US 1291298 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
J. H. WALKER.
METAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE.
APPLICATION FlLED JULY 2a. 1918.
Patented Jan. 14,1919.
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Patented; Jam 14, 1919.
nrrED sTArnsPA'l- N FF JQAH HAIGH WALKER, 0F WOOIiWICI'I, ENGLAND.
METAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Jan, 14, 1919 Application filed July 23, 1918. Serial No. 246,358.
To all whom a may concern:
Be it known that I, JOAH l IAIGH "Warner,
a subject of the King of Great Britain, residing at Eridge, Shooters Hill, Woolwich, Kent, England, have invented new and useful Improvements in and Relating to Metal Reinforcements for Concrete, of which the.
following is a specification.
My invention relates to metal reinforcement for concrete, and to that class of such reinforcement wherein a series of longitudinal and transverse members, is combined with a series of inclined ties or truss members, in the form of zig-zag bars, which take up the shear stresses, to form a kind of frame-work consisting of a series of pyramids having an appearance in plan somewhat resembling the well-knownbuckle-floor plating.
Reinforcement-s of this class have hereto fore been proposed wherein the connection between the longitudinal and transverse members and the truss members, has been ef feoted by making, say, the longitudinal members of strands of twisted wire, ar-
ranged to embrace or clip the transverse members and the truss members at the points of contact. A reinforcement constructed in this manner, however, possesses dlsadvantages as regards the formation of a continuous structure, as, for instance, a continuous reinforcement for a concrete bed or foundation for a road. f
u The object of my invention is to provide a reinforcement of the kind in question the elements of which may be built in as the operation of making a road foundation or a other structure proceeds.
According to my invention the zigzag bars or truss members are pivotally carried at their lower angles in suitable eyes, and in the bottom angles of these zigzag bars and resting on or near the pivot eyes transverse reinforcing bars of the lower planes are laid. The main longitudinal reinforcement bars of the bottom layer are then laid crosswise angles of the bars of the adjacent pairs are made to cross one anotherat about the cenat terof the squares made by the transverse on the transverse bars between adjacent aig-zag bars which are in pairs, and the zigzag bars are turned or crossed over the longitudinal bars wherebythe latter will be locked in position between the said zig-zag bars and the transverse-bars. If the upper and longitudinal bars, an upper plane of longitudinal and transverse bars can be laid in approximately the same horizontal plane as the tops of the angle-bars, the said longitudinal and transverse bars being suitably interlocked with theangle-bars in the same manner as the bars of the lower plane.
To enable the invention to be fully understood I will describethesameby reference to the accompanying drawing, in which "for a column or the like; and
Fig. .6 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a slight modification of the arrangement shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
a, m indicate pairs of longitudinal zigzag bars, 6, b theeyes in which the said bars are pivoted at their lower ends, and 0', c the transverse tension members at the lower angles of the said zig-zag bars. a 1
"As shown in Figs. 1. to 3 of the drawing the eyes 7), b are formed by looping the bars 0, 0 so that the reinforcement is quite independent of? the bed of hard core or the like upon which theconcrete foundation is to be laid; the aid eyes may be, however, in the form of say staples driven into thebed, in which case the bars 0, 0 will lie directly in the bottom angles of. the zig-zag bars.
It: will be understood that, in building up the renforcemenhif the transverse bars 0, c
: have the eyes'upon them the said transverse bars must be threaded along the whole series of zifg-zag bars inthe segment of rein forcement being builtup so as to lie in; the several lower angles of the latter.
d, d are the main reinforcement bars of the bottom layer, which bars are laid across the transverse bars 0, 0 between thepairs of zig-zag bars a, a so that when the said zigzag bars are turned or crossed over the longitudinal bars a! and the loops or upper angles of, say, the bar a are passed through the loops or upper anglesofthe bar athe said longitudinal bars at will be firmlylocked in position between the said bars 0:", a as thereto.
clearly hown in Fig. 2. By crossing the free or upper ends of the zig-zag bars of adjacent pairs, also as shown in Fig. 2, angular seats are formed between the upper ends of the zigzag bars in which the longitudinal ten- 'sion members 6, e of an upper plane of the bars are laid, also as shown in Fig. 2, these bars being then looked in position by passing the transverse bars 7 of the upper plane of bars through the upper angles of the zigzag bars above the longitudinal members e, v
The extremities of the angles of the zigzag bars are preferably slightly bent at both the upper and lower angles, as clearly shown in Fig; 52, particularly as regards the lower angles, so that the interlocking of the several bars will be closer and more efficient than if the whole of each zig-zag bar is in one plane.
If the component bars of the structure before described are of sufficient stiffness the said structure will, in the case of a slab or a raft, or foundation for soft ground, be of suflicient strength to support barrowroads or such like for placing the concrete in position.
It will be understood that, instead of the frame-work being" used for reinforcing a road foundation as before described it may be used in a vertical'or inclined position for reinforcing a concretewall or the like.
