US 1291917 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
0. H. KENNEDY.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 22.1916.
1,291,917, Patented Ja11.2l,1919.
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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 22. 1916.
1,291,917.; Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
I j 6 12 g j 0. H. KENNEDY.
INTERNAL comausnow ENGINE.
APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 22, 1916- v 1,291,17, Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
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APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 22. i916- Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
4 SHEETS SHEET 4.
ORVILLE H. KENNEDY, F METROPOLIS, ILLINOIS.
IN TERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
Application filed September 22, 1916. Serial No. 121,591.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ORVILLE H. KENNEDY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Metropolis, in the county of Massac and State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification, reference being had therein to the accompanying drawing.
My invention relates to improvements in internal combustion engines, and more particularly to an improved form of valve mechanism which is applicable to such engines of the four cycle type.
The primary object of the present in1- provement is to devise a rotary valve mechanism which is absolutely complete in itself and which may be applied to an internal combustion engine constructed to receive it or may be readily applied to any multiple cylinder engine as it is found upon the market.
The particular construction of the valve mechanism here disclosed is adapted for application to engines having two, four, six, eight, twelve, or any even number of cylinders, but it will be apparent in reading the following description in connection with the drawings that the said mechanism may with slight modifications be applied to engines having any odd number of cylinders.
Another object of the present improvement is to devise valves and valve mechanism so that in use all parts are thoroughly lubricated and cooled.
A still further object is to so construct the device that an engine equipped therewith may be run equally as well on the heavier hydrocarbon oils as on gasolene.
A still further object of the present improvement is to so construct and arrange the parts of the valves and valve mechanism that all the movable parts thereof may be easily and accurately adjusted upon becoming worn without disassembling the mechanism.
My improved valve mechanism is adapted for application to the top of the cylinders or may be applied to either side thereof, in either case making the mechanism easily accessible.
The other objects, advantages and details of construction will be set forth in the follow ng description and drawings, in which Figure 1 is a. fragmentary side elevation of my improved valve mechanism applied to a four cylinder engine.
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
F 1g. 3 is a vertical sectional view through one half of the valve mechanism showing its connection with two cylinders of the engine, both halves of the mechanism being identical.
F ig. 4 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 44 of Fig. 3.
Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are diagrammatic views of the valves, disks and ports in the valve casing and showing theirrelative positions during one revolution of the valve mechanism and during one cycle or two revolutions of a four cycle engine.
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of one of the valve disks.
Fig. 10 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 10-10 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 11 is a vertical sectional view taken on the line 1111 ofFig. 9.
Fig. 12 is a perspective view of one of the longitudinally movable disks carried by the valve casing for adjusting the longitudinal movement of the valve disks and for taking up the wear thereof.
The invention herein though residing primarily in a rotary valve mechanism has also as its purpose the construction and design of an internal combustion engine particularly adapted for use in an automobile. With this purpose in view the valve mechanism is mounted on top of the cylinders or at one side thereof so as to be easily accessible for either adjustment or repair. Any well-known form of ignition system may also be applied to the top of the cylinders with the same attendant advantages.
Referring now to the drawings in detail shown for the reason that the valve mechanism hereafter to be described may be applied to any form of internal combustion engine employing the ()tto cycle. All of the cylinders are provided with a water jacket 5, of the usual construction having two water passages 6 in. the top of each cylinder as is shown in Fig. 10.
