the. right and left-hand sides of Fig. 1, respectively; one of said journals receiving a shaft or spindle 5 with a face late 6 at one end carrying an ecoentr ical y disposed stud: '7 to which the-piston rods are ivotally connected in a manner hereina er described, and a crank handle-8 at its outer end where- 90 by said shaft or spindle. 5 may be rocked in its bearing in the journal 4 to effect changes in, the relative position of said piston rods and the pistons'controlled thereby, with respect to the cylinders whereby a reversal in the direction of movement of the egine may be efiected, or the time of ignition advanced or retarded. The other journal 3 receives a shaft 9, having at one end a plate 10 provided with spurs or teeth llffor engagement with teeth 12 formed on thehub I, so that said parts maybe locked togather in operative engagement, while the end of said shiaft'9is' adapted to r ceiv'e a pullg or other "wheel-whereby m aft may be transmittedto any The, cylinders at their inner. portions providing 14 for conununication successively with rot,
have cte are 1.8 a
cciving av supply frochambers 15 receivin the explosive mixture and the chambers 1 containing the spark plugs 18, and the respective cylinders are provided with arcuate seats 19 and 20 which are faced off to engage each other, with shoulders 21 and 22 formed on the surfaces so that the cylinders can be trued and maintained in proper position with respect to the axis of rotation. Communicating passages 23 between pairs of the cylinders are formed in the abutting portions.
The portions or webs connecting the respective eylindersof the .two sets are secured t gether by means of bolts 24, as clearly illustrated in the drawings. In addition, the cylinders may be stayed on their inner and outer surfaces or walls by rings 25 and 26, which are held together by bolts or screws 27.
The interior of the cylinders is identical in all cases, and adjacent the contracted in let or throat 13 of the explosion chamber is an annular groove 28 which communicates by the passages 23 with the adjacent eylin'- der of the opposite set whereby equalization of the pressure of explosive mixture may be effected in the respective chambers.
Mounted on the stud 7 of the face plate 6 carried by shaft 5 is a hub 30, which carries a ring 31 having boxes or bearings 32 for the reception of pins 33 carried by connecting rods 34; the outer ends of which have split compression hubs 35 carrying cross-bars 36 vattached to pistons 37 mounted in the respective cylinders 1 and 2- The cross-bars'86 are held to the hubs by means of bolts 38, and the pistons have projections 39 providing bearings forengagement by the ends of said cross-bars. The hub 30 is provided at the rear with a retainin collar or shoulder 40, and theboxes 32 or the piston-rodpins 33 may be pinned or keyed in place if desired.
The inner ends of the piston rods are free torock in their bearings in the hub 30, and the cross bars carrying the pistons are free to-rock in the roject1ons 39 carried by the same, and the 11b 30 to which the rods 34 are connected rotates on the stud 7 so that as the sets of cylinders rotate on their re.- spective hubs, the pistons will be moved relatively to the cylinders; varying the area of the explosionjcham'ber which successii ely receives the desired explosive mixture and in which it will be successively compressed by the pistons; subse uently exploding and exhausting from sai cylinders in the well known manner.
The explosive mixture is delivered to the chambers 15'form'ed in the journals 3 and 4.
from a suitable ipe 42 delivering, simultaneously 'to both of said, chambers and re I i.-. &ble source which may be connec'ted to said pipe" at 43. From the chambers 15, the explosive mixuntil the cylinders approach the upper ver-' tical position when, by means of a suitable sparking device, the charge in one of said cylinders is exploded.
The sparking chambers for the res ective sets of cylinders are indicated at I l, and each of them contains spark plugs orpoints 18, and carried by suitable insulating sleeves 45 and 46, mounted in the wall of the re spective hubs and having the usual connections 47 and 48, respectively.
I may utilize the shell of the engine as one pole and provide the sparking device with a single point which will form with the wall of the chamber a'spark gap across which a jump spark may be induced upon operating the necessary switches in circuit with and controlling a supply of electrical current.
