US 1292388 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. A. BOWERS.
APPLICATION FILED APR. I4. 19!].
1,292,388. Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
T. A. BOWERS. TUBULAR PROJECTILE. APPLICATION FILED APR. 14. 1917.
1,292,388. Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET '2- gnvc'nfoz affozncq UNITED STATES PATENT orrron.
THOMAS A. BOWEBS, OF AUBURN, RHODE ISLAND, ASSIGNOB TO BOWEBS ARMS AND MUNITIONS COMPANY, OF BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, A. CORPORATION 01 MAS SA- CHUSETTS.
Application filed April 14, 1917. Serial No. 181,991.
lutely gas-tight closure is madebetween the outer surface of the projectile and the bore of the barrel, whereby any leakage of the gases'around the projectile isprevented and the full efficiency of the expanding gases is obtained, and the projectile given a steady and accurate flight.
It has been well-known for years to those skilled in this art, that tubular projectiles theoretically have advantages over the solid projectile, in. that it is a lighter body and is thereby forced with greater velocity through the gun with the 'same amount of pressure, and that there is a material rev duction in" the air pressure or resistance to theflprojectile after it leaves the bore of the in. However, there are certain difficulties arising in the use of tubular projectiles, and certain defects in them, as.
heretofore known, that have not been overcome, and have proved so serious that tubular projectiles have not been adopted and e not come into use.
Tubular rojectiles, as heretofore made would not tain the theoretical advantages heretofore stated, viz., they would not obtain the theoretical increase of velocity within the barrel of the gun; they would not fly steady and straight when they left the barrel of the gun, but .to the contrary, would have a tendency to wabble, and, in some instances, ke hole, thereby failing to obtain the theofetlcal reduction of air resistance in their flight.
I have discovered'that the failure and defects of the tubular projectiles as heretofore constructed and known are due to the fact that in forcing the projectile through the rifled bore of the gun, the bands ofthe rifling compress the projectile, thus making it of smaller diameter than the greatest "diame- Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Jan. 21, 1919.
ter of the bore, thereby causing an irregular cutt ng of the rifling on the surface 0 the projectile, which defeats the making of a gas-tight fit between the projectile and the r fled bore of the gun, and the irregular r1fl1ng throws the projectile from the muzile of the gun in sucha way as tothrow it out of a straight line and causes it to wabble.
I have oyercome these defects of the tubular pro ect1le, and have obtained all of its theoretical advantages, by providing'a tubu lar pro ectile with an incompressible interior or core-portion, whereby the relatively soft rotatmg surface or band is caused to completely fill the rifling of the bore of the gun and the pro ectile prevented from being compressed, thereby maintaining its' original diameter and fitting the bore of the gun "as deslgned, thus causing the projectile to leave the muzzle of the gun in an absolutely straight line, and preventing absolutely any wabblmg of'the projectile, and obtaining a remarkable and unusual accuracy in :its flight.
This improved projectile with the same pressure behind it, as the ordinary solid proj ectile, in actual practice, the muzzlewelocity is increased and a decreased air resistance resulting in a much more flat trajectory than with a solid projectile.
My, improvement may be carried. out by variations in detail of construction, but in order to embody my improvement, the tubu-' lar projectile must have an incompressible inner portion or body, with the relatively soft outer coating or surface of a thiclmess at least equal to the depth of the rifling of the gun, and these" features overcomeall of the defects of the tubulanprojectile as heretofore known.
In the accompanying drawings- Figure 1 is a side elevation of a cartridge, with my tubular projecetilein longitudinal section.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view of the projectile shown in Fig. 1.
Figs. 3, 4 and 5.. show modified forms of 'myinvention, and illustrate some of the variations which may bemadewithout departing from the spirit andscope of the in vention.
Fig. 6 is an enlarged sectional view of the projectile shown m Fig. 5 after it has;
rifling of the gun, and projects from the body .portion 1 a suflicient distance to be equal to the depth of the grooves of the gun rifling, so that when the projectile is fired the ring 2 completely fills the rifling of the gun and makes a gas-tight fit therewith,
and also causes the projectile to rotate in a v manner well-known, and the ring 2 may be aptly termed a rotating ring.
. In this preferred form of my improvement, only the rear end of the body portion 1 is made incompressible, and this may be accomplished in any well-known manner for instance, one way being the tempering of the rear end of thebody portion 1 to a glass hardness, which makes that portion of the body-portion '1, that is surrounded b the rotating ring 2, practically incompressi- A gas check 3 in the form of a disk, is placed at the rear open end of the projectile.
and temporarily connected therewith by a small quantity of soft solder. When the projectile is fired, the soft solder is melted and the gas-check 3 begins to fall from the projectile as soon as it leaves the muzzle of the gun. v
The portion lis made preferably of high carbon steel, and it ismade incompressible.
by hardening it'to" a glass hardness at its rear end in the preferred form, it absolutely incompressible. j I
I. have found in actual practice that by making that portion of thebody incompresthus making sible where '"it: is surrounded by the rotating it takes therifling of the gunand member, I obtains all the theoretical advantages and overcomes all the practical defects of tubular pro ectiles, as heretofore known. By ac tual tests, it has been found that'my improved tubular projectile has a substantially flat trajectory pared with a substantially flat trajectory of five hundred yards for a solid projectile:
' "when; fired from an ordinary smallfire-arm,
and'it also found that my improved tubular projectile is extremely accurate and steady inits flight.
