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Publication numberUS1284182 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 5, 1918
Filing dateDec 28, 1917
Priority dateDec 28, 1917
Publication numberUS 1284182 A, US 1284182A, US-A-1284182, US1284182 A, US1284182A
InventorsAbner Doble
Original AssigneeDoble Detroit Steam Motors Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and means for burning liquid fuel.
US 1284182 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

A. DOBLE. METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR BURNING LIQUID FUEL.

. APPLICATION FILED DEC. 28. I9

1;; A82. I H Patented Nov. 5,1918.

TII'I II@ I ll PM I ,9 III V I l I I I VINVENTOR ATTORNEY En STATES PATENT orrron.

ABNER iDOBLE, OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, ASSIGNOB TO DOIBLE-DETROIT STEAM MOTORS 00., OF DETROIT, MICHIGAN, A CORPORATION OF DELAWARE.

Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented Nov. 5, 1918.

Application filed December 28, 1917. Serial No. 209,210.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, ABNER DoBLn, a citizen of the United States of America, and resident of Detroit, Wayne county, Michigan, have invented a. certain new and useful Improvement in Methods of and Means for Burning Liquid Fuel, of which the following is a specification.

My invention relates to the art of burning heavy liquid hydrocarbons in connection with the production of steam, especially in that class of steam generators particularly designed for motor-driven vehicles such as steam-driven automobiles, wherein the space available for a generator is extremely limited, and excessive weight must be avoided, and yet the power plant must have a capacity for the rapid economical production of a large volume of high pressure, high temperature steam entirely disproportionate to the size of power plants generally.

The rapid production of a large volume of high pressure steam as required by a steam-driven automobile, of course, necessitates the consumption of a proportionately large volume of fuel, and in connection with an automobile power plant, differing in this respect from any other power plant, thisconsumption of fuel in large volume must be accomplished without giving off any smoke.

The higher the degree of the fire-box temperature attainable, the smaller need be the boiler or steam generating unit, and as the ,degree of fire-box temperature is directly proportionate to the quantity of fuel capable of being consumed with complete combustion, the effectiveness of an fuel burning device is measured by its fue consuming capacity.

It is well known that if the flame of burning fuel in the fire-box of a steam generator temperature of which is considerably lower than that of the flame of the burning fuel, soot and smoke will result. This comparatively colder surface may be the shell of the fire-tube boiler or the tubes of a water-tube boiler. It is further well known-that if the fuel is not mixed with sufficient air to insure its complete combustion, smoke and soot will result even though the flame is not permitted tocontact with relatively colder sur faces. When heavy hydrocarbon oil fuel is used. in a steam generator under forced conditions by being projected under pressure permitted to contact a surface, the

into the combustion chamber, a voluminous flame of considerable length develops, and in connection with a fire-box or combustion chamber of huge proportions, this lengthy voluminous flame will have ample space within which to burn without contacting with the relatively cold surfaces to the point of rendering complete combustion impossible. In those classes of steam generating plants wherein the size of the combustion chamber, and wherein the formation of soot able space necessary for the evaporating sec-' tion of the generator, very little space remains for the fire-box or combustion chamber. In fact, this chamber in practice will not be over twenty inches across, and about eight inches deep. A chamber of any considerable depth could not be employed.

V In steam generating plants heretofore employed for the purpose of generating steam to propel an automobile and the like, that type of generating apparatus has been employed in which a gas burner isused, and this necessitates the preliminary transformation of the liquid e1 into a gaseous fuel which produces at the burner, a flame of considerable degree of intensity. While this type of apparatus is peculiarily adapted for the generation of steam in an automobile power plant because of Its-adaptability to the limited and circumscribed area of the comextremely small vertical dimension and of a liquid fuel, but to burn such large quantities in an exceedingly small space without permitting the flame to contact with the rela tively colder surfaces of the steam generator. I have solved this problem by my invention, which contemplates the introduction, into a shallow closed combustion chamber, of relatively large quantities of a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and all of the air necessary to supportcomplete combustion, and confining the flame, by virtue of various forces applied thereto, within the limited space of said combustion chamber until the combustion of the fuel is complete.