My improved valve mechanism comprises a cylindrical casing 7 applied to the top of each two adjacent cylinders of the engine. The attaching means consists of four flanges 8 made integral with the casing 7 and fitting flat against the top of the cylinders being bolted thereto by means of bolts 9. Each casing 7 contains means for controlling the action ofeach two adjacent cylinders of the engine. Where an engine has four cylinders two caslngs are employed each identical 1n construction and merely having its operative parts set diiferently, a six cylinder engine necessitating three casings, an eight, four casings, etc. i
The caslng 7 is made 111 three parts as 1s shown in Fig. 3, comprising two end mem bers 10 and 11 and a center member 12, the
end members 10 and 11 being attached to the center member 12 by means of bolts13. Each of the members 10, 11 and 12 is provided with a registering cylindrical passage 14 through its center for the reception of a hollow shaft 15 having a passage 16 therethrough. The end member 10 is provided with a collar 17 surrounding the shaft 15 and externally screw'threaded at 19 for the reception of a thrust bearing collar 20. All three members of the casing 7 are cored out to a large extent to form a water acket for the movable parts hereafter to be described. In the end members 10 and 11 the cored out portions form a water circulating space and 23 in each member respectively. The cored out portion in the center member 12 forms a water jacket 24. All of the jackets 22, 23 and 24 communicate with each other through passages 25 formed adjacent the outer periphery of the casing 7, and communicate with the water jacket 5 of the cylinders of the engine through passages 26 and the outlets 6, heretofore described. In operation the water circulates through the water jackets of the cylinders of the engine, through the jackets in the valve casing 7 and to the radiator (not shown) of the automobile through a manifold 27 attached to the top of the casing 7.
A cylindrical recess 28 is formed on the inner face of each of the end members 10 and 11 to receive a cylindrical plate 29. Each plate 29 is provided with an opening 30 through its center surrounding the shaft 15, and with an annular collar 31 eccentric to the plate, said collar fitting within an opening 32 formed breach of the end members 10 and 11 of the casing 7. The collars 31 are provided with grooves and expansible rings 33 to insure atight fit of the collar within the opening 32. The plates 29 are movable longitudinally on the shaft 15 by means of screws 34- passing through screw threaded openings 35 in each of the members 10 and 11, their inner ends abutting against the back of the plates. The purpose of having the plates 29 longitudinally movable will be hereinafter described.
Each face of the center member 12 of the casing 7 where it abuts the end members 10 and 11 is provided with a cylindrical recess 36 of a depth to receive a rotatable valve disk 37. Each valve'disk 37 is keyed at its center to the shaft 15 by means of a spline key 38, each disk being set at a different pointabout the periphery of the said shaft for a purpose hereafter to be described. The
valve disks, which are clearly shown in Figs. 9 and 11 are aboutone-half of an inch in thickness and are provided with two ports 39 and 40, having two of their edges 40 radial to the center of the disk and their other two edges 39 parallel with the periphery thereof; The inside of the valve disk is cored out between the two parts 39 and 40 to form a communicating passage 41. Attention is called to the fact that the port 39 passes through the valve disk, whereas the port 40 does not, but is provided with an inclined side wall 42 which slants from a point flush with the face of the valve disk inwardly until it reaches the wall 43 of the passage 41, as is shown in Figs. 9 and 11, the purpose of which will be hereinafter set forth. The edges of the valve disk are cored out to form openings 44 of sufficient size to render the otherwise solid portion of the disk as light as that portion of the disk provided with the ports 39 and 40.
The center portion 12 of the casing 7 on one side and near its bottom edge is provided with two rectangular openings and 46 separated by a division wall 47, as is shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. These openings 45 and 46 extend inwardly into the valve casing formingpassages 48 which communicate with ports 49, shown in Figs. 2 and 4, which are formed in the inner face of each recess 36. Each port 49 is of the same size and shape asthe ports 39 and 40 and are adapted to be thrown into communication with these ports as the valve disk 37 rotates, as will be later described.
The exhaust gases of the cylinders in operation are carried off through the ports 49 and the passages 48, as will be hereinafter described. Above the two exhaust passages 48 is an opening 50, which extends into the valve casing forming a passage 51, shown in Fig. 2. The passage 51 is of a width equal to the combined width of the exhaust passages 48 and communicates with ports 52, which are formed on'the inner face of each recess 36. The explosive mixture in operation is fed into the cylinders through the passage 51, and the ports 52 as will be hereinafter described in detail.
A passage 53 having a downwardly inclined wall 54 is formed through each of the collars 31 of the plates 29, which establish communication between the adjacent exhaust passage 48, the inlet passage 51, and the combustion chambers (not shown) of the two cylinders, to which the valve mechanism is attached, through the medium of openings 53 formed in the top of each cylinder.
