US 1285051 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
c. F. CHAT/TER. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM.
APPLICATIGN FILED JULY 20. i918.
Patented Nov. 19, 191&
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
` i @Ff/"afines" C. F. CRAMER.
APPLICATION FILED JuLY 2o. ma.
2 SHEETSfSHEET 2.
Patented Nov. 19, 191s.
@wom/woz v @Mot-Mc@ i0 the unit rests sTRUcruRAL SYSTEM.
pecication of Letters Patent.
Patented Nov. i9, i918.
Application led `Tuly 20, 1918.' Serial N o. 245,890.
Y@ ZZ whom t may concern.'
Be it known that l, CHARLES F. CRAMER, a citizen of the United States, residing at Indiana., in the county of Indiana and 5 State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Structural i ystems, of which the following is a specification.
. This invention relates to 'building con-V struction, and particularly to a system of construction wherein reinforced concrete units are used, said units being formed in the Shop and being so formed as to be adapted to be laid successively and supported by walls, beams and partitions.
rihe general object of this invention is to provide a iireproof iioor and road bed vconstruction which may be used for bridges, if desired, or in other like circumstances, which embodies units adapted to be made in the shop and placed at any season of the year without damage from freezing or heat and without the use of centering forms or temporary supports, and further to provide a construction of this character which may be laidby unskilled labor, the necessity of using bolts, rivets,
or other attaching means, which units are flreproof, vermin proof and ready for plastering or placing wood floors nection therewith when desired.
A further object is to provide a unit for constructions of this character comprising an outer sheath of sheet metal, and a plastic filling, the sheath being formed of a. sing piece of sheet meta-l bent into trough-like form covering the bottom, sides, and ends of the plastic lling and formed to interlock therewith.
object is to provide a unit of the character above described in wh'ich the sheath is lock with the next adjacent unit.
A further object is to provide a unit of this character in which the sheath forms a on walls or portation, or in handling.
A further object is to so form the sheath that it will add strengthv to the unit. and tend to conduct load stresses to 5 sides of the trough-like sheath.
A further object is to provide a construcso formed that one unit will inter- -a sheath or form or sheat-h tion of this character wherein bers are disposed mold or sheath with initially liquid plastic material, which when hardened has Ibinding the reinforcing elements in permanent position.
A further object in this connection is to provide reinforcing rods so constructed that they may be engaged over supporting beams or girders, or units into walls.
Still another proved form of beam, having preferably provided whereby the truss object is to provide an imreinforcing bar or supportan integral truss and with tightening wedges may be tightened. Other objects will appear in the Course 0f the following description.
y invention is companying dra-wings, wherein Figure 1 is a fragmentary sectional view of a Hoor construction showing one form of my building unit in place;
Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional view of one form o f the structural unit;
showing another the structural unit;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation of one of the forms of structural unit, showing modified form of supportin and reinforcing rod, the supporting am and flanges being in section;
Fig. -5 is a like view to Fig. 4, showing another means of connecting the structural unit to-a supporting beam, the structural unit being broken away;
Fig 6 is a side elevation of the form of 'supportingbeam illustrated in Fig. l; and
Fig. 7 1s a transverse sectional view through the beam shown in Fig. 6.
Referring to Figs. l and 2, it will be seen that the unit of this constructional system is composed of an outer sheath of sheet metal designated generally A and a filling of plastic material designated B. This sheath in one form of my invent-ion, as illustrated inFig. 2, is trough shaped in cross section to form a bot-tom 10, and upwardly extending sides 11. e upper margins of these sides are downwardly and inwardly turned as at 12 and perforated, as at 13.
illustrated in the ac- 1 vlarly bar upon which-the ends oi the units The bottom l()v is formed periorations 13 sot-hat the plastic iilling B will enter these periorations and interlock with the metal sheath A, provdinga suiileiency ot' exposed plastic i'or plastering` to adhere to. reierably tongues' le are out out ot the rn'iddle oi the bottoni which tongues are turned upward and inward and angubent to engage the plastic iilline'. Longitudinal reinforcing bars l are de signed to be supported within the sheath or torni before the plastic illling is put in place and to be thereby embedded within the cornplete unit. out ot the sides oi the Jiorni il. so as to cause the torni to interloelr` with the filling.