My invention comprehends both the method for accomplishing this result, and the apparatus by which the method is carried into effect.

In the accompanying drawings Figure 1 is a vertical section of a portion of a steam generator showing my improved liquid fuel combustion apparatus. in position relative to the water tubes or evaporating devices.

Fig. 2 is a top plan view on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is a plan view similar to Fig. 2, but of a modified form of combustion chamber.

Fig. 4 is a vertical section on line 44 of Fig. 3.

In Fig. 1, the water tubes 1, together with the heat retaining casing 2, are representative of a steam generator of that type having-a. capacity for a large volume of steam entirely disproportionate to its physical dimensions, such, for instance, as is employed in steam-driven automobiles and the like.

Immediately beneath this generator is a combustion chamber A which is open at its top side only, so that the radiant heat of the completely consumed fuel rises directly into the generator casing. This combustion chamber is formed a bowl-shaped member of suitable metal or refractory material 3, and is surrounded by a sheet metal casing 4 for purposes of protection. In plan section, the chamber is, in general, rectangular to conform to a steam generator of rectangular conformation, but in Fig. 3 the chamber is circular to conform to a steam generator of the circular type. In either construction the bottom wall 5 is preferably perfectly'flat and horizontal, and the side Walls 6 are vertical and. perpendicular to the bottom wall.

baffle flange 6 surrounds the upper edge of the combustion chamber member and extends abruptly inwardly and horizontally at right angles to the side walls. This disposes the inner surface of the flange practically parallel with the surface of the bottom wall. In the rectangular construction, the corners (i formed by the angles between the contiguous side walls, are curved or rounded so as to offer less resistance to the horizontal movement of the flame, and thus act to more gradually turn the flame back upon itself in a horizontal direction. In the circular form of Fig. 3, the vertical walls of the combustion chamber follow a constant curve and accomplish the same result. It will be observed, however, that the combustion chamher is exceedingly shallow in vertical dimension, and that the flame of combustion must be restricted to substantially this vertical dimension in order to prevent its contacting with the relatively colder surfaces of the steam generator tubes which are immediately above the combustion chamber.

Extending vertically from the floor or bottom wall to the underside of the baflle flange 6, along the side wall of the combus' 'tion chamber, is a triangular flame dividing and deflecting member 9 which may be integral with the wall and flange. The angling sides 9 of this divider are concaved or curved, describing an arc of approximately the same radius as the adjacent cor-. ners of the chamber, whereby these curved sides will gradually turn the flame horizontally back upon itself.

