US 1299264 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. W. THM/ER. EXPLOSION ENGINET APPLICATIONY FILED APR. `1, me.
H. W. IHAYER.
APPLICATION FILED AFR. 4, I9i6.
1-,Q199i,254 Patented 111111. 1, 11119.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
, I A I "Madd/L19, GAM 0W. n@ K 4i/W l I y l attorney) S W. Ol? NEVI YRK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
llatented Apr. il, li.
Application led April l 15H6. Serial No. 88,891.
2b all whom Il may conce/'11,:
Be it known that i, 'Hexer lV. Tnxyen, a citizen of the United States ot Annerica, and a resident of the city, county, and State of New York, have invented a new and useful Improvement in llxlilosion-llngines, which. invention is iully set forth in the following speciication.
This invention relates to internal combustion engines, and more particn rly to an improved valve mechanism lor controlling the intake of the explosive mixture and the exhaust of the burnt gases,
The primary object of this invention is to provide a valve mechanism which will control the intake of 'the explosive mixture, permit the compression and explosion ot such mixture9 and provide tor the complete exhaustion of the burnt gases7 in the most eicient and effective manner, whereby the engine :may ope ate with increased eliiciency overl those heretofore known to the art.
A further object is the provision of a valve mechanism which will open substantially instantaneously, remain open throughout lthe period of intake or exhaust., as the case may be, and then close substantially instantaneously andreinain closed throughout the compression and explosion of the explosive mixture.
Another object isvto provide a valve mechanism which will offer less resistance to its actuation than those heretofore employed, avoiding the necessity ot' overcoming the back-pressure incident to the use of the commonly employed puppet valves, and obviating the necessity :tor valve-seating springs with the consequent loss of work iu opening the valves against the rest-:tance ot' such springs. l y
Yet another object is to providea valve mechanism with a fewer number ot' parts than heretofore employed, and thereby to obtain a decrease in the weight of the engine Without .interfering with its etiicieucy or working capacity-a cmisideration which becomes of importance in the provision of engines for automobiles,` and of very great importance in the provision of engines for use on aeroplancs.
A still further object is to provide such a 'construction of valve mechanism. as will admit of the valve members being properly cooled at all times so to insure against overheating of any part thereof.
' @ther objects reside 'in the provision of a valve mechanism which will wear to a less extent than those heretofore used, which will avoid smutting and, pitting of the vulve membersr` which may be assembled, fitted and adjusted easily7 which may be overhauled and repaired readily, and which will be accessible at alltimes for purposes of inspection.
liroadly7 the invention comprises the provision of a plurality of relativcly-rotatablo and intermittently-actuatcd valve membersy each provided with ports which may be brought into register with one another and with the admission or exhaust port ot' the engine c vlindcr, as the case may be. Preferably. though not necessarily, separate valve mechanisms of this type are provided for the intake and for the exhaust.
A pract'al and preferred embodiment of the invention comprises` both for the intake and for the exhaust ol the engine, two differentially-nlovable, intermittently-actuated rotary valve sleevesone within the other and both within la cylindrical `valve casing, both of said sleeves and saidl valve casing being provided with ports which are :it the proper times brought into register for the admission of the explosive mixture or the exhaust ot' the burnt gases, as the case may be; and means actuated from the crankshaft and connected to said sleeves for rotating said sleeves in the same direction at different speeds in a step-by-step movement, 1
The invention is capable of receiving a variety of mechanical expressions, one of which has been selected for purposes of illustration in the accompanying drawings, but it is lo be expressly understood that the cmbmliment there shown is for purposes of illustration only, and is not designed as a definition of the limits of the invention, reference being hadl to the appended claims tor such purpose.
in the drawings, wherein the same characters of reference indicate the same parts throughout the several Views,
Figure l is a vertical section of the engine ou the line 1&1 oi Fig. 2, showing the valve-actuating mechanism in dotted lines;
Fig'. 2 is a horizontal section of the valve mechanism on the line Q-2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 'iis a fragnientary vertical section orc the engine on the line of Fig. 1, showing the valve-actuating mechanism in elevation 5 V `ig. 4 is a diagrammatic view ot' the successive positions ot' the valve. sleeves owing to the, successive intermittent movements ot' the valve-actuating mechanism; and
Fig. 5 is a detail of the two-armed tripping crank.