llhe reinforcing rods l5 are extended te the ends of the unit in one torni ot my oonstruction as illustrated in Fig. li and then bent angularly upward as at 15a and then torward and downwarl to iorrn a hook l5b to enga-ge over the supporting beanie C or to anchor in the wall lili'. @i course the iorni of this hook 15b will depend upon the cross sectional iorrn oi the beani C which supports the unit. li do not wish to bel limited to the use of reinioroing rods 15 extending entirely through the unit as, under sorne eirouinstanoes, as illustrated in lTig. 5, l may reiniorce the unit by a web material 16; supported in any suitable man ner within the iorrn or sheath and embedded within the plastic material B.
Under these -eirournstanees,` however., l use a supporting hook 17 whieh extends downward through the unit adjacent one or both ends thereof and is provided with a washer oi the hook ein.
and nut 17h, the upper end tending laterally andthen downward as at lla so as to engage over the supporting beam.
l do not wish to be limited, oi course, to
' vthe particular supporting beams with which these units are intended to ooact. rlions., in Fig. Ll. l show a supporting bearn which is 'lg-shaped or l-shaped in Cross section and which is designated C and to which an angle iron i8 is riveted and upon which the bottom oi the unit rests. ln Fig. 5, l show a beam G2 which is rectangular in cross seo-- tion and to which angle irons i9 are riveted and which support the unit, the lower ends oi the anchoring member 17 to have nuts nnder the sheath.
ln liig. l, l show another iorni oi bearn C which l have especially designed ier use with iny unit ininy improved door system and which is illustrated in detail in 6. This consists ot a bar rectangular in cross section which is initially slit as at QG ior nearly its entire length to torni a truss 2l which is forced downward at itsmiddle by lmeans oi a strut. 2Q and wedges 98. lWhen suoli abar or supporting beam is used, the angle irons 2 are riveted to the side oi the are with a plurality oi supported.
@ther tongues il? may be struck oi reti culated be made The lower portion ot this supporting bar is designed to be concealed by a ialse beam 25. lreierably the concrete li iilled into the niold or torni A extends ilnovo the iorrn as illustrated in Fig. 2, andthe ends oi the concrete filling are cut away as at Q6 to pass upper flanges oi rolled beams and permit the units to be placed with the hook extending over the beam C, C or C2. lreierably, also, the longitudinal upper corners oi the concrete iilling` s.: are rounded so as to prevent these corners Vfrom being broken. A strip ot wood or other like inaterial 27 is designed to be initially embedded in the concrete oi each unit to forni a iioor strip to which door supporting beams may be nailed and to which the door itself may be nailed. i
ln Figs. l and 3, l' show what l regard as a preferable torni oi unit. ln this case one oi the sides ll oi the unit, at its upper inargin,-is turned down as at 28, parallel to the side'and is then inwardly angled as at 29.
rlhe opposite side wall'll is outwardly and downwardly bent to form a hook 30 and then the sheet rnetal is reiolded upon itselfupwa-rd and inward and then downward and inward as at 8l, this downwardly and inwardly extending portion 31 being iorined with openings 13a, whereby the plastic lilling may interlock with this downwardly and inwardly extending dange.V The concrete filling is out away on one 'corner2 as at 32, so as to permit the hoolr 30 oi one unit' to be disposed over the upper edge oi the wall ll oi the next adjacent unit, in the manner illustrated in Fig.. 3. Utherwise than this the construction is the saine as that previously described. ln 'this form ot my inventionV` *forno are not provided with inwardly pro# ject-ing tongues lea as in Fig. 2, but bolts such as stove bolts 33, are disposed at intervals through the sides, and preferably disposed at the neutral axes ot said sides'to secure a thorough tween the lling and the sheath.
llt is to be noted in lfig. 3, that the hook the sides ll oi the sheet metal Sil binding `engagement be-A y i 3G has a portion extending straight outwardy horizontally through the' plastictilling and through the trough or form A for the pas conduits, etc. rlhese will manner by iorining.'