The fuel is introduced into the combustion chamber at one side thereof by means of a mixture-forming and propelling mechanism. The structure shown in the drawings comprises in general a pair of mixture forming Venturi tubes 10 which extend through the side wall. of and into the combustion chamber and which have tubular passages 11, the axes of which are disposed rect-ly toward the flame divider 9 on the v opposite side wall of the combustion chamber. The outer ends of these tubes are connected to the outlet of an air blower 12 having a rotary blade wheel 13 and of a type which is capable of delivering large quantities of air at low pressure. In the throats of the tubular passages 11 are liquid-fuel nozzles 14 connected with any suitable source of liquid fuel supply and subjecting the liquid fuel to the atomizing action of the air which is projected through the Venturi tubes by the blower. I illustrate two atomizing and mixture forming Venturi tubes because I find in practice that the large volume of fuel and air necessary to meet the demands of the enerator can be projected into the combustlon chamber to better advantage. The fuel, being thus atomized, is projected into the combustion chamber in the form of a spray properly mixed with' the air which supports com ustion. The combustion chamber is closed against the entrance of air in all respects except that which is introduced through 'the mixture formin mechanism. On account of the relative y large quantity of fuel which has to be burned, a relatively large amount of air must be introduced into the combustion chamber in order tobring about the complete combustion of the fuel. It Will be observed, however, that not only all of the fuel, but all of the air for complete combustion of the fuel, is introduced into the chamber through this mixture forming mechanism. I introduce all of the air and fuel in this manner, because I am enabled to impart to the entire body of mixture that degree offorce which is necessary for the purpose of confining the flame within the restricted combustion chamber, and because I have found in actual practice that if the natural draft through openings in the combustion chamber is employed, it is impossible to introduce a sufiicient volume of air to completely consume the large volume of fuel, and also because it becomes impossible to create and maintain that degree of pressure and force, Within the fire-box, necessary to give to the flaming fuel the desired shape and direction. Now, since the process of combustion necessarily occupies some con-' siderable period of time in order to completely consume the fuel, it is manifest that a flame considerably longer than the length of the combustion chamber is necessarily developed, but by projecting the flame directly across the combustion chamber in a horizontal direction to the opposite side wall thereof, and then turning the flame back in the same horizontal direction upon itself by the reactive forces established by the walls and baflles of the combustion chamber, the flame will be given a vortex formation, and will remain in the combustion chamber until the length of the flame is expended and combustion completed. To accomplish this resuit, I project or propel the mixture, by means of a blower, with that degree of force which will overcome the natural tendency ofthe flame to rise, and I utilize the reactive force of the side walls and instanding flange to continuously turn this horizontal rojecting flameback uponit'self until com ustion is complete. Since the vertical baflle or flame divider is, directly in the path ,f the stream of flame from the mixture-forming mechanism, that flame is divided thereby and turned laterally iii'two directions, with the as result that a double vertex of horizontally moving flame is produced. Each of the divisions of flame are projected along the walls of the chamber and at the curved corners is repeatedly turned back into the vortex. Any further or other tendency of the flame, if any there be, to rise out of the combustion chamber is ofl'set by the reactive force of the continuous bafile flange surrounding the upper edge of said combus-- tion chamber.

What I claim as my invention is:

' 1. In a fiel .oil combustion chamber, a horizontal floor, vertical side walls, a substantially continuous baflle extending inwardly from the upper edge of said side wallsv substantially parallel with the floor and forming a substantially central outlet for the hot gases and products of combustion, a device on one side of the chamber for projecting flaming fuel in a horizontal plane into said chamber, and a vertically positioned deflector, adjacent the opposite side, against which the flaming fuel is proiected and by which .it is deflected in two paths each in a horizontal plane, whereby to confine the flame Within the combustion chamber.

2. In a fuel oil combustion chamber, having a substantially flat floor and side walls extending vertically at right angles there to, a substantially continuous baflle extending abruptly inward from the upper edge of said side walls substantiallyparallel with the floor, a flame deflector adjacent the side wall extending from the said bafile to the floor, and a device on the side opposite from said deflector adapted to project t be burning fuel thereagainst.

3. In a fuel oil burning device, the combinationof a combustion chamber closed at the bottom and open at the top, a substantially continuous flange extending abruptly inward at the upper edge thereof forming a narrow ledge or bafile, an atomizer for projecting burning fuel into said chamber through one side wall thereof, and a vertical flame dividing deflector adjacent the side wall opposite the atomizer.

4. In a fuel 011 burning device, the combination of a combustion chamber closed at the bottom and open at the top, a substantially continuous flange extending abruptly inward at the upper edge thereof forming a narrow ledge or baflie, an atomizer for projecting burning fuel into said chamber through the, side wall thereof, a vertical flame dividing deflectorsadjacent the side wall opposite the atomizer and extending from said bafile to said floor.

5. In a fuel oil burning device, the combination of a combustion chamber. closed at the bo tom and open at the top, a substaniially continuous flange extending abruptly inward at the upper edge thereof forming a narrow ledge 0r bafiie, an atomizer for projecting burning fuel into said chamber through a side wall thereof, a vertical flame dividing deflector adjacent the side wall opposite the atomizer with its edge extending toward the atomizer and extending from said battle to said floor.

In a fuel oil burning device, the combination of a combustion chamber having a substantially flat bottom and vertical side Walls, means for projecting a flaming coinbustible into said chamber through a side wall, means associated with the side wall opposite said flame projecting means causing a vortex formation of said flaming combustible traveling in a horizontal plane parallel to the bottom of said chamber. and a substantially continuous narrow ledge extending abruptly inwardfrom the upper edge of said combustion chamber forming a bafile, whereby said flame is confined within the vertical limits of said chamber.