Referring iii detail to the drawings, l is thel crank-shaft ot' the usual or any pre- .terred t'orm ot' internal combustion engine, preferably of the tour-cycle, type. 2 is the usual crank connected `by means ot' craiik-pin fl with the pitman 4 which is pivotally connected :it to the piston 6. Piston (i reciprocates in theusual manner in cylinder 7, which may be water-jacketed as indicated at S. At the upper end of` the cylinder is the usual tiring chamber in the cylinder head. as indi-cated att), provision being made tor the spark-plug at l0. While the invention is shown as embodied in an engine employing vertical cylinders, it is to be expressly understood vthat. it is not restricted in its application to an engine of this type. Any desired number of cylinders may be used, an engine emIiloying three or more dicated in Fig. '2, butl for convenience ot' description reference. has been iliade to but one cylinder in the course ot the above explanation.
Extending horizontally above the cylinder or cylinders. tliroiigboiit the length o't' the bank or block ot cylinders, is a pair ot' valve casings 11 and 12. rl`hese valve casiiigs are preferably cylindrical and positioned one on each side ofthe plane indem, theI one ou the chosen for the purpose of this description as the iiitake-valve casing, and that on the left as the exhaust-valve casing. Cach of these casings is provided with a series ot' ports 13, each communicating with the interior of a cylinder. and with a corresponding number ot' diaiiietrically opposed ports 14 communicating with the intake or the exhause-manifold, as the'case may be. Mounted wit-hin each of these valve casings are two nested,
coaxial cylindrical valve members or sleeves 16 and 17, each ot' these sleeves extending the full length of the bank or block ot' cylinders.l Each of the inner sleeves is divided by transverse partitions into as many Vchambers as there are cylinders, and each chamber is provided with diametrically opposed ports 19. Each of the outer sleeves is provided with a series of diametrically opposed ports 1S, one pair for each cylinder, adapted to register at the proper time with the casing and innersleeve ports. As shown, the ports in the inner ysleeves are materially larger than the ports in the outer sleeves and in the casings. The. valve casings are preferably waterjacketed, as shown at 20.
For rotatably n'iounting and actuating these valve members, a variety of different constructions may be employed, but the preis keyed upon each cylinders being inot' the axes ot the cyl-. right of Fig. l beingv ferred construction is that. illustrated in the drawings, wherein each of the inner valve sleeves 1T is secured of a Screw-thread connection. on the lanfred head 21 of a spindle 22 which is rotatably mounted at its outer end b v engagement in a recess therein of a setI screw 23. ,he opposite end of each sleeve 1T is rotatably mounted by engagement of a set -screw 21 in a recess in an end-piece :25. which may be screwthreaded within the corresponding end of said valve sleeve. Lock nuts '.26 are preferably provided to hold the set screws in adjusted position. Cach of the outer valve sleevesI 1G is rotatably mounted upon the exterior cylindrical surface of the corresponding inner valve sleeve 1T. and in snug rotary engagement with the inner cylindrical surcorresponding valve cylinder. the \al\ esh leves a sprocket 2T spindle 22. and a sprocket t28 mounted to rotate freely upon each spindle 22. each sprocket 28 being connected, preferably integrally. with a sleeve 2!) secured, as b v a screw-thread connection at' Slt). with the corresponding outer valve sleeve 16. Sprockets 2T and :ZS are preferably ot' the same diameter.
