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Publication numberUS1284945 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 12, 1918
Filing dateApr 28, 1917
Priority dateApr 28, 1917
Publication numberUS 1284945 A, US 1284945A, US-A-1284945, US1284945 A, US1284945A
InventorsOliver C Swan
Original AssigneeSwan Process Oil Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 1284945 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



APPLlCATlON FILED APR.28.19II. 1,2459%5 Patented Nov. 12, 1918.



Specification of Letters Patent.

Application filed April 28, 1917. Serial No. 165,240.

To all whom it may concern."

Be it known that I OLIVER C. SWAN, a citizen of the United tates, city and county of Denver and j State of Colorado, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Oil-Stills; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full. clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in may be also effectively employed in the distillation of various grades and kinds of the heavier hydrocarbon oil's, as well as the lighter volatile derivatives thereof;

Supplementing this brief reference, the objects and advantages of the present inv'eiit'ion will be apparent, as incidental to the following disclosure, without the necessity of further initial statement, but in order to more clearly understand the details of same, reference will now be had to the accompanying drawings; the single View of which illustrates a longitudinal section,

taken vertically through the improved type of still, the steam feed and exhaust line pipesbeing omitted, as it is thought that they are unnecessary to a clear understanding of the invention, which resides in the still itself and associated appurtenances as shown.

The exterior body of the still is preferably formed in three sections, of suitable sheet iron securely bolted or riveted together as usual, and consists of the concave bot tom 1, the exterior dome-shaped cover 2 and the intermediate elongated cylindrical section 3.

The bottom 1 is provided with an outlet 4 for withdrawing the residue oil after distillation, and the outer dome-shaped cover 2 is struck up to provide a shallow annular neck 5.

Within this exterior dome-shaped cover 2 is disposed a similar quasi-spherical memher 6, substantially spaced therefrom to provide a double wall, and having an annular residing at the neck portion 7, which fits snugly within the short neck 5. of the exterior cover.

A collar 8, having a flanged seating top, fits around the neck 5 and this collar and the necks 5 and 7 are all riveted together, forming a steam tight joint; A similiar arrangement is provided at the lower edges of the exterior and interiorcovers, as indicated at 9, so that the top of the still practically consists of a dome-shaped vapor chamber formed by the double walled cover providing an encompassing jacketed steam chamber 11 therefor.

On top of the flanged collar 8 is seated and bolted a hollow head 12, providing a secondary vapor chamber 13 in open communication with the still, through the space 14, formed by the neck7, and said domeshaped vapor chamber.

The top of the hollow head is apertured and is provided with a stufiing box or gland 15, adapted to journal a driven shaft, hereinafter referred to.

YThe wall of the hollow head 12 is also apertured ,to receive the outlet'co nduit pipe 16 for the distillate vapors.

17 simply designates a support opening for a pressure gage, and 18 is a similar arrangement'for athermometer, it not being deemed necessary to actually show a gage and a thermometer, their functioning eing clearly understood. I may also state here that the still is equipped with all of the usual appurtenances, not shown in the sectional view, such as relief valves, sight glasses, gage glasses, peep holes, sampllng cocks, etc. 7

19 designates the inlet for the chamber 11, and 20 designates the outlet therefor, which will be further referred to.

I also provide a second jacketed steam chamber 21, interiorly of the still, formed bv the annular plate 22, suitably riveted to the interior wall of the cylinder section of the still. The position of this second steam chamber, as is clearly apparent from the drawings, is located at a position immediately between the jacketed dome-shaped vapor chamber and the highest level of the oil, or practically envelo s what we may properly term the foam c amber 23. This annular steam jacketed chamber 21 is also provided with an inlet and an outlet, desig- Mill In the lower or oil compartment of the still, I arrange a closed steam coil, or prefer- .ably'a plurality of such coils. In the drawings, I have illustrated two sets of such coils, the upper one being designated by the numeral 26 and the lower one by the numeral 27. These closed steam coils, respectively, have inlets and outlets 28 and 29 and 30 and 31.

32 designates an elongated open ended cylindrical well disposed centrally of the coils, being spaced from the bottom 1 of the still, and suitably held in place as by the upper and lower supporting bars 33 and 34.

