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Publication numberUS1279831 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 24, 1918
Filing dateOct 12, 1915
Priority dateOct 12, 1915
Publication numberUS 1279831 A, US 1279831A, US-A-1279831, US1279831 A, US1279831A
InventorsChristian Berger
Original AssigneeSubmarine Wireless Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sound-operated toy or instrument.
US 1279831 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

C. BERGER.

SOUND OPERATED TOY 0H INSTRUMENT.

APPLICATIONFILED OCT. 12. m5.

1,279,831 .iaient'vd Svpt. 24, 1918.

Z* '(H'y.1

CHRISTIAN BERGER, OF NEW YORIL N. Y., ASSIGNOR TO SUIBMARINE WIRELESS COMPANY, OENEW YORK, N. Y., A. CORPORATION OF NEW YORK.

SOUND-OPERATED TOY 0R INSTRUMENT.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Sept. 24, 1918.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, CHRISTIAN BERGER, a subject oflthe King of Hungary, residing at New York city, in the county of New York and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Sound- Operated Toys or Instruments, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing.

This invention relates to sound operated toy or instrument, being within the same field of utility as the inventions covered in my prior Patents Nos. 1,055,985 and 1,116,870. In said prior Patent 1,055,985 is patented the combination of (1) a microphone circuit containing a microphone sensitive to sound waves or like pulsations received from the distant point, said microphone adapted when affected by pulsations to modify the normal electric current in said circuit, (2) an electromagnet adapted to have its magnetic pull modified through the modification of current in said circuit, and (3) a shiftable armature or part so arranged and fitted as to shift,

when said magnet is modified, from a first position within the operative influence of said magnet to a second position beyond the operative influence thereof.

The microphone referred to in said prior 1 patents and in other devices of the .kind is the instrument, heretofore commonly designated a microphone, involving a carbon point or a collection of carbon particles constantly in contact with'a metallic or other element and serving to vary the electric resistance and current by mere changes of pressure and conductivity between the carbon particles or between the carbon and the metallic member. I

By reason of the characteristics possessed by the prior well-known types of micro phones, they are adaptable and have been employed for the transmission of speech,- being affected by graduated sound variations and capable of transmitting the same in the form of graduated resistance variations.

These very characteristics, however, render the prior microphones inefiicient or even impractical in a commercial sense for such uses as are referred to in my said' prior patentsand in my present application. This results from the fact that such microphones sound,waves, the operation of any mechanism or instrument not requiring the transmission of graduated variations, such as speech, which will be practically operative and useful in a commercial sense. More particularly, an object hereof is to afford a sound operated circuit controller which, contrary to known microphones, possesses a constant normal resistance and is thereby practically and commercially adaptable for the purposes previously explained, irrespective of speech transmitting purposes. Owing to the differences in characteristics and employment, I prefer to designate the device of the present invention as an acoustical detector, or sound operated circuit controller. Since filing the present application I have applied for and received Patent No. 1,209,836 directed to the controller device hereof, wherefore I herein make claim only to combinations and features not actually claimed in said atent. Further objects and advan tages Wlll be elucidated in the hereinafter following description, inwhich in connection with the drawings I have illustrated and disclosed several forms or embodiments of the present invention.

To the attainment of the objects and ad vantages referred to the present invention consists in the novel means, apparatus, detector, combinations, arrangements, devices and other features herein described or illustrated.

In the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof Figure l is a diagram indicating the current variations in an ordinary microphone circuit when afi'ected by sound waves.

J i Q or instrument, such as a mechanical toyi the diaphragm is horizontally arranged.

I rent represented by 18.

Fi s. 8, 9, 10 and 11 show modifications in whic sprin action, rather than gravity, is made use 0 for maintaining the parts in their operative condition.

Referring to Fig. 1, the diagram curve 15 may represent the action of ordinary m1- crophones; the height of the curve at different points indicating the current, which of course varies inversely with the res stance, and the horizontal direction indicating time. Assuming the microphone to be in a closed circuit with a battery, the original resistance of the microphone may be such as to give an original current represented by 16,.the 'microphone being unaffected by sounds. Upon the occurrence of sound vibrations the resistance will increase and the current may decrease along the curve 17 a uniformly continuous sound resulting in the depressed cur Upon restoration of silence it has been found that the current will not return to the original strength, but to some different strength such as indicated at 19. A repetition of'the sound ma result in a depressed current as indicate at 20, varying from 18, and on cessation of sound the current may be restored to 21, different from both 16 and 19. It will therefore be seen that it is practically impossible to in-. troduce into the microphone circuit a magnet which can be relied upon for any uniformity of action. Upper and lower limits of current strength should be secured which are Widely separated and uniform. Otherwise constant readjustment is necessary in order to secure reliable action between the magnet and the devices controlled or operated by it.