sage or' gas pipes,
in an obvious the proper holes in the metallic form and through the concrete.l Y
The `functions oi the combined viorinjand sheath A are as follows: |This sheath pro-' vides a one piece inet-al iorm or inold for y n v the plastic nlhng and further torrns a strong envelop rorthe plastic illing protecting the -arrises of the i5 an interlocking hook 30 which holds the units together and covers the joint between the units when the units are laid touching one another. These units may be afterward covembedded in the plastic material tend to conduct the floor load stresses to the vertical sides of the trough.
lt will be seen that with this construction,
the units may be made at the shop and thoroughly hardened without regard to weather conditions. They may then be transported to the place where the building is being erected and readily put in place by unskilled labor. This construction does not need,
. therefore, the use of centering or temporary supports, which centering systems are relatively expensive and inasmuch as the units are 'without bolts, rivets, screws, nails or other detached parts, the units are lireproof and vermin-proof and when laid are ready for plastering or for the "placing of wood Preferably the proportions of each unit will be 16 long to 2 wide and l high, but it is obvious, oit course, that the units may be made of any desired size. It is also obvious that many changes may be m-ade in the details of construction and arrangement of parts, without departing from the spirit of the invention and that I do not wish to be limited to the particular manner of perforating the bottom l0 or the sides of the units, the particular form of the reinforcing beams, or elements, or to the particular position to which they are placed. l
l. A structural unit comprising an outer sheet of metal sheathing having upturned sides, one of the sides having its upper margin bent downward and inward, the opposite Y side having its upper margin bent downward and outward engage side of an adjacent structural unit, and a iilling of initially plastic material.
2. A structural unit comprising an outer' sheet metal sheathing having upturned sides, one of the Sides having its upper margin bent downward' and outward to form a hook,
if brittle, the
an adjacent unit with the sides, one of the lreinforcing bars, and a over the rst named and then refolded upon itself and extended inward and downward, and a iilling of inengagement of thehook-shaped portion of Y upstanding wall.
4. A structural unit comprising an outer sheet metal sheathing having upturned sides, one of the sides having its upper margin bent downward and forated, and a filling of initially plastic material within which said perforated portion is embedded.
5. A structural unit comprising 'an outer sheet metal sheathing havingupturned ends and sides, one ofthe side walls of the sheathing being downwardly and inwardly bent and perforated, the bottom ofthe sheathing being perforated, and a filling of initially plastic material.
6. A'structural unit having an outer sheet metal sheathing having upturned ends and sides at its Aupper margin extending downward and inward and being perforated, the bottom of the sheathing being perforated, and the sheathing being formed with inwardly projecting tongues, 'illing of initially plastic materiah 7. A structural unit comprising an outer sheet metal sheathing having upturned ends and sides, one of the sides having its upper margin bent downward, the opposite side being bent downward and outward to form a hook and then re-folded upon itself and extendedY inward and downward and being perforated, and alling ofinitially plastic material.
8. A structural unit comprising an outer sheet metal sheathing having upturned ends and sides, one of the sides at its upper margin being bent downwardly upon itself and having a laterally projecting flange, the opposite side of the sheatling being bent downward and outward to form a hook and then being rebent upon itself and extended downward and inward, the last named 'portion Ybeing perforated,the hook of one unit being engageable over the first named side, the sheathing being perforated at a plurality of points and being formed with inwardly projecting tongues, longitudinally extending 4reinforcing members, and a filling of initially plastic material engaging the first inward and perla LS:
named margin of the second named side and extending above said perforated niaigin, the opposite corner et the filling being eut away Wheieioy to permit the hooked side ei one unit to be engaged with the stiaigiit being engageaioie oyen the ist named side3 the sheathing being peiiiorated at a plurality et peints and being einied with inwardly proj eating tongues, iongitudinaiiy extending teinferoing nienibes, and a iiiing of initiaiiy plastic material4 engaging the rst named margin oi the second named side and extending above said 7peifoi'ated margin, the opposite' corner i the iiiing being mit away whereby te permit the hooked side of one unit to be engaged with the straight side of the nent adjacent unit, and tying bolts disposed through the sides of the sheathing and embedded in said iiin'.
in testimony Wiieeet lV afz my signature.
CHARLES F. (BEAMER.