Centrally within and spaced fromvthe concave bottom 1 of the still, I mount, in any desired way, a bearing element 35, in line with the aperture of the hollow head and stuffing box or gland 15, which bearing element receives the lower end of a vertical driven shaft 36, the upper end of which passes through said apertured hollow head and staffing box, and is geared up, as at 37, with any suitable driving means, which may be provided with a controller or governor, not shown.

Secured to the bottom of this shaft and rotating within the concave bottom of the still is {at agitating element, comprising a lateral arm 38, projecting on opposite sides of the shaft, and provided with downwardly disposed agitating short paddles or arms 39, for keeping the oil and any water in the bottom of the'still in a state of agitation. 1

Mounted on this same shaft, within the well 32, there is a spiral blade 40 acting as an oil conveyer for elevating the oil up and over the well, for causing complete circulation, as will more fully appear hereinafter.

Toward the upper part of the foam chamber 23 there is fixedly mounted a pair of inwardly projecting supports, provided with upwardly disposed spaced breaker arms 43,

and immediately above/the same and sethe volatile vapors contained therein.

teaaeet for sweetening or slightly agitating the oil by jets of incoming steam.

This perforated steam coil is supplied with steam, after the still is in full operation, through the exhaust from the jacketed chamber 11.

A pipe line 46 leads from the exhaust 20 of the chamber 11, of the cover, to this perforated steam coil, through the branch 47, provided with a valve 48. The pipe 46 continues beyond the branch 47 and is provided with a valve 49, for purposes which will fully appear in the statement of opera-- t1on.

The inner end of the inlet ipe for feeding the oil, to be distilled, into tlie still is designated at 50, the discharge being just above the bottom of the still, within the circle of the coil 45. This inlet pipe is provided with the usual controlling valve 51.

The vapor outlet pipe 16 does not lead directly to the condenser, there being interposed in the conduit line what I term a catch-all. This consists of a .closed vessel 52, into which the vapor outlet pipe 16 discharges, and from which an outlet vapor pipe 53 leads to the condenser, not shown.

Within this vessel is disposed a bame plate 54, which will deflect any spray of oil that might pass out with the vapors to the bottom of the catch-alli, while the vapors pass on around the bafile plate and through the outlet pipe 53 to the condenser.

The bottom of this catch-all communicates, through a pipe 55, with the still, at approximately the level of the oil therein. This pipe may be provided with ac-ut-ofl' valve 56,. which is normally left open, but it is essential to have a check valve in the line, as at 57, so that when the column of oil in the pipe 55 exceeds the 115 pressure inside the still, the check valve 57 will open and allow the spray oil from the catch-all to discharge back again into the still until the opposing pressures again equalize.

1 20 Operation.

As the line pipes for the incomin and exhaust steam may obviousl be interchanged at. will, it has not con deemed expedient to encumber the drawings with a system of such piping, and it will also be understood that this particular type of still is preferably, although not necessarily, employed in an oil purification sysdill tem, the several elements of which are arranged as a plant on difierent floors of a building, so that the oil being reclaimed flows by gravitation or pumping from one part of the system to the other. Thusthe oil inlet pipe 50 isfed from an oil storage reservoir, containing oil which has been previously treated, washed and substantially filtered. U

In starting e still, I first out live steam into thesteam chamber 11, of the dome-shaped top through the inlet 19. At this stage the .va ve 48, controlling the admission of steani to the perforated coil 45,

is closed, and the valve 49 is open.

The incoming steam drives out any waters of condensation, in the chamber 11, through the outlet 20, the pipe 46, and past the valve 49 to a steam trap, not shown, con- .nected up with the boiler.

This is continued until all of the waters of condensation are driven off and good hot steam is passing through theconduit, when the valve 48 is opened and valve 49 closed, so that the live steam will now pass into the perforated coil 45 and issuing in jets therefrom will heat up the interior of the still with open steam, which will also heat up the coils 26 and 27 to a high degree,

as well as the vapor chamber 13 and vapor perature by the steam passing therethrough,

the exhaust therefrom will now pass to the steam trap instead of to the interior of the still.