I purpose, in the operation of my engine, to ignite the initial or first charge in the first cylinder brought to the ignition point by the sparking device,- but to ignite all sub sequent charges one from another; the sparkmg or ignition chamber being of such an area, as clearly indicated in Fig. 4, that the flame of one explosion may be brought into contact with the compressed charge in the following cylinder, and so .on. ad infinitum.
The cylinders and 2 oi the several sets are provided with exhaust ports 51 and 52, respectively, which may be disposed on two sides of the cylinders, and the engine structure 1s preferably inclosed by a suitable sheet metal casing 53 into which the exhaust from the several cylinders discharges. This casing has outlet ports 54, and the discharge from the same may be controlled and delivercd to any suitable point.
The cylinders may be provided. with caps 55 at their outboard ends, which caps may be threaded into place, and they are slotted at 5 6 for the passage of the bars 36 connectmg the pistons with the rods 34.
.The pipe 42 for the delivery of the-explosive mixture may be provided with a web 60 forming a seat whereby the engine structure may be supported, and this pipe is preferably continuedas indicated at 42, around the other side of the engine where another web support 60? is provided; both of said webs being apertured aft 61 f r the reception of suitable securing bolts.
From a careful examination of my improved structure and the method of operating the same. it will be noted that I make use of the well known phenomena of centrifugal action to not only assist in the charging of the cylinders with an explosive mixture subsequently ignited, but also to exhaust the burned gases and waste products of combustion, and this arrangement is of the highest advantage in operating the engine forming the subject of my invention such as I have described.
1. The combination, in an internal combustion engine of a plurality of cylinders disposed radially in fixed relation with respect to'each other and mounted to rotate, a plurality of pistons disposed in said cylinders and rotating with the latter about an axis eccentric to the axis of rotation of the cylinders, means for introducing an explosive mixture into the cylinders, and means for igniting the same whereby thevpistons may be caused to move to effect rotation of the several cylinders about their axes, saidcylinders having communicating passages adjacent the point of termination of the inward movement of the pistons whereby the pressure developed within the respective cylinders may freely pass between the same and be equalized.
2. The combination, in an internal combustion engine, of aplurality of pairs of radially disposed cylinders rotatable about an axis comprising a fixed stud, an ignition chamber formed within the fixed stud upon which said pairs of cylinders rotate,
said cylinders having passages which are successively brought into communication with said ignition chamber upon rotation of said cylinders, and said ignition chamber being arranged to communicate with a plu rality of said passages whereby the flame from. the explosion c amber of one cylinder may communicate with the explosion chamber of the'sucoeeding chamber, and pistons within the cylinders upon which such explosions react, said pistons rotating about an axis eccentric to the axis of rotations of the cylinders whereby the latter may be rotated by the movement of the pistons.
i independent axles for the respective. sets of '3. The combination, in an internal combustion engine of the multiple cylinder type, of a lurality of pairs of cylinders disposed side y side, pistons within said cylinders and forming with the latter explosion chambers-between said pistons and a point adjacent the axis of rotation of the cylinders,
couplings for pairs of said pistons whereby they may move together, fixed studs forming cylinders, rods connected to the piston couplings and -disposed between the several cylinders, a, rotatable hub to which said rods are pivotally connected, a stem disposed eccentrically with respect to the axles of the cylinders upon which said hub is rotatably mounted, and means operable exteriorly of the structure whereby the position ofsaid of a plurality of pans of cylinders, independent studs forming fixed axles about which-the cylinders may rotate, said cylinders having inlet and exhaust passages, chambers disposed in the studs form ng'the axles of said cylinders for the introduction of an explosive mixture, a common feed conduit for the chambers of both studs whereby the explosive mixture is admitted to the cylinders of each pair simultaneously, said cylinders having communicating passages adjacent the point of termination of the inward movement of the pistons for equalizing the pressure developed within the respective cylinders. and means for siniultnnemisly igniting said explosive mixture.
In an internal combustion engine of the multiple cylinder type. the combination of a plurality of cylinders mounted to rotate. independent studs forming axial su ports for said rotating cylinders, outwardly disposed pistons movable within said cy inders and rotatable about an axis eccen latter.