Fig. 2 shows approximately the current curve 23 of the acoustical detector of the present invention. The original current conditions during silence are indicated at 24. Upon uttering a sharp whistle, hand-clapping, or other suitable sound, the current decreases through the curve 25 substantially to nothing, although there will be a slight oscillation 26, after which, upon the cessation of sound, the original resistance will be restored and the current reassume its constant, normal strength, as indicated at 27.

We thus have a constant, normal current during silence, and a depressed current which is a reliable amount below the constantnormal, so that it is practically simple to arrange a magnet with a critical strength between the normal and depressed currents so that it will invariably effectively operate.

The undesirable variations resulting from the use of the ordinary microphone, as indi cated-in Fig. 1, will be emphasized by use of the apparatus at different places or climates "or seasons, whereas the operation of the delocated in suitably-light contact with the diaphragm and properly arranged to control an electric circuit. By pendulous in this connection I mean bodily swaying, like the weight of a endulum, so as to be capable of being kicked or bounced by the diaphragm, and to separate from-and return to the diaphragm'.

Thls invention is based on the discovery sume a perfect and therefore normal conductivity, at the same time being capable of being interrupted or separated by means of the dynamic force of sound waves generated at a distant point. I refer to ordinary sound waves enerally available, such as whistling, hand-c apping, the voice, etc. I have determined that, while the use of contacts under a pressure equal to or exceeding what I will term the critical pressure ylelds always a constant or normal conductivity, it is nevertheless possible to so calculate and design the parts that sound waves of the kinds mentioned may be caused to overcome the contact pressure and throw the contacts bodily apart, thereby terminating the condition of normal conductivity and current, and in fact substantially breaking the circuit.

This discovery and invention, therefore, makes it possible to oppose an electro-magnet to some suitable counter-force, such as a spring, in such a way that under normal conditions the pull of the magnet will invariably overcome the spring, whereas, upon the sonorous disturbance of the detector, the current and the magnetic strength will invariably decrease to such an extent as to reliably release the spring, permitting the latter to move and perform the desired operations or control. Even. ordinary variations in magnetic action, due to residual magnetism and other causes, will be insufficient to interfere with the perfect reliability of the apparatus.

Fig. 3 illustrates a simple form of acoustical detector made according to this invention. The acoustical, vibratable diaphragm a support 32, and the member 31 is shown as supported on a metallic support 33. The member 31 may be actually pivoted at 34 to that it is possible to employ a pair of contacts, which, in a position of rest, always asthe support 33, so that it constitutes a pendulum. In order to secure pressure of con.- tact between the diaphragm and the pendulum an offset portion 35 may be provided for the latter, so as to apply the force of gravity to press the pendulum toward the diaphragm. As the extent of pressure should be determined, the member 35 is capable of adjustment either by cutting it off to the suitable extent, or bending it, or otherwise. Electrical conductors, 36 from the diaphragm and 37 from the pendulum may be employed to constitute a circuit in which the diaphragm and pendulum are arranged inseries, so that the flow of current depends upon the contact between the two. The member 31, however, could of course control the circuit in any suitable manner.

The actual contact points may be surfaced with gold, platinum or the like. They may be of copper. The critical pressure of dry copper upon copper is about twentyfive pounds per square inch. When two pieces of contacting copper are put under such pressure, the conductivity of the eontact cannot be improved by increasing the pressure. Therefore, assuming the use of copper, it is only necessary toemploy a degree of pressure between the contacts which exceeds this critical value. J The dynamic force of the sound waves striking the diaphragm is exceedingly small, but is of known quantity. The total'contact' pressure, therefore, must be beneath a certain limit so that the sound waves may in fact overcome the contact pressure and cause the separation of the contacts. The maximum contact pressure being known, and the critical pressure being twenty-five pounds per square inch, the contact area is easily determined by calculation. This I find to be very small and diiferent with different metals. I prefer to make the contact area smaller than the calculations indicate, in

order to insure a safe excess of specific presr sure (pounds per square inch), thereby giving a factor of safety and insuring the desired normal conductivity and current. On

the other hand, the area may not be too small, for example, that of a needle point contact, else it would be insuflicient to carry the necessary normal current for properly energizing the magnet, especlally when we consider the influences of contact deterioration and the like.

The above explanation shows that the microphone, or the detector, as I prefer to call it, of this invention is specifically quite different from the ordinary microphone, inherently useless for the ordinary uses of the latter, but entirely successful for the particular uses specified herein, for which the ordinary microphone would be impractical in a commercial sense.

