US 1287297 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. W. HALL. AEROPLANE. APPLICATION FltED MAY 1'9. 1911.
1 287,297. Patented Dec.10, 1918.
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AEROPLANEQ APPLICATION FILED MAY 19, 1917- & 1,287,297. Patented-D6010, 1918.
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a I h [MINAENTORJ ATTORNEY C. W. HALL. AEROPLANE.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 19,I9!7.
1,287,297. Patented Dec.10,1918.
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- ATTORNEY CHARLES WARD HALL, OF LARCHMONT, NEW YORK.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Dec. 10, 1918.
Application filed, May 19. 1917. Serial N6. 169,640.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that 1, CHARLES WARD HALL,
a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Larchmont, in the county of Westchester and Stateof New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Aeroplanes, ofwhich the following is a specification.
My invention relates to aeroplanes and, having for its object the improvement of the means for their control, comprises certain novel features of form, arrangement, and combination of parts as hereinafter described and more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
One specific embodiment of my invention as applied to a biplane of common type is shown by way of illustration in the accompany-ing drawings, in which- Figure 1 is a perspective view of a machine equipped with my improved control or stabilizing fins; Fig. 2,a similar v1ew,en
f larged, of one end of the upper plane, with a part of its upper surface covering broken away, and of the control fin mounted there-' on; Fig. 3, a broken detail showing in section, on the line 3 3 of Fig. 4, a control fin and in plan certain parts of the framework of the main upper plane and the operative connections of the fin; Fig. 4, a similar detail showing partly in section and partly in rear elevation the parts shown in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5, a view partly in section and partly in elevation on the line 5 5 of Fig. 4; Fig. 6, a side view, and Fig. 7, a front view, partly in elevation and partly in section, of the control mechanism mounted within the cock-pit of the machine and operatively connected with the control fins; and Figs. 8 and 9, details partly in vertical section and in.
perspective, respectively, of different parts of the mechanism shown in Figs. 6 and 7 The same reference characters indicate like parts throughout the several figures of the drawings.
The machine here illustrated has, for its principal parts,,a body or fuselage B, carrying the usual rear elevating planes and vertical rudder, and upper and lower support ing planes Or wings WV W, which are framed and covered above and below in the usual or in any suitable manner.
For the control of the machine I have provided, in addition to the elevating planes and rudder, vertical control or stabilizing fins 1 which are movably and preferably adjustably mounted on opposite sides of the machine above the upper supporting plane and 'ad3acent to its outer ends and are, or'may be, automatlc in their action.
Each of these stabilizing fins, that on the right of the machine for example, is pivotally mounted upon a fixed vertical post 2, se-
cured to the framework of the upper plane arms 7 by means of grooved rollers. 8 which are pivoted to the downturned outer ends of the arms and travel in slots 9 in a guidepiece 10 secured at its ends to two ribs 11 of the plane. A horizontal brace rod 12, which is pivoted at 13 to the post and slides in a groove the fin, serves to hold this post in an upright position within the slot in the fin.
A rod 15, which extends nearly from end to end of the plane between its upper and lower surface coverings through openings provideddherefor in the ribs, is mounted to slide and to rotate in bearings formed in brackets 16 fixed to the rear side of the forward spar 17 of the plane. One end of this rod passes through suitable openings in 14 formed in the lower part ofthe downturned ends of the carrier arms 7 to one of which it is secured by bosses 18. A spur-wheel 19, fixed u on the rod, is geared to a second spur-whee 20, which ispivoted within a slot 21 in the'post 5 and is in turn geared to a rack 22 fixed to the stabilizing fin within its forward slot. The stabilizing fin on the left of the machineis mounted similarly to that already described and is connected in the same way to the other end of the rod 15. I
At the center of the rod 15, over the body of the machine, is a sleeve 28 which is free covering of the plane to the cock-pit in the,
body, where, after passing over guidesheaves 28 suitably mounted therein, they are connected to control mechanism; shown, in the form preferred, in Figs. 6 and 7 This control mechanism consists of a shaft 29 which is j ournaled in brackets 30 attached to the bottom of the body of the machine and carries a post or lever-arm 31 by which it is rocked by the pilot to rotate the grooved pulleys32 and through the cords 33 to control (by onnections not shown) the elevating planes of the machine in the usual man? ner. Two hollow guide-posts 34, slotted along their sides, are supported between brackets 35 carried by the swinging post and surrounding each is a tension spring 36 which is attached at its lower end to the grooved flange of athreaded sleeve 37 ad justably mounted on the threaded lower end of the uide-post and at its upper end to the flange sleeve 38 sliding upon the guide- 0st.
