US 1290647 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Y. J. NYVALL.
FLUID PURIFYING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED AUG-27 1917.
- 1,290,647, Patented Jan. 7; 1919.
3 SHEETS-SHEET l- Y. J. NYVALL.
FLUID PURIFYING APPARATUS, APPLICATION FILED AUG-27. 1917.
1 ,29Q,647. Patented Jan. 7, 1919.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
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FLUID PURIFYING APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED AUG-27.1911.
Patented Jan. 7, 1919.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
I YNGVE J. NY V ALL, OF MISSOULA, MONTANA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 7, 1919.
Application filed August 27, 1917. Serial No. 188,479.
and to subject it to certain treatment for' the purpose of purifying it. Briefly described the apparatus comprises means for circulating the fluid through acourse or passageway with a transparent or permeable wall so'that the fluid may be subjected to the action of'the suns rays, radium rays, ultra-violet, or' actinic light, or other suitable radiations or emanations. It is believed that the apparatus will have a valuable application in the treatment of human blood to purify it outside of the body, and accordingly the particular form of apparatus herein illustrated is designed more especially for such purpose; although without material alteration of the apparatus it. may be used equally well for the treatment of other fluids.
An apparatus embodying the principles of the invention as applied more particularly to the treatment of the blood is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a view of the complete apparatus partly in side elevation and partly in vertical section.
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the apparatus.
Fig. 3 is a vertical section on the line 33 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an axial section through the lower part of one of the pump chambers, showing the valves. g
Fig. 5 is an axial section through the hollow needle for withdrawing blood from an artery.
Fig. 6 is a similar view showing the needle for returning the purified blood to a vein. 7
As shown in said drawings, the apparatus comprises a pump for withdrawing and returning the blood to the body and a medium through which the blood is circulated outside of t e body for subjecting it to treatplate to its edge.
passage connects down through an opening ment with actinic -or other rays for the purpose of purifying it. Accordingly there is prov1ded a horizontally arranged plate.
10, preferably of heavy glass, in the upper surface of which is made-a spiral groove 11, continuous in length from the center of the plate to its outer edge, and upon'the plate 10 is accurately fitted a covering plate 14, preferably of quartz. The-two plates are sealed together along the continuous ridge between the convolutions of the spiral groove by a suitable substance such as paraflin so that there is thus formed a long spiral passage from the center of the glass The inner end of this 20 in the center of the glass plate with a lateral passage 21 into a glass block 22 secured to the under side of the plate 10 by means of screws-23, and the outer end of the groove 11 connects through a passage 30 in the plate with a glasstube 31 which is joined to the plate by means of a Wide flange 32, so that the passageway through this part of the apparatus is formed entirely of glass, quartz and paraflin. Below vthe plate 10 is arranged an incandescent lamp 35 by means of which the plate may be warmed and the under side of the plate is silvered as indicated at 36.
Referring now to the means for introducing the blood or other fluid into the purifying plate 10 and for circulating it therethrough, there is provided a pump comprising a cylinder 50 with a piston 51 and piston rod 52 connecting with a crank throw 53 on a shaft, 54, by the rotationof which latter the apparatus is operated; the cylinder 50 being joined through a tube 60 with a cylindric glass chamber 61. A glass tube 63 with an outwardly opening glass ball check valve 6% connects the bottom of this chamber with the passage 21 at the center of the plate 10; and another tube 68 enters the side wall of the chamber 61 at its lower part through a similar inwardly opening check valve 69. The tube 68 is connected to a hollow needle which is introduced into an artery so that by the operation of the pump 50 the air in the upper part of the chamber 61 is alternately Withdrawn and reintroduced, to cause the blood to be sucked through the tube 68'and expelled through the tube 63, thus circulating it' through the spiral groove 11.
In addition there is provided a pump 80 in all respects similar to the pump 50 and similarly operated from the crank shaft 5 1, but smaller than the pump 50 and arranged with its crank throw 81 at one hundred and eighty degrees from the crank throw 53 so that the strokes of the two pumps will alternate. The pump cylinder 80 connects through a tube 83 with the top of a glass chamber '84, and into the lower part of this chamber is conducted a glass tube 85 which leads to a glass supply tank 86. The lower end of the tube 85 opens into the chamber 84 through an inwardly opening glass ball check valve 87, and in the bottom of the chamber is made an' outlet with a similar, outwardly opening check Valve 88 and an outlet tube 89.
For the purpose of taking blood from an artery through the operation of the pump 50 as above described, the tube 68 is connected to a hollow metal needle 90, and secured to the side of this needle is a similar needle 91 which connects to the tube 89. As shown in Fig. 5, the end of the tube 91 projects slightly beyond the end of the tube 90, and both of them are pointed so that they may be introduced into an artery 92 with their open ends directed against the course of the blood stream. In the operation of the apparatus the tank 86 is filled with a suitable chemical solution to prevent the blood from coagulating, and as the pumps and 80 work alternately the effect is to introduce the chemical solution into the artery through the tube 91 ;while the pump 50 is on its suction stroke, and to withdraw the blood and the solution togetherthrough the tube 90.
The shank of the needle 90 is fitted into a glass block 95 which is made with a radial flange and joined by means of screws 96 to a flanged glass tube 97; and the latter in turn is connected with the tube 68 by a short piece of rubber tube 98 so as to expose as little area as possible of metal and rubber to the blood and permit the parts to be separated for the purpose of thorough cleaning and sterilizing. The blood is returned through the outlet tube 31 and a needle 100 which is similarly made with its shank joined to anumber of capillary tubes 105 to strain the.
blood before it is returned into the veins and remove coagulations, all of these capillary tubes being removable by the separating of the parts 101 and 102 so that theymay be readily cleaned and sterilized.
In .addition there is provided a third pump 110 similar in all respects to the pump 80 and connected in the same manner through a glass chamber 112 with a tank 115 similar to the tank 86; the pump 110 being arranged on the shaft 51 with its crank shaft in the same angular position as that of the pump 81. The purpose of the additional pump 110, with its connecting chamber 112 and supply tank 115, isto provide means for introducing another solution into the blood either in addition to the solution in the tank 86 or in place of the latter, it being readily apparent that solution may be taken from the tank 115 by a tube connecting the outlet tube 120 from the chamber 112 with the tube 68 in the same manner as above described. There is also provided an incandescent lamp 125 for warming the solution in the tank 115 if this is desirable.
In the operation of the apparatus, blood is withdrawn from an artery and circulated through the spiral course in the plate 10, as
above described, while the surface of the plate is exposed to a source of actinic light such as a suitable lamp or the suns rays, and is returned to a vein through the needle 100. In the exposure of the plate 10 to the actinic rays the quartz cover plate 11 will protect the glass plate against heat, and the silver coating 36 on the under side of the plate 10 will reflect back the actinic rays and thus increase the effect on the blood in the groove.
I claim as my invention:
In an apparatus for purifying blood, the combination of a withdrawal tube adapted to be inserted into a "cin or artery, an external course for the circulation of the blood and its exposure to actinic or other rays, a pump for withdrawing the blood from the vein or artery and circulating it through the external course, a source of supply for fluid other than blood, and means for introducing it into the vein or artery at a point adjacent the end of the withdrawal tube.
In witness whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name this 9th day of August, 1917.
YNGVE J. NYVALL.