The feeding of explosive mixture to the cylinders and the carrying off of exhaust gases from them through the valve mechanism will now be described. A manifold 54 is provided which has each end attached to one of the valve mechanisms by means of bolts 55, when two of the valve mechanisms are employed, as is the case in a four cylinder engine. Where more than two valve mechanisms are employed, as in the case of a six, eight, twelve, etc., cylinder engine the manifold willbe provided with branches, each branch being attached to a valve mechanism as is readily understood. The manifold 54 is divided longitudinally by a separating plate 56 to form two passages 57 and 58 through it. In attaching the manifold, the passage 57 thereof communicates with the inlet passage 51 of the valve mechanism and the passage 58 of the manifold with the exhaust passage 48 of the valve mechanism. Suitable pipes (not shown) are connected with each of the passages 57 and 58 of the manifold which lead to a mufiier (not shown) and a carbureter (not shown) as is readily understood by those skilled in the art and no further description thereof need be given. The explosive mixture is drawn into the cylinder, when the piston is on the suction stroke from the carbureter (not shown) through the passage 57 in the manifold 54, through the passage 51 in the valve mechanism, passing through the ports 52 formed in the wall of the recess 36, the ports 39 and 40 in the valve disk 37, the port 53 in the plate 29, and into the cylinder through the opening 53 communicating with the combustion chamber of the cylinder. Suitable driving and timing means, hereafter to be described, is provided for causing a registering of the ports in the manner above described when the piston (not shown) is on the suction stroke. When the piston (not shown) is on the exhaust stroke and the ports are in correct register, the exhaust gases pass out from the cylinder through the opening 53 formed in the top thereof, through the port 53 in the plate 29, passing through the ports 39 and 40 in the valve disk 37, the port 49 in the recess 36 in the valve easing, into the exhaust passage 48, and through the passage 58 in the manifold 54 of the muffler (not shown).
Means for driving and timing the rotatable valve disks 37 is provided which consist of a sprocket wheel 59 carried by one end of the shaft 15 to which the valve disks 37 are keyed. A chain (not shown) connects the sprocket with a suitable sprocket (not shown) mounted on the crank shaft (not shown) of the engine. When the engine to which the valve mechanism is attached is run as a four cycle engine, exploding once during each two revolutions of the crank shaft, the sprocket 59 is twice as large as the sprocket on the crank shaft so that the valve disks will make one revolution to each two revolutions of the crank shaft. Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8 show diagrammatically the relative positions of the ports in the valve disks and the ports in the valve casing of each cylinder of a four cylinder four cycle engine during two revolutions of the crank shaft. Fig. 5 shows the positions of the ports when the piston in cylinder 1 has just completed the firing stroke. The intake port 52 in the valve casing is covered while the port 39 in the valve disk is just beginning to communicate with the exhaust port 49 in the valve casing to convey the exhaust gases to the mufller through the exhaust passage 48 and the passage 58 of the n'ianifold. Attention is called to the fact that the valve ports are'so arranged that the cylinder starts to exhaust just before the completion of the firing stroke as is the usual practice in four cycle engines.
Fig. 6 shows the positions of the ports of the valve mechanism when the piston in the cylinder 2 has just completed the compression stroke. None of the ports in the valve disk and the valve easing are in communication so that the combustion chamber is perfectly tight at the time of ignition of the compressed charge. Fig. 7 shows the positions of the ports of the valve mechanism when the piston in cylinder number- 3 has just completed the exhaust stroke. The port 39 in the valve disk has just shut off its communication with the exhaust port 49 in the valve casing. Any exhaust gases that are pocketed within the valve disk itself will be discharged when the valve disk has been rotated, in the direction of the arrow, until the port 40, (which is constantly in communication with the port 39) of the tire valve my improved valve disk communicates with the exhaust ort 49 in the valve casing. The inclined wall 42 of the port 40 assists in discharging the gases as the valve disk is rotated.