1n the crank-pit. but. preferably above and shown as in vertical alineiiiciit with the face ot` the For rotating crankshaft l, is a stub shat't 31er-carrying` sprockets and 33 which are keyed to rotate as a unit thereon. Preferably sprocket 32is larger than sprocket 'and its diaiiiLftcr-V should be a, niiilt-iple ot' the diameter ot' sprocke J-Ill. ln tbe pi'e't'crred embodiment. sprocketv is three times the diameter ot' sprocket 33. Sprocket 32 is connected, as b v a chain 34. with sprockets Q7. andffsprocket 33 is connected. as by a chain 35, with sprockets 29.- (`hain 84 passes under sprocket 32 and over both 'sprockets' whereby both of the inner valve sleeves are drivenby the sprocket 32 inthe same direction and at thesame speed. thain 235 passes under sprocket 33 and over bot-li sprockets 2S, whereby both of the, outer valve sleeves are driven by the sprocket 33 in the saine direction and at the saine speed. For rotating sprockets and 33. a star wheel t'. shown as provided with eight radially extending teeth. is mounted on stub shaft 31 in keyed relation-with said sprockets 3Q and 33. For turning the star wheel 36, a two-ariiied trippling crank 37, carrying at either end pins 38 and 39 Wliereon are mounted rollers l0 and t1 respectively. is keyed ou the crauk-shatt 1 directly beneath the star wheel 36. l i
(')perationz At each halt revolution of the crank-shaft 1, one. ot' the rollers 40 and 41 iipon the two-armed tripping crank 37 will come into engagementl with one ot' the teeth of stai' vwheel 36, and ad -ance such star wheel in a step-bystep rotation through 45 or one-eighth of a revolution. Rotation of at one end, as by means Lacasse the stzlr wheel 36 will produce a corresponding `rota-tion of sprockets 32 and 33 .keyed thereto.` As these two sprockets are keyed to move as a unit, they will have the same speed ot' rotation. Sprockets 27 and 23, connected to sprockets 32 and 33 by the chains 34 and 35 respectively, will be correspondingly advanced by the rotation of said sprockets and 33. As ,sprockets 28 are preferably of the same diameter as sprocket 32, Lt'or each one-eighth revolution ot' the star wheel 3G sprockets 28 will each he likewise advanced one-eighth of a revolution. As, however.` sprocket 32 is preferably three times the diameter of sprocket 33, while sprockets 27 are preferably of the same diameter as sprockets Q8, sprockets 27 will each be advanced a distance three times as great as that ot each sprocket 28, that is, through three-eiohths of a revolution. As the sprockets Q7 and 28 are connected respcctively with theinner and outer sleeves 1T and 16 of the valve mechanism, at each actuation of the star wheel each outer sleeve 1G will be advanced one-eighth oit' a revolution, while each inner sleeve 17 will be advanced three-eighths ot a revolution, the inner and outer sleeves in each of the valve casings moving in the same direction in a step-by-step rotation.
Assume now that the valve sleeves are in ythe iosition rc )resented at A inFiL. 4l and that the valve mechanism at the right is for the intake of the explosive mixture. and that the valve n'iechanism at the'left is for the exhaust of the burnt gases. side the ports of both sleeves and oi' the valve casing are in register, these ports being eutirelyiopen tor the admission ot the explosive mixture throughout the downward stroke ot the. piston. The ports ot' the exhaust valve sleeves are notonly out ot register with each other. but. out of register with the ports of the corresponding valve casing. Approximately at the end of the downward stroke of the piston, the star wheel will be advanced one-eighth of a revolution by engagementtherewith of one ot the rollers on the two-armed tripping crank. Both sleeves ot' the intake valve thereupon will be substantially instantaneously moved, their ports nit-)ving out otl register' with each other and with the ports of the valve casing; and both sleeves of the exhaust valve will be correspondingly advanced, the valve sleeves oi both valves then assuming the positions indicated at B. These positions will be maintained throughout the compression stroke of the piston. Approximately at the end of this stroke a second tooth on the star wheel will be engaged and advanced, and the valve sleeves will be correspondingly advanced to the positions indicated at C. These positions will be maintained throughout the explosion or expansion stroke of the ports through the sleeves of the exhaust` valve are in register with each other and with the ports on the exhaust-valve casing, they coming into register substantially instantaneously and remaining wide open throughout the exhaust stroke of the piston.
.During this period the admission valve is closed, as shown at the right at l). Approximately at the end of the exhaust stroke, a fourth tooth will be engaged and advanced, and the valveI vsleeves will be advanced to the positions indicated at E. As here seen, the ports of the intake-valve sleeves and valve casing are in register, which wide-opened position they assume substantially instantaneously and will retain throughout the suction stroke of the piston, the exhaust-valve sleeves being in the position shown at the left at E. Upon the next two advances of the star wheel, the valves will successively assume the positions indicated at F, for the compression stroke, and at Qt for the explosion or expansion stroke. When the seventh tooth of the star wheel is engaged and advanced, the
. engaged and advanced, the valves will assume At. the intake substantially instantaneously the positions indicated at A. closing the exhaust and opening the admission ports. The cycle Wil] then be repeated.