In some cases it may be thought desirable to dispense with the upper plane of longitudinal and transversestress members, in
which case the upper apices or angles of the inclined zig-Zag truss members may be merely secured together by means of binding wire or other suitable attachment. If desired, additional transverse, longitudinal and inclined or vertical diagonal stress members can be incorporated with the rein forcement by being suitably wired or tied It issometimes necessary, however, as, for instance, in a ferro-c'onorete beam, to arrange such additional bars in two or more superimposed planes, to afiord suflicient space between the bars for the introduction of the concrete. Such additional upper and lower planes of reinforcement may be easily supported from a built up framework such as above described.
It is possible to dispense with the loops or eyes I), b in-the bottom transverse bars and substitute'straight bars for looped bars. Such a framework will however lack rigidit-y unless the lower apices of the inclined and bent bars, the lower transverse bars and the'lower longitudinal bars of the framework are lashed together, or unless pegs or hooks,driven intothe ground, are used.
Although, as before stated, the reinforcement can be built up as the laying of the concrete proceeds, I can, ifdesired, make the reinforcement in sectionsand suitably connect the sections together from time to time. Such sections may advantageously have a length of 26 feet and a width of 6 feet with a distance of five and a half inches between the two faces, but obviously these dimensions can vary according to the use to which the reinforcement is to be put, for instance, in building walls of sheds or the sides of pontoons,
A reinforcement suitable for beams, co]- nmns and the like can be constructed on substantially'the same principle as hcreinbefore described, that is to say, the longitudinal tension members can be clipped between the extremities of the zigzag members. Such an arrangement is shown in Figs. 4: and 5 as applied to a four-sided reinforcement, and in these figures g, indicate the longitudinal tension members and it, h the zig-zag members. In this case as the transverse members c and f, Figs. 1 to 3, which lock the tension members with the zigzag members are not employed, it is necessary to lock the angles of the zigzag members by means of loops or rings i, 2'.
A framework or reinforcement such as described, consisting as it does of a. Warren girder type of truss, of which the zigzag bent bars form the inclined or diagonal tension and compression members, may be made sufliciently rigid to stand handling by a crane. Such further longitudinal bars as required can be wired on to this framework.
In some cases the diagonal members above described while being sufficient to enable the framework to be handled as a unit, are not, however, suflicient to take the stresses imposed on the member as the part of a structure, and consequently require to be supplemented by additional bars or wires. I conveniently do this, in one way, by placing the framework such as shown in Figs. 4- and 5 on two or more sets of stationary rollers, which are simultaneously revolved by means of a shaft running longitudinally with the superimposedframework to IGVOlWe the latter. Evenness of revolution of the framework can be obtained by fitting circular disks on to the framework where the same rests above the stationary rollers. Additional diagonal stress members are then readily added by paying on to the revolving framework either straight bars or wire from coils. As the framework revolves the bars or wires are wound on to it to any desired pitch or form, and are suitably secured as described.
It sometimes occurs that circumstances do not warrant the expense of rollers, in which case, the additional shear or diagonal stress members are wound or otherwise placed on the framework and suitably attached.
Alternatively I build up on the framework an additional set or sets of interlocking zig-zag bars in, k crossing diagonally the lOl zig-zag bent bars 7t, h as in Fig. 6, which indicates diagrammatically one side or panel of the framework.
The loops or rings 2', 2' each encircling two zig-zag bars at their apices can be formed in additional bars Z which cross the framework at right angles to its longitudinal axis.
I have above described two examples of my invention, one in which two horizontal planes in a ferro-concrete structure are locked and trussed in combination with bent bars designed to take the shear or diagonal stresses, and the other in which four longitudinal planes are similarly treated, but my invention may equally Well be applied to one, three or more horizontal or vertical planes in a ferro-concrete member or structure.
It must be understood that suitable framework may be constructed according to my invention in such a manner that such framework may be made to conform to any curve or shape as desired, and the term-concrete member or structure may be cored or perforated as circumstances require.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in What manner the same is to be per formed, I declare that What I claim is 1. A metal reinforcement for concrete structures comprising a plurality of zigzag bars arranged at angles to each other and having bent portions crossed to form crotches and loops, rods resting in said crotches, and means engaging said loops and securing the rods to the bars.
2. A metal reinforcement for concrete structures comprising a plurality of zig-zag bars arranged at angles to each other and having bent portions crossed to form crotches and loops, rods resting in said crotches and connecting said bars together, and otherrods passing through the loops and bearing against the first mentioned rods.
3. A metal reinforcement for concrete structures comprising a plurality of bent bars zig-zagin shape, the bent portions of such bars being crossed to form crotches and loops in upper and lower horizontal planes, longitudinal rods resting in said crotches, transverse bars passing over said rods and through the loops in the said upper plane and transverse bars having loops therein which engage the longitudinal rods and loops in the said lower plane.
4. A metal reinforcement for concrete structures comprising a zig-zag bar having bent portions bent at angles to straight portions of the bar, a similar bar arranged at substantially right angles to the first bar and having a bent portion crossing one of the bent portions of the other bar and form.- ing a crotch and loop, a rod resting in the crotch, and a second rod passing through the loop and bearing against the other rod for securing the bars and rods together.
JOAH HAIGH WALKER.
copies or this patent any be obtained for he cent each, by adult-ailing the Commissioner at Iatenta,
Wuhlagton, D. 1!.