The principle underlying the advantagenus results of the present invention may e in one aspect described as involving the physical arrangement of a pair of contacts, such as those already described, such that the specific pressure between the contacts under normal conditions is substantially as large as, or'preferably exceeds, the critical pressure, or pressure at which a maximum conductivity is secured and cannot be improved by increase of pressure. In other words, the relation is such that under normal conditions of silence the conductivity between the arts is substantially at its maximum and ncapable of substantial increase by any pressure increase. This is the contrary to all telephonic microphones whose ability to transmit speech depends upon a capability of varying the conductivity and current by both increases and decreases from the normal so as to electrically simulate the precise characteristics of the sonorous vibrations to be transmitted.

The detector shown in Fig. 4 hereof is not substantially different from that shown in Fig. 3, but indicates a variation in the arrangement of the pendulum portion 35 by which gravit pressure is secured.

A practical embodiment of the invention is indicated in Fig. 5. We have the several members 30 to 37 in substantially the same arrangement as before. The support 32 for the diaphragm 30 is the front wall of a boxor frame 40. The box or frame 40 may take different shapes according to its use. For example, it may be in the form of a dog kennel, as shown.' The conductors 36 and 37 from the diaphragm 30 and the pendulum 31 are extended into a complete circuit which includes also a battery 41 and an electro-magnet 42. An armature at 43 is shown as held by the magnet, and the ci'r cuit is closed so that current flows and the magnet is energized to its normal strength. The pull of the magnet upon the armature is opposed by a spring 44, which is under strain, but incapable of overcoming the normal magnetic pull.

With this arrangement the impact of sound waves from the voice or a whistle against the diaphragm 30 causes a-current decrease, as already explained, such as'to weaken the magnetic pull, so that the spring as is able to assert itself and cause the armature 43 to jump from the magnet. This controlled mechanical action may be put to various uses. The figure of a dog 45 is shown as located directly in front of the armature 43 and in front of the dog is a doorway 46, so that, upon release of the armature, the dog is caused to slide or roll through the doorway from the interior of the kennel.

By this amusing application of the invention one need only to whistle with suitable loudness at a pomt, several feet or yards distantin front of the kennel, whereupon the do will automatically respond to the call and come into view.

If desired, the electric circuit may be made to pass through the armature 43 as shown. T he circuit 36 37 will then be automatically broken upon the operation of the device by reason of the arn'iature breaking contact with a leaf spring 38, so that, when the apparatus is out of use, there will be no wasteful flow of current. Any suitable resetting device may be employed, such as a cord 47 extending through the rear wall of the box 40 and connected to the armature 43, whereby the user may restore the armature to the position shown, and at the same time close the circuit, then replacing the toy dog within the kennel.

In the Fig. 5 or other analogous embodiment the dog kennel or box 40 may be considered as any .housing or structure what-' ever, such as a cabinet, or even a part of a room or house, such as the wall or floor; and the diaphragm member 30 may be considered as any responsive or elastically vibratable member or part, so long as it is capable of throwing off the pendulous member 81 and thereby breaking the circuit. In this view of the present invention we may be said to have a circuit controller responsive to vibration, located at one suitable point or place in the structure or housing, for example, in

the upper story of a residence, this controller being connected by a normally closed electric circuit 36, 37 with a point removed therefrom, for example, a room in the lower floor of the house, together with a device located at the latter point, for example, the members 42, 43 and 47, (ignoring the canine figure 45) which device may be set, as previously described, at a time when the circuit is closed. This device, it will be observed, is adapted to be sprung or operated when the controller is vibrated. or disturbed, so that by the actuation of the device 42, 43, 47, a sensible notice or alarm is given. The arrangement is capable of being effectively employed as a burglar'alarm, and the circuit 36, 37, shown by dotted lines, may for this purpose be considered as of any length; so that an intruder at one place may by noises or other vibratory disturbances give an alarm at a suitable central station.

- Fig. 6 merely shows a slightly different form of detector embodying this invention.

Fig. 7 shows a different form with horizontally arranged diaphragm, the pendulous lever 31 pressing lightly by gravity against one face of the diaphragm.

Figs. 8, 9, 10 and 11 show different forms, in all of which gravity pressure for producing the light contact is replaced by the pressure of a light spring 48, holding the pendulous body 31 delicately in contact with the diaphragm. In Fig. 10 a means 49, 49 for adiustin the spring pressure is indicated. t will thus be seen that I have described several structures embodying the principles and attaining the ob 'ects and advantages hereof, and further advantages will. be apparent to those skilled in the art. Since obviously many matters of design, arrangement and. other details may be modified without departing from the principles involved, it is not intended to limit the invention to such details, excepting so far as specified in the appended claims.