Live steam is now out into the closed steam 1 coils 27 and 26, and the oil valve 51 is opened to allow of the introduction of oil:

into the still for about two-thirds of its capacity, and at substantially the same time the shaft 36 is started to rotate.

This first charge of oil is then heated up thoroughly, while the oil conveyer screw 40 elevates the oil up through the well 32, where it overflows at the top and falls back again, causing acomplete circulation through the heating zone, and providing for a more intimate heating of the molecular particles of the oil body, thus causing rapid vaporization or the lighter volatile substances.

As the scum or foam rises on the body of the oil up into the foam chamber'23, steam is also out into'the annular steam jacketed chamber 21, which surrounds the foam chamher, so that this foam is maintained at a so very high temperature also, and the revolving beater arms breaking up this foam further assists in releasing the lighter volatile vapors, which pass on up into the; domeshaped cover. While I have stated that .the steam is cut into the annular jacketedchamber 21 when the foam begins to rise, it is obvious that this may be done at the same time that the steam is cut into the closed coils.

, The oil vapors, however, are very sluggish in their ascent and would normally condense in the still and fall back again into the body of oil'or foam, as in the method of cracking distillation. While this is desirably followed where the rimary aim is increased production of gasolbne or naphtha derivatives, it is to be avoided in refining oils for lubricating purposes, where the aim is to get rid of the naphthas as quickly as possible. By my arrangement the spiral element 44,

operating in both said dome-shaped vapor out'through the pipe 53, leading to the con- Y denser, but should any sprays of oil be caused to be sucked out with the vapors they would strike the bafile plate and be deflected to the bottom of the catch-all and its lead out pipe to be returned eventually the still as previously stated.

This initial charge of oil having now been distilled as far as possible, the oil valve 51 is partiall opened and set at a position to allow fres oil to be gradually fed automatically into the still, and'as the fresh oil is thus gradually admitted, its lighter volatile constituents are practically vaporized ofi immediately by the action of the heated oil into which it discharges.

lVhen a full charge has finally been introduced into the still, say to a level slightly below the well top, and after this complete charge has been practically exhausted of its lighter distillates, the valve 49 is again closed and the valve 48 opened to admit the steam from the to chamber 11 to the perforated coil 45, w ich issuing the same in small jets up through the oil sweetens or slightly agitates the oil, and further distillation of the complete charge is continued.

As the foam rises in the foam chamber, the action of the heaters 42 thereon and the action of the vapor conveyer 44 is the same as heretofore described, while the steam chamberll in the cover and the annular steam chamber 21 surrounding the foam continue to act to maintain the vapors at the upper part of the still in a superheated noncondensed condition.

The operation is thus continued until the body of the oil has-attained the desired flash and fire points, when the still is shut down, and the oil drawn off through the outlet 4 into barrels or other storage receptacle.

While I have described my improved still with particular reference to the production of a better quality of lubricating oil from waste used oils, after having passed through a purification process, it is obvious that the still itself is not necessarily limited to this particular use.

For instance in obtaining gasolene from crude oils, I might initially employ my still for cracking distillation, by passmg a cooling medium through the chamber 11, causing the vapors to condense within the still and fall back, which as now understood in refineries increases the final production of gasolene, and then after suchcracking distillation, the method 'could be reversed and.

.the still caused to operate as hereinbefore described, so as to get off and condense the vapors 'as completely as possible.

It will be understood that, although I have shown and prefer to use heating coils interiorly of the still for the oil chamber, I do not except myself from direct exterior heating of the still if deemed expedient in any cases.

It is also to be understood that, while I do not limit myself to all of the details as shown, neither do I make any separate claims for. well known structural features, of oil stills or degreasing apparatus, for heating and circulating the contents thereof, nor simply for the breaking down or disintegration of arising foam to assist in releasing its 'condensable vapors, excepting as they may be combined in a novel reorganization of the elements as associated with the more generic principles and features of my invention as disclosed.

