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Publication numberUS1294741 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 18, 1919
Filing dateJul 10, 1918
Priority dateJul 10, 1918
Publication numberUS 1294741 A, US 1294741A, US-A-1294741, US1294741 A, US1294741A
InventorsErastus E Winkley
Original AssigneeUnited Shoe Machinery Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of grading pieces of material for variations in color.
US 1294741 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


1,294,741. Patented Feb. 18,1919.

i i i :1 1






0 Specification of Letters Patent.

Application filed January 15, 1916, Serial No. 72,336. Renewed July 10, 1918. Serial No. 244,296.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, 'ERASTUS E. WINK- LEY, a citizen of the United States, residing at Lynn, in the county of Essex and State of Massachusetts, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Methods of Grading Pieces of Material for Variations in Color; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains'to make and use the same.

This invention relates to a method of sorting or grading pieces of material. As illustrative of one use of the invention it will be described in connection with grading pieces of shoe stock.

- As is well known the color of different sides of tanned leather hides varies con- ,siderably even when the different sides are heels when these parts which are composed of sole leather, are left unstained in the finished shoe.

In present day shoe factories soles and top-lifts are sorted for color, if at all, by the eye of the workman with theresult that in the finishedshoe there is often a marked discrepancy between the color of the soles or of the heels of the two shoes of a single pair. i

Theobject' of the present invention is t provide for an accurate grading of pieces of material, and more particularly soles, top-lifts, or like pieces of shoe stock, for their difierences in color.

In accordance with this object the invention contemplates the use of an apparatus which willaccurately determine the color of any particular pieceto be graded, within a certain range'of shade, and will indicate the color in such a way that the workman may assemble together all pieces of approximately the same color, or within a predetermined limited range of a particular shade of color.

The invention, therefore, comprises a method of accurately grading the variations in color of pieces of material, more especially soles and top-lifts for boots and shoes, a plurality of which are ultimately to be used together. i

An understanding of the invention will be assisted by reference to the accompanying drawings illustrating, partly diagram matically, a rough apparatus which may be used in carrying out the method, in which Figure 1 is a diagram illustrating, partly .in vertical section, the apparatus 1n quesv placing the piece to be operated on, such as the sole S, over it. Within the box is mounted an electric bulb 12 and a selenium cell 14, preferably of the Ruhmer type, in the manner indicated in Fig. 2, so that a beam of light is directed obliquely upon the surface of the piece. Each of the last named parts is provided with a parabolic reflector 16. The reflector about the light directs its rays to the opening and the reflector about the selenium cell directs into the cell the rays of light reflected from the surface of the sole S. Between the light and the selenium cell is a partition 18 WlllCh prevents stray rays of light from reaching the cell, the cell being affected only by such rays as are reflected thereto from the surface of the sole. I

The electric light may be in any convenient light circuit, as indicated by the dynamo D and connected electric wires. The selenium cell may be connected in circuit with a battery B, and a galvanometer, or other suitable electric current measuring instrument, indicated at G. The adjuncts of the battery circuit, such as resistance boxes,

Patented were. is, rare.

relays, etc., it is not deemed necessary to indicate in the drawing, it being understood -8, and the bulb 12 being lighted, its light is reflected from the sole and rays gathered into the selenium cell 14. As the color of the soles being graded varies from light to dark the resistance set up in the cell will be diminished and increased, resulting in greater or lesser movements of the galvanometer needle across the scale 20. If the first sole is very dark in color the indicated reading will be, say, somewhere between 1 .and 2 on the scale 20, while a lighter sole will give a higher reading. Each solewill be placed b the workman in the bin marked for the gra e indicated by thegalvanometer.

For any single pair of boots or shoes two soles or lifts of any color grade, c. e., from anyone bin, may be used. For a manufacturingorder of-shoes, which specifies that all .pairs must be uniform in coloring, soles and lifts of a single grade will be used in filling the order.

In this specificationthe iword color has.

been used in the sense in which it is commonly used with respect to the grading of shoe-stock, namely, as indicating not only the color proper or hue, but also the tone or shade of the color. Since the selenium cell is more sensitlve to certain colors than to others, and is also sensitive to gradations in the. intensity or tone of any given color, it will be apparent that it may be employed to rade pieces of material in accordance Wit either of these factors if the other factor be constant. In the grading of shoestock the factor of color in a strict sense is usually constant, that is to say, the method will usually be carried out upon a lot of pieces of shoe material of the same'tannage, so that the variations between the pieces will be rather of tone than of absolute color, and in this way the desired result is secured since it is similarity in the tone of the material used in a pair or in a lot of shoes which it is most desirable to secure.

Having thus described the invention and the preferred manner of practising it, it is definitely stated in its true scope in the following claims. 1

What is claimed as new, is:

1. The method of grading pieces of material which consists in subjecting the pieces severally to illumination substantially uniform in character and intensity, measuring the intensity of the light reflected from the pieces, and sorting the pieces according to a scale of such intensities.

2. The method of ading pieces of material which consists in subjecting selenium to the light reflected from the pieces severall when subjected to illumination substantiaily uniform in character and intensity;- and sorting the pieces according'to a scale based upon the variations in the electrical resistance of the selenium resulting from the variations in the intensity of the light so reflected. I ERA-STUS E. WINKLEY.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2580275 *Aug 8, 1945Dec 25, 1951Everett H BickleyColor sorting machine
US2753464 *Aug 11, 1950Jul 3, 1956Republic Steel CorpMethod and apparatus for inspecting tinplate
US2941187 *Dec 30, 1957Jun 14, 1960Luther G SimjianApparatus and method for determining the character of a document
US4157139 *Dec 22, 1977Jun 5, 1979Bertil KnutssonApparatus for sorting and/or handling disc-like members
U.S. Classification209/550, 250/222.1, 209/581
Cooperative ClassificationB07C5/08