Within each ide-post slides a crossead 39 provided with laterally rojecting ears 40 25 which extend outwardly rough the slots in the sides of the guide-post and are adapted to/bear against the lower end of the sleeve 38; and to these two cross-heads are respecv tively attached the lower ends of the'cords 26, passed over guide-sheaves 41 mounted on the offset middle portion of the shaft 29, and the ends of a chain 42 which passes over the sprocket-wheel 43 fixed on one end of a shaft 44 journaled in a cross-head at the upper end of the swinging post and carrying on its other end a hand-wheel 45. A dog 46, which is pivoted to the hand-wheel, is adapted to engage at one end in a slot 47 in the crosshead on the swinging post to lock the wheel,
and through it the stabilizing fins, against movement, whenever the wheel is turned so 1 as to bring the fins into a position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine, and the dog is either pressed toward or held out of such locking engagement with the slot by a spring 48. i a
Near the center of'therod 15, and also over or just to one side of the body of the machine, is a worm gear 50 which is keyed to the rodto rotate therewith between two of the bearing brackets 16 but through which the rod is free to slide; and, meshing with this gear, is a, worm 51 on the upper end of a shaft 52 which, journaled in suitable bear:
lngs attached to the framework of the machine, extends downward, preferably immediately behind and inclosed within a stream line cover (not shown) of one of the the handwheel 53 fixed to its lower end within easy reach of the pilot.-
The operation of the stabilizing fins isas follows: When the control-wheel 45 is locked the fins are held immovable in a position parallel to the. longitudinal axis of the machine and function as bilge keels or box kite sides in the same way as do theusual fixed; 'fins in common use. When, however, the control-wheel is unlocked, the fins are movable about the posts on which they are pivoted and are automatic in their the rod 15 to rotate and through the spurwheels 19 and 20 and rack 22 moves the fins forward or backward, to the limit permitted by .the length of the slots 6, and the worm holds them locked in any position to which they have been moved. When the fins are at their extremeforward position, the moment-arm between the pivot posts 2 and the center of" pressure of the fins is at its maximum and automatic control 1s most sensitive, and, as a given side pressure will then, having the longest possible leverage on which to act, cause the greatest deflection or in cidence. of the fins, the restoring movement is also the most powerful; while at their extreme backward position the pivot posts are approximately at the longitudinal center of the fins and automatic control practically ceases. The pilot will accordingly adjust the fins to' such intermediate position as will give just the degree of automatic control which he prefers or which is indicated for the weather conditions at the time. Then,
on the side slipping of the machine or a veering or hauling of the relative wind, a pressure is exerted upon one side or the other of the fins and causes them to swing together to the right or left as the -case may be, incidentally forcing the rod 15 through its connection with the posts 5 to slide and through the stud sleeve 23 and cords 26 stretching one or the other of the springs 36 and rotating thecontrol wheel 45. The fins are thus automatically caused to present an angle of incidence to the line of travel of the machine which effects a righting force approximately proportional to the disturbance by reason of four simultaneous reactions-one by inertia about the longitudinal axis of the machine through the vertical moment arm between its center of gravitv and the center of pressure or of lateral resistance of the fins, another similar reaction through the vertical moment arm between the center of pressure of the body and the center of pressure of the fins,.a turning or yawin moment about a vertical axis of the machlne'through the moment arm between the rudder and the control fins, and a side slip opposite in direction to the side slip due tothe original loss of balancecausing the supporting planes on the lower side of the machineto travel faster and consequently to exert a greater lift than on the high sideof the machine; all of which rightthe swinging movement of the fins,
the control fins to ing forces immediately cease as their cause, the side pressure produced by the ori inal side slip or the veering or hauling o the relative wind, ceases upon, the restoration of the machine to a condition of lateral balance. The springs 36 serve both to damp which is limited by the transverse movement permitted the movable post 5 or by the movement of the sleeves 38 upon the guide-posts or both, and to restore the fins at once to their normal neutral position as soon as the machine recovers its balance, thus preventing shock and assuring a steady easy recovery. Similarly, when the pilot desires to glve the machine a position other he turns the control wheel a5 so as to cause meet the relative wind at the necessary angle of incidence and thereby tips or banks the machine through the reactions above described. In either case the reactions of the fins may be accelerated or retarded by a suitable use' of the rudder.
While I have shown and described, by way of illustration, the construction which I prefer and which I now consider to be the best mode for applying the principle of my invention, it will be understood that such construction may be greatly modified in its several parts, or equivalents substituted therefor, and that certain features may be omitted entirely, without departing from the spirit or sacrificing the advantages thereof. For example, the tabilizing fins may in a biplane or multiplane machine be placed just belowonstead of above one or more of the upper wing planes or maybe divided by the wing surface so as to be partly above and partly below it; a single stabilizing fin, centrally mounted, may be used instead of tWo or more fins symmetrically disposed on opposite sides of the machine; and the fore and aft adjustability of the fins may be omitted and their action can, if desired, be made automatic only, in
which case the construction can be simplified in obvious ways.