While the description'ot operation has `proceeded' as it there were but one cylinder,
lit will be understood that any desired number of cylinders may be used. the cranks connected with the corresponding pistons being in proper angular relation according to the usual practice. and the ports in the sleeves ot both the intake and the exhaust valves being properly located tor each cylinder to admit the explosive mixture and permit the' exhaust of the burnt gases in proper timed relation with such events in the cycles of other cylinders.
It will be. clear trom the above detailed description that a valve mechanism has been obtained for both the intake and the exhaust which. opens and closes its ports substantially instantaneously, which maintains its ports entirely open throughout one of the four strokes of the piston, and which maintains its ports entirely closed throughout the 'next three succeeding strokes of the piston.
i fore, for seven-eighths of the time, each porspo tion of this outer sleeve is eliiciently cooled, and for only one-eighth of the time is it exposed to the hot gases. It will also be apparent that inasmuch as the inner sleeve is never exposed to the heat of the explosion, and is in con'in'mnication with the interior of `the cylinder only after each four actuations of the star wheel, while it is in continuous engagement with the cooled outer sleeve, thel inner sleeve never becomes ovcrheated.
It Will also appear tdl'l llt by the provision of intermittently-actuated and dilferentially-rotatable valve sleeves, there is a very considerable reduction in the number of moving parts, and a very material decrease in the loss of efficiency owing to the frictional resistance opposed to the movement of such parts; that to actuate this valve mechanism,
vthe necessity of overcoming back-pressure and the resistance of valve-seating springs is avoided; that the rotary engagement of the parts Will scrape ofi" any particles `of carbon that may adhere thereto, and thereby prevent smu'tting; that the parts of the valve mechanism are not exposed to excessive heat and to high heat only for very short periods, whereby there. is little likelihood of pitting; that the nature of the engagement of the parts during movement is such as to cause little wea-r thereof; that the reduction of the number of parts enables an engine to 'be obtained of less :weight than heretofore obtained; and that the absence of complicated parts renders the engine easilyn assembled, fitted and adjusted, and readily inspected and repaired.
While the above embodiment has been described With considerable particularity, it is to be expressly understood that the inven-v tion is susceptible of embodiment in a variety of forms, some of which Will readily suggest themselves to those skilled in the art, and that the above detailed description is not to be taken as a definition of the scope of the invention, 'reference being had to the appended claimsffor that purpose.
What is claimed is Y 1. The combination with the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine, of a valvecasing having a port communicating With said cylinder, a plurality of concentric rotary valve-members located in said casing and provided with diametric ports adapted to register with each other and with said casing-port, and means intermittently moving said valve-members in the same direction but at different speeds respectively.Y
The combination with the cylinder of an internal-combustion engine, of a valve- `casing having a .port communicating with said cylinder, a plurality of concentric rotary valve-members located in said casing and provided with diamctric ports adapted to register with each other and with said casing-port.- and means intermittently moving said valve-,members in the same direction but at different speeds respectively. the ports of the more-rapidly driven member being larger circumferentially than the other ports. 3. The combination with the cylinder of an internal-conibustion engine, ot' two separate' valvc-casings each having a port communicating with said cylinder for inlct and for exhaust respectively, a plurality of concentric rotary valve-members located in cach casing and each provided with a diametric port adapted to register with each other and with their own casing-port, and intermittently-acting means for moving the valvemembers of each set in the same direction but-at ditl'eren't speeds respectively.
4. The conibination with the cylinder of an internal-combi:stion engine, of two scparate valve-casings each having a port communicating with said cylinder for inlct and for exhaust respectively, a plurality of concentric rotary valve-members located in each casing and each provided with a diametric port adapted to register with each other and with their own casing-port, and intermittently-actingmeans for moving the valve members of cach set in the same direction but at different speeds respectively, the ports of the .amie-rapidly driven members belng larger circumferen'tially than the other ports.