6. In an internal combustion engine of the multiple cylinder type, the combination of two sets of radially disposed cylinders mounted side by side, each of said cylinders I having arc-shaped abutting shouldered portiohs in nested relationship, and means conmeeting said cylinders together at their abutting portions, said shoulders interlocking and serving to restrain the force of centrifugal action.
7 In an internal combustion engine of the multiple cylinder type, the combination of.
two sets of radially disposed cylinders mounted side by side, each of said cylinders.
having arc-shaped abutting shouldered por-. tions n nested relationship, means connectihg said cylinders tfigether at their abutting portions, said sho ders interlocking" and serving to restrain the force of centrifugal action, and passa es affording communicas tion between the c ambersof said cylinders formed in said abutting portions. 8. In an internal com ustion engine, the
cylinders mounted side by side, each 0 combination of two sets of radially disposeg their abutti portions, said shoulders interlockin ahd serving to restrain the force of centri ugal action, and continuous rings disposed on both lsides of each set of cylinders and shouldered to engage the shouldered portions of said cylinders.
9. In an internal combustion engine of the multiple cylinder type, the combination of a plurality of-pairs of radiall disposed coupled cylinders rotating about xed axles, independent studs formin said fixed axles, each. pair'of saidcylin ers having communioating passages adjacent the point of termination of the inward movement of the pistons for equalizing the ressure developed within the respective cy inders, pistons within said cylinders, couplings for pairs of said pistons disposed outwardly with respect to the axles of the rotating cylinders, said cylinders being slotted for the passage of said couplings, connecting. rods or said pistons, a hub to which said connecting rods are pivotally connected, an adjustable.
stem for said hub mounted eccentrically with respect to the axis of rotation of the cylinders, means for introducing an explosive mixture into the cylinders, said means including passages formed in the studsupon which the several cylinders rotate, and
means for exploding said mixture whereby said pistons may be moved to effect rotation of the cylinders.
10. The combination, in an internal courbustlion engine, of-a pairof relatively fixed supports in axial alinement and independent of each other, a plurality ofTadia'lly disposed-cylinders carried by each of said sup ports, said cylinders being disposed in pairs opposite to each other, means or connecting together the several pairs of cylinders, istons movable within said cylinders, a ub disposed between said cylinders, a stem amounted eccentrically with respect to the axis of rotation of the cylinders upon which said hub is mounted, a support for said eccentric stem in axial alinement with the main supports, connections between said hub and the pistons whereby-they will move longitudinally in the cylinders when the latter are rotated about their axis of rotation, a driving shaft, a connection between said shaft and one of the pairs of cylinders whereby the shaft will be driven upon rotation of said cylinders, and means for adjusting the position of the eccentric stem on which the hub controlling the piston rods rotates.
11. The combination, in an internal com:
'bustion engine, of a pair of relatively fixed supports in axial alinement and independ ent of each other, a plurality of sets of radially disposed cylinders carried by each of said sup orts, t e respective cylinders of each set eing disposed adjacent each other in pairs, means for connecting together the several sets of cylinders in hxed relationship, istonsmovable in unison within said cylln ers, a hub internally disposed between said sets of cylinders, a stem mounted eccentrically with respect to the axis of rotation of the cylinders upon which said hub is mounted, a support for said stem in axial alinement with the fixed supports of the cylinders, a face-plate connected to said support and carrying the eccentric stcn'n-connections pivotally attached to said hub'and the piston couplings whereby the pistons may be moved longitudinally. in the cylin-.
ders when the latter are rotated abo ut their axis of rotation,,a driving shaft, a connec-- tion between said shaft and one of the sets of cylinders whereby the shaft will be driven upon rotation of said cylinders, means for introducing an explosive mixture into said cylinders, the fixed supports for the same having inlet passages, and means for exploding said mixture whereby the cylinders may be rotated,
In testimony whereof, I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
JAMES T. HALSEY', Witnesses:
MURRAY (J. Bone, WM A'. BARR.