The word plane as used herein is to, be understood as including any suita lecuryed or warped surface, and by the UBI'III var tical a true normal is not intended but any angle approximate thereto.
\Vhat I claim as new, and desire to secure 1. The combination vith an aeroplane of a partially balanced automatic auxiliary plane which is mounted-to swing by the, action thereon of the relative Wind tov a limited extent about an axis positioned between its fore andfa-ftcenter of pressure and its rear end.
2. The combination with an aeroplane of an automatically operative auxiliary plane which is mounted to swing to a limited exthan normal,
tent about an axis behind its fore and aft center of pressure and adjustable with respect thereto. Y
3. The combination with an aeroplane of a vertically disposed auxiliary plane which is yieldingly held in normal position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and so mounted as to automatically swing by pressure of the relative Wind about an axis between its fore and aft center of pressure respect to said longitudinal axis.
4. The combination with an aeroplane of a vertically disposed auxiliary plane which is yieldingly held in normal position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and so mounted as to automatically "swing by pressure of the relative wind to a limited extent about an axis adjustable to and back from its fore and aft center of pressure.
5. The combination with an aeroplane of a vertically disposed auxiliary plane which is pivotally mounted behind its fore and aft center of pressure and yieldingly held. in normal position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and means for man ually controlling the angular position of the plane.
6. The combination with an aeroplane of a vertically disposed auxiliary plane which is yieldingly held in normal position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and is mounted to automatically swing by pressure of the relative wind about an axis behind its fore and aft center'of pressure and adjustable to and from said center of pressure and means for manually controlling the adjustment of its pivotal axis to regulate the automatic action of the plane.
7. The combination with an aeroplaneof a vertically disposed auxiliary plane which is yieldingly held in normal position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and is mounted to swing about a pivotal axis behind its, fore and aft center of pressure and adjustable with respect thereto and means for manually controlling both the position of the pivotal axis and the angular position of the plane. v
8. The combination with an aeroplane of a vertically disposed auxiliary plane automatically opera ive on a lateral tiltin 0f the aeroplane about its longitudinal axis to assume a position presenting an angle of incidence adapted to efiect a righting moment, means for yieldingly holding said auxiliary plane in neutral position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane and automatically operative to return it to such position as the aeroplane is restored to lateral balance, and means whereby the pilot within the body of the aeroplane may both control and effect the movement of said auxiliary plane;
' 9. The combination with an aeroplane of 75 and its rear end to an angular position with a a stabilizing mounted upon a supportingplane of the aeroplane to swing about an axis substantially perpendicular to the supporting plane and behind the longitudinal center of the fin, means tending normall to hold the fin in position parallel to the ongitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and means for limiting the swinging movement of the fin.
11. The eombination'with an aeroplane'of a stabilizing fin mounted upon a supporting plane to swing about an axis substantially perpendicular to the supporting plane, and means within the control of the pilot for adjusting the fore and aft position of the fin with respect to its pivotal axis.
12. The combination with an aeroplane of a stabilizing fin mounted upon a supporting plane of the aeroplane to "swing about an axis substantially perpendicular to the supporting plane, means .for adjusting the position of the fin with reference to its pivotalaxis, and .means operable by the pilot for'controlling and effecting the movement of the fin about such axis.
13. The combination with an aeroplane of a plurality of stabilizing fins mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the aeroplane to hold the fins in longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, means upon one of its supporting planes and connected to swing together each about a pivotal bearing behind its longitudinal center and substantially perpendicular to the sup porting plane,- hold the stabilizing fins in position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aeroplane, and means tvithin the control of the pilot for adjusting the fore and aft position of the fins with respect to their pivotal bearmgs.
14. The combination with an aeroplane of a plurality of stabilizing fins mounted symmetrically on opposite sides of the aeroplane upon one of its supporting planes and conmeans tending normally to V nected to swing to ether each about an axis behind its longitu inal center and substantially perpendicular to the supporting plane,
and means operable by the pilot for both controlling and efi'ecting the movement of the fins. v
15. In combination with an aeroplane, a plurality of stabilizing fins mounted symmetrically o'n op osite sides of the aer lane to swing each a out a pivotal bearing behind its longitudinal center and substantially perpendicular to the supporting plane of the aeroplane, means .tending normally position parallel to the operable by the pilot for adjustingthe fore and aft position of the fins with respect to their pivotal bearings, and means operable by the pilot for both controlling and eifectmg the movement of the fins.)
- CHARLES WARD HALL.