Fig. 8 shows the positions of the ports in the valve mechanism when the piston in cylinder 4: has just completed its stroke. The port 39 in the valve disk has just finished communicating with the intake port 52 in the valve casing. When the said ports are in register the combustible 1nixture is drawn in through them and passed to the cylinder through the ports 40 and 53 in the valve disk and plate 29 respectively, which are also in register at this time. The inclined wall 42 of the port tO also assists in this connection in discharging through the port 53 any combustible mixture which may be pocketed within the valve disk itself. As has been heretofore set forth the four valve disks, two in each valve casing, are keyed to the rotatable shaft 15 at the points indicated in Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive so that the ports in the valve mechanisms will be in the co *rect position to correspond with the positions of the pistons in the four cylinders of the engine.
Lubrication of the movable parts of the valve mechanism (the valve disks and the shaft 15) will now be set forth. Oil or grease is fed into the passage 16 in the shaft 15, by means of a grease cup (not shown) or any other suitable means, and this lubricant is discharged through small openings 60 made through the periphery of the said shaft which openings are positioned between the two faces of the valve disks 37, the faces 36, of the valve casing and the plates 29. A plurality of small depressions 61 are formed on the faces of the plates 29 and the faces 36 of the valve casing to retain the oil fed through the openings 60 in the shaft 15. Due to the tension screws 34: the plates 29 may be moved longitudinally to closely fit against the adjacent valve disk and thereby keep the valve disk tight and free from leakage against its bearing surfaces. g
In operation the combustible mixture is fed to the cylinders and the'bnrnt gas exhausted therefrom by the operation of the valve disks 37 within the valve casing as before described. Efficient water cooling means and lubrication tend to keep the enmechanism cool, with the exception of the walls of the exhaust and inlet passages 48 and 51, which are permitted to get hot for the purpose of assisting in the vaporizmg of the combustible mixture as it passes through the valve mechanism on its way to the combustion chambers .of the cylinders. Due to this construction heavier hydrocarbon oils than gasolene may be so thoroughly vaporized in its passage through valve mechanism that an chargingengine equipped therewith will satisfactorily operate on the heavy fuel.
The springs 34" at the ends of the rods 3% serve to automatically take up any wear on the valve and the surfaces against which they revolve, and require no attention.
The valves in this improved valve mechanism are silent'at all speeds, and are not affected by an accumulation of carbon, and are positive at all speeds, thus eliminating the floating valve effect of the puppet valves when they are run at very high speeds.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. The combination with an explosion engine cylinder having an inlet and exhaust. port, of a rotary valve casing having a port in communication with the cylinder port and also having separate inlet and exhaust ports, the exhaust port of the casing being in line with the casing port that communicates with the engine cylinder and the inlet port out of line with said cylinder communicating port, and a rotary valve mounted in the casing and having a port therethrough and a port partially therethrough and communicating with the cylinder first mentioned valve port, whereby communication is established with the casing inlet port through the communieating ports of the valve and communication established with the exhaust port through the open valve port alone.
2. The combination with the cylinder of an explosion engine having an inlet and exhaust port, of a cylindrical valve casing mounted on and cylinder, said casing having in one part a port communicating with a cylinder port and in another part separated inlet and exhaust ports and a disk-shaped rotary valve mounted in the said casing, said valve having two adjacent ports and a relatively large portion without ports, communication between the exhaust port of the casing and the cylinder communicating port being established through one of thevalve ports and communication between the casing inlet port and the cylinder communicating port being establishedthrough both of the valve ports.
3. The combination with the cylinder of an explosion engine having an inlet and exhaust port, of a cylindrical rotary valve casing mounted on and extending transverse the cylinder, the bottom of the casing having communication with the cylinder port and the side of the casing having separate inlet and exhaust ports, and a disk-shaped rotary valve mounted in the casing between. the cylinder communicating port and the inlet and exhaust port, said valve having two ports one of which extends entirely therethrough and the other partially therethrough having a lateral communication extending transverse the with the first said valve port, communication being established between the casing exhaust port and the cylinder through the port which extends through the valve and communication between the casing inlet port and the cylinder being established through both valve ports and lateral communication of the valve as the valve is rotated.