What I claim as new and patentable, is

1. In an oil still embodying an oil chamber and a foam chamber, with an oil inlet and an oil outlet for the former, in combination with a convex cover, providing an enlarged dome-like vapor chamber extending substantially above said foam chamber as an unobstructed continuation thereof, said cover being of spaced double-wall structure, having a vapor outlet therethrough, to form a jacketed fluid compartment encompassing said vapor chamber; a vapor conduit leading from said vapor outlet; a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet for said jacketed compart ment; a jacketed steam compartment encircling the wall of said foam chamber for enveloping the foam therein; means for inaeaeee steam inlet and a steam outlet. for said second jacketed compartment for superheating the foam encompassed thereby, the whole arrangement functioning substantially, as described.

2. In an oil still embodying an oil cham ber and a foam chamber, with an oil inlet and an oil outlet for the former, in combination with'a convex cover, providing an enlarged dome-like vapor chamber extending substantially above said foam chamber as an unobstructed continuation thereof, said cover being of spaced double-wall structure, having a vapor outlet therethrough, to provide a jacketed fluid compartment encompassing said vapor chamber; a steam inlet and a steam outlet for said jacketed compartment; a secondary vapor chamber disposed above said vapor outlet and in open communication with said dome-like chamber through said vapor outlet; a vapor conduit leading from said secondary vapor chamber; an elongated spiral vapor conveyer mounted to rotate in both said\ dome-like and secondary vapor chambers; means for.

.lheating' saidoil chamber, the whole arrangement functioning substantially as described.

3. In an oil still the combination with the.

body of the still, comprising an oil chamber and a foam chamber, said oil chamber having an oil inlet and an oil outlet; means for heating said oil chamber to the degree of vaporizing the volatile constituentsof the --oil contained therein; a steam jacketed chamber formed interiorly of the still and surrounding said foam chamber; a steam inlet and a steam outlet therefor; a doublewalled dome-shaped hollow cover for said foam chamber, providing an enlarged primary vapor chamber encompassed by said steam jacketed cover; a steam inlet and a steam .outlet for the latter; a secondary vapor chamber surmounting said steam jacketed cover, in direct communication with the dome-shaped space thereof; a vapor outlet pipe therefor; a driven shaft extending through said still and vapor chambers, circulating means mounted at the bottom of said shaft; beater arms mounted on said shaft in said foam chamber; and an elongated vapor elevating screw conveyer mounted at the top of said shaft and operating in both of the said vapor chambers, substantially as described.

4. In an oil still the combination with the body of the still comprising an oil chamber and a foam chamber, said oil chamber having an oil inlet and an oil outlet; of means for heating said oil chamber to a degree of at tensely heating said oil chamber; and a vaporizing thevolatile constituents, of the we 1,284,945 tie oil contained therein; a steam jacketed of sail? still; a branch pipe connecting said dome-shaped cover for said foam chamber, perfo ated coil with said exhaust pipe beprovided with a vapor outlet; a steam inlet tween said cover outlet and said valve; and 10 and a steam outlet for said steam jacketed a control valve in said branch pipe, substan- 5 cover; an exhaust pipe leading from said tially as described.

steam outlet, and provided With a control In testimony Whereof,I afiix my signature. valve; a perforated steam coil in the bottom OLIVER C. SWAN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2702184 *Oct 26, 1951Feb 15, 1955Du PontScrew mixer and blender
US2970401 *Jul 2, 1958Feb 7, 1961Hays Lawrence SLive bait aerator
US3230282 *Nov 7, 1962Jan 18, 1966Shell Oil CoProcess and apparatus for separating materials
US3329409 *Feb 4, 1966Jul 4, 1967Taunton Engineering WorksDraft tube impeller
US3893894 *Jun 13, 1973Jul 8, 1975Pollution Control IncLow temperature water purification system
US4564063 *Apr 16, 1984Jan 14, 1986The Dow Chemical CompanyAnnular heat exchanger
U.S. Classification196/118, 196/125, 159/31, 159/26.1, 196/124, 366/320, 159/DIG.400, 366/149, 159/28.4, 196/119, 196/120, 159/25.2, 196/136, 196/103
Cooperative ClassificationY10S159/04, C10G9/40