7. In a fuel oil burning device, the combination of a fire-pot forming a flame chamber having a substantially fiat floor, means for projecting a flame combustible into said chamber in a horizontal plane parallel with the floor thereof, means for causing the stream of flaming combustible to divide into vortices traveling in a horizontal plane parallel to the fioor of said chamber, whereby to confine the combustion of the fuel substantially within the vertical limits thereof.

8. The method herein described of burning atomized liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a confined shallow combustion chamber. consisting in injecting in a substantially horizontal plane all the combustion-supplying air and the fuel in an atomized condition into said chamber, swirling the burning mixture within the chamber with suflicient force to confine the mixture in said substantially horizontal plane within the chamber until flaming thereof ceases so that only the products of combustion and radiant heat will escape from the chamber.

9. The method of burning fuel which consists in projecting a stream of sprayed liquid fuel and air, in sufficient proportion to support complete combustion, with such force as to compel said stream to remain in a horizontal plane, and doubling the stream upon itself in a horizontal plane and confining it in said plane until combustion is complete.

10. The method of burning heavy liquid hydrocarbons which consists in finely dividing the liquid and mixing therewith a proportion of air sutlicie-nt to support complete combustion, propelling said mixture with that force which is necessary to compel its flame, if unconfined, to remain in substantially a given plane, for substantially its entire length, constantly turning said flame upon itself in the same said plane and confining it against diversion from that plane until combustion is complete.

11. The method of burning relatively large quantities of liquid fuel in a relatively small space, which consists in forming a mixture of finely divided liquid fuel and all of the air necessary to completely burn said fuel, constantly propelling a stream of said mixture horizontally with that degree of force which is necessary to compel the flame to remain, if unconfined, in a horizontal plane for substantially its entire length, repeatedly turning the flame back upon itself in said horizontal plane until combustion is complete, and limiting the vertical dimension of the flame by confining it against vertical expansion while moving horizontally.

12. The method herein described of burning atomized liquid hydrocarbon fuel in a confined shallow combustion chamber, consisting in projecting in a substantially horizontal plane all the combustion-supplying air. and fuel in an atomized condition into said chamber, swirling the burning mixture within the chamber with sufiicient force to confine the mixture in a mass having Well defined upper and lower horizontal surfaces until combustion is complete, so that only the products of combustion and radiant heat will escape from the chamber.

Signed by me at Detroit, Michigan, this 26th day of December, 1917.

ABNER DOBLE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7425127 *Aug 26, 2004Sep 16, 2008Georgia Tech Research CorporationStagnation point reverse flow combustor
US8549862Nov 30, 2009Oct 8, 2013Lean Flame, Inc.Method of fuel staging in combustion apparatus
US8689561Nov 30, 2009Apr 8, 2014Donald W. KendrickVortex premixer for combustion apparatus
US8689562Nov 30, 2009Apr 8, 2014Donald W. KendrickCombustion cavity layouts for fuel staging in trapped vortex combustors
US20050277074 *Aug 26, 2004Dec 15, 2005Zinn Ben TStagnation point reverse flow combustor
US20080092544 *Oct 18, 2007Apr 24, 2008Lean Flame, Inc.Premixer for gas and fuel for use in combination with energy release/conversion device
US20110061390 *Mar 17, 2011Kendrick Donald WInlet premixer for combustion apparatus
US20110061391 *Nov 30, 2009Mar 17, 2011Kendrick Donald WVortex premixer for combustion apparatus
US20110061392 *Mar 17, 2011Kendrick Donald WCombustion cavity layouts for fuel staging in trapped vortex combustors
US20110061395 *Nov 30, 2009Mar 17, 2011Kendrick Donald WMethod of fuel staging in combustion apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification431/9, 431/115, 431/350, 431/171, 122/3
Cooperative ClassificationF23C9/00