V lhat is claimed is:

1. In a sound operated toy the combination of a walled inclosure having an un impeded doorway in the front wall thereof and an interior space in which may be positioned a toy figure adapted to be thrust outwardly through such doorway, a figure propelling device located behind the position-of the toy figure and arranged for thrusting the toy figure through the doorway, an electro-n'iagnet for restraining by its pull said propelling device behind the toy figure, and a sound operated circuit controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the propelling device.

2. In a sound operated toy the combination of a Walled inclosure having an unimpeded doorway in the front wall thereof and an interior space in which may be positioned a toy figure adapted to be thrust outwardly through such doorway, a figure propelling device consisting of a spring flapper located behind the position of the toy figure and arranged for thrusting the toy figure through the doorway, an electro-magnet behind said fiapper sufficiently strong for restraining the latter by its pull, and a sound operated circuit controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the flapper.

3. In a sound operated toy the combination of a walled inclosure having an unimpeded doorway in the front wall thereof and an interior space in whichmay be positioned the'figure of an animal adapted to be thrust outwardly through such doorway, a figure propelling device located behind the position of the animal figure and arranged for thrustingthe figure through the doorway, an animal figure operatively unconnected with,but adapted to be thrust by, such propeller, outwardly through the doorway, an electro-magnct device for restraining said propelling device behind the figure, and a sound operated circuit controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the propelling device.

4. In a sound operated toy the combination of a walled inclosure having an unimpeded doorway in the front Wall thereof and an interior space in which may be positioned the figure of an animal adapted to be thrust outwardly through such doorway, a figure propelling device located behind the position of the animal figure and arranged for thrusting the figure through the doorway, an animal figure operatively unconnected with, but adapted to be thrust by, such propeller, outwardly through the doorway,'an electro-magnet device for restraining said propelling device behind the figure, an exterior means for setting the interior propelling device in position to be magnetically restrained by the pull of said magnet, and a sound operated'circuit controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the propelling device.

5. In a sound operated toy the combination of an inclosure having vibratable upright Walls with exit opening therein, and an interior space in which may be positioned a toy figure adapted to be thrust outwardly through such exit, a figure propelling device arranged for thrusting the toy figure through the exit, an electro-magnet-ahdarmature device for restraining said propelling device, and a sound operated circuit:

controller in circuit with said magnet, consisting of a light swingable member arranged to bear lightly by gravity and with metallic contact against vibratable part of such walls, whereby sound impulses against the vibratable part will cause the gravity contact member to swing and thus cause the magnet to release the propeller.

6. In a sound operated toy the combination of a walled inclosure having .an unimpeded doorway in the front wall thereof and an interior space in which may be positioned a toy figure adapted to be thrust outwardly through such doorway, a figure propelling device located behind the position of the toy figure and arranged for thrusting the toy figure through the doorway, an electro-magnet for restraining by its pull said propelling device; behind the toy figure, a sound operated circuit-controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the propelling device, and a disconnecting contact operated by the action of the propeller deof the toy figure and arranged for thrusting the toy figure-through the doorway, an electro-magnet for restraining by its pull said propelling device behind the toy figure, a sound operated circuit controller for causing the electro-magnet to release the propelling device, a disconnecting contact operated by the action of the propeller device for disconnecting the circuit of said magnet, and a. single means for resetting the propeller device and simultaneously reconnecting the circuit.

In testimony whereof, I have afiixed my signature. v

CHRISTIAN BERGER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2443834 *Jun 13, 1946Jun 22, 1948Noyes Harry WSound-operated toy
US2466881 *May 25, 1945Apr 12, 1949Reyner Eastman AAcoustic switch
US2659998 *Feb 21, 1951Nov 24, 1953Cavanaugh John FMagnet-controlled sit-up pup
US2957957 *Jan 13, 1956Oct 25, 1960Johnson Thomas MSound switch
US2974441 *Mar 1, 1957Mar 14, 1961Helmut DennerSystem for the remote control of toys
US3154881 *Dec 28, 1960Nov 3, 1964Product Design & Dev CorpAnimated doll
US4230317 *Feb 10, 1978Oct 28, 1980Marvin Glass & AssociatesSound actuated competitive game apparatus
US4690242 *Nov 19, 1986Sep 1, 1987Mark David SSound actuated switch
US5899326 *Jun 17, 1998May 4, 1999Oroamerica, Inc.Cigar package and package having integral ashtray
CN103552011A *Sep 30, 2013Feb 5, 2014昆山振兴精密模具有限公司Anti-inversion device
Classifications
U.S. Classification446/175, 367/198, 367/191, 200/DIG.200, 361/182, 340/540, 340/566, 200/61.1, 200/52.00R, 367/93
Cooperative ClassificationY10S200/20, A63H3/28