4. The combination with the cylinder of an explosion engine having an inlet and exhaust port, of a cylindrical rotary valve cas ing mounted on the top of the cylinder, the valve casing having a port in its bottom in communication with the cylinder port and the valve casing having also laterally extending inlet and exhaust ports, and a dislcshaped rotary valve mounted in the casing between the cylinder port and the said casing inlet and exhaust ports, the valve having two relatively adjacent ports and a lateral communication between them, one only of said ports extending clear through the valve, the ports operating to establish communication alternately through the inlet and exhaust ports with the engine cylinder, the valve having a relatively large portion without ports to close said inlet exhaust ports during the compression and firing movement of the piston.
5. A rotary valve mechanism for explosion engines, comprising a cylindrical casing mounted on the heads of two adjacent engine cylinders, the casing having a central portion with an inlet and exhaust port, and end portions each having a cylinder communicating port, a rotary disk-shaped valve located between each end portion and the central portion of the casing, said valves having ports to establish communication between the inlet and exhaust ports of the central. portion of the casing, and the cylinder communicating ports of the end portion, and a rotatable shaft connecting the said valves to cause them to rotate together.
6. A rotary valve mechanism for explo sion engines comprising a cylindrical casing mounted on the head of the cylinder and having one ortion with a bottom cylinder communicating port and another portion with inlet and exhaust ports, one of said portions having a cylindrical valve receiving recess, a disk-shaped valve located in said recess, the valve having two ports by means of which communication is alternately established between the inlet and exhaust ports and the cylinder communicating port,
and a rotatable shaft connected to the said valve for rotating it.
7. A rotary valve mechanism for plural cylinder engines comprising a cylindrical casing mounted on the heads of the cylinders and extending transverse the cylinders having a central portion and two end portions, the central portion having at each end a relatively shallow cylindrical valve recess and having located between the said valve recesses inlet and exhaust ports with separate communications into the valve recesses, disk-shaped valves located in the recesses and each having two ports adapted to alternately establish communication between the inlet and exhaust ports and the cylinder communicating ports, and a rotatable shaft connecting the said valve for rotating them in unison.
8. A rotary valve mechanism for plural cylinder explosion engines comprising a central portion and two end portions, the ends of the central portions having relatively shallow cylindrical valve recesses and also laterally extending inlet and exhaust ports having separate lateral communications with the valve recesses and end portions having ports to communicate with the engine cylinders, said ports having one end located in a line with the exhaust ports of the central portion and inlet ports out of line with the other said ports, rotary disk-shaped valves located in the recesses, the said valves having a port entirely therethrough to establish communication between the exhaust port and the cylinder port, the valves having also a port partially therethrough and a lateral communication with the first said port for establishing an indirect communication through the valves between the cylinder ports and the inlet port of the cylindrical casing.
9. A rotary valve mechanism for explosion engines, comprising a cylindrical casing having one portion provided with inlet and exhaust ports and another portion provided with a cylinder port, of a disk-shaped valve mounted in the casing and constructed to control communication between the inlet and exhaust ports and the cylinder port, and an adjustable disk engaging one side of the rotary valve and an adjustable member to take up the wear of the valve.
10. A rotary valve mechanism for explosion engines, comprising a cylindrical casing having one portion provided with inlet and exhaust orts and at one end a cylindrical valve recess and another portion having a cylinder communication and a cylindrical disk receiving recess, of a disk in said recess, the disk having a lateral port with a laterally extending surrounding collar adapted to tightly fit the cylinder communicating port of the casing, and a valve in'the valve recess having ports located to alternately control communication between the inlet and exhaust ports and the cylinder communicating port.
11. Av rotary valve mechanism for explosion engines, comprising a cylindrical casing made up of a central portion and two end portions, a rotatable valve disk located between each end portion and the central portion, the valve disk having intake and exhaust openings, the end portions of the easing having ports adapted to communicate successively establish and to close communication between the exhaust and inlet ports of the central portion and the said ports of the 10 end portions.
In testimony whereof I hereunto affix my signature in the presence of two Witnesses.
ORVILLE H. KENNEDY.
W. C. PRYOR, LILLIE M. ROBERTS.
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- Washington, D. G.