In Fig. 3, the incompressible center' or, body portmn 5'1s'separate-from the outer or tubular jacket 6, of relatively soft metal which is adapted to take" the rifling of the first impact with i so untilit reaches the form shown in F lgs, 6 and 7., The surrounding jacket 1n the for a thousand yards as com portion 5 extends throughout that portion of the jacket which will engage the rifling of the gun and cause the compressing of the tubular projectile unless it has an absolutely positive support.
In Fig. 4, I show an incompressible center 7, which has a surrounding jacket 6, like when the jacket is upset by the force of the explosion, it contracts and its bore then is the same size as the bore of the incompressible member 7, as shown in Fig. 5.
Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 show a mushrooming form of projectile particularly adapted to game. In this form of projectile the forward end of the bore 8 is tapered outward or bell-shaped, as shown at 9.
By reason of this outwardly flared end of the projectile when it strikes an object, its end is flared outward and flared backward .until the turned back forward edge rests upon the outer surface of the projectile which so reinforces it, that it cannot roll any further, and it makes a perfect mushroom of the forward end of the projectile Other end is reinforced by reason of its'shapeQ This projectile begins to expand'upon' its esh and. continues to do mushrooming form is preferably composed of malleable-material such, for instance, as
copper, or other material which'ismapable of being rolled outward and backwithout I .breaking, substantially as shown in Flgs. .6
'In order to 'car'ry out improvement, I
it is not necessary that the incompressible I center or 'body' portion be limited tothe zdne of the rotating. jacket'or ring, for. it can be incompressible throughout its I complete present invention.
' 1. 10 not wish to be-understood as limiting my mvention to any of the. particularffor'ms here shown, since the broad idea of a tubu lar projectile having a surrounding rotatlng ring or jacket and .an incompressible center orsu'pportmg core will embody my v [improvement whether or not they be of any, gun, and the incompresslble center or core of the specific form's herein disclosed. These length without. departing from the 2. An improved tubular projectile cornprising a core or body portion hardened to practical incompressibillty, and a surrounding relatively soft metal of a thickness not less than the depth of the rifling of the gun, whereby the projectile is prevented from compressing by the rifle action and a gastight fit accomplished for the purposes herein set forth.
3. An improved tubular projectile comprising a body portion extending throughout the length of the projectile and surrounded with a relatively soft metal to take the rifling of the gun, the body portion hardened to practical incompressi-bility at that portion thereof sup orting the soft metal where the latter ta es the rifling of the gun.
4. An improved tubular projectile comprising a body portion hardened to brittleness and thereby practical incompressibility and extending throughout the length of the projectile and a relatively soft metal surrounding the incompresslble body-portion for the purpose described.
5. An improved tubular projectile comprising a' brittle practically incompressible body portion extending throughout the length of the projectile, said body portion having its outer surface completely coated riflin of the gun.
improved tubular projectile, comprismg a body portion hardened to pracsoft metal for taking the tically fincompressibilitty and extendin throughout the len h o the ro ectile, an a coating complete y surroun ing the outer surface of the projectile and of a thiclmess sufiicient to fill the grooves of the rifling of the gun.
7. An improved tubular projectile comprising an incompressible tubular bodyportion extending throughout the length of the projectile, and a surrounding coating of relatively soft material having its engaging surf ace alloyed with the surface of the body portion andbuilt. up thereon to a thickness sutficient to fill the grooves of the rifling of the barrel of the gun. 8. An improved tubular projectile having an incompressible core and a surrounding jacket of relatively soft metal having its forward end tapered outwardly in bell-like form whereby the force of the impact with the object rolls the tapered end backward and outward into an even roll.
9. An improved tubular projectile comprising an incompressible core at its rear portion and provided with a surrounding jacket of a relatively soft material projecting beyond the incompressible core, the forward end of the jacket tapered outwardly in bell-like form whereby the force of impact with an object rolls the tapered end outwardly and backward into a substantially even roll.
10. An improved tubular projectile comprising an incompressible core having a surrounding jacket of malleable material having its forward end projecting beyond the incompressible core and tapered outwardly in bell-like form, whereby the force of impact with an object rollsthe tapered end outward and backward into substantially an even and regular roll.
In testimony whereof I hereunto afiix my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
THOMAS A. BOWERS.
JENNIE F. Lmnr, J osnrn MGMANUS.