5. In an internalcon'ibustion engine, in combination with a cylinder, piston and crank-shaft thereof, a valve casing having a port communicating with said cylinder, rotary valve members therein provided with p0rts,and means to differentially and intermittently rotate said valve members comprising a star Wheel, sprockets of different diameter connected to rotate with said star Wheel, connections between said sprockets and said valve members respectively, and means on said crank-shaft to rotate said star wheel stepby-step-v In an internal-combustion engine, in combination with a cylinder, piston and crank-shaft thereof, a valve casing having a portl communicating with said cylinder, rotary valve members therein-provided With ports, means to relatively and intermittently rotate said valve members in the same direction comprising a star Wheel, sprockets connected to rotate with said star Wheel,l sprockets coaxial with said valve members, driving connections between said first-mentioned and ilitteiitly rotate said valve members comr' isiing a star wheel, meansl on said crankl for rotating Ys aid star wheel step-bypgla'lcommon driving connection with said tari' wheel for both of said inner valve meinrs,alnda common drivingconnection with td star wheel for both of said outer valve embers-i ln:x an internalcombustion engiiie,'in oinb nation with a cylinder thereof, a valve incl iiisni comprising :t valve casing having aj'po communicating witli'said cylinder, ner and outer valve members therein prolide with ports adapted to register with l Ni Iaid easing port, and means rotating sai'd i `iiieiribers at different speeds in the saine dii'ection, said inner, member having the k,ifreater speed of'rotationand said inner iiieiaber port. being larger circiimferentially thai said casing port. ni 9,.- In lanl intern:il-combustion engin-eg*- I1.1
inner member port being larger circumfer-` entially than Said casing por: o
' 10. In. an internal-combustion engine, in combination iv'itlia cylindertheieof, a valve mechanism comprisingr a valve casing hav-` ing a port Communicating with said cylinder,i ner and louter valve members therein provided Withports adapted to register with saidy asing port', and means rotating said members at different speeds, said inner ineinvber`having' the' greater speed of rotation and lsaid inner member port being larger, circumferentially than said outer member portl and said casing port. i' f 11,2111 an internal-'combustion engine, the combination vwith the cylinder, the piston, and the 'main' shaft, of two cylindrical valvein `Bitch of vsaid casings, and means to interik 1. *combination with a cylinder thereof, a valve specification.
casingseah having two ports affording a transverse passageway through said casing and into or out of said cylinder, a sleevevalve rotatable in each casing and having two transverse ports corresponding to and adapted-to register' with sa'id'casing-ports, a I
cylinder-valve rotatable in each sleeve and having a transverse port corresponding to and adapted to register with the other ports aforesaid-butof greater. dimensions circum-y ei'cntially of said cylinder-valve, and means actuated by said shaft for interinittei'itly rotating said sleeve-valves and simultaneously rotating said cylinder-valves in the saine dilrection but at. greater speed.
12. Iii an iiiteriial-eombustioirengine, the combination with the cylinder, the piston, and the main shaft` of a cylindrical valve casing having t-ivo ports ailording a transverse. passageway through said casing and into or out of`said cylinder, a sleeve-valve.
rotatable in said casinand having two transverse ports'. corresponding to and adapt- 'ed to register wili said .casing-ports, a
sleeve-valve rotatab e iii said sleeve and having a transverse port corresponding to and adapted to register with l the other ports aforesaid but of greater dimensions'circumf ai; y-
ferentially of said cyliiideivalve, and means.
i I actuated by said shaft yfor intermittently rotating said sleeve-valveand simultaneously rotating said cylinder-valve in the saine direction but at a greaterspeed. 13. In a four-cycle internal-combustion engine, the combination-with the cylinder, the piston, and the inaiii'sliat` of a'cylindrical valvefcasing having twopor'ts aio'rding a transverse passageway through said casing and into or out of said cylinder, a
sleeve-,valve rotatable in said casing and-having two transverse ports corresponding to.
and adapted to register with said' casingports, a cylinder-valve 'rotatable in said sleeve and having a transverse port corre' sponding r`to and adapted to register with the other ports aforesaid but of twice the width circumferentially of said cylindervalve, and means actuated by said shaft for intermittently. advancing said sleeve-valve one-eighth .of its complete revolution for each one-half revolution of said shaft while' simultaneously advancing said cylindervalve three times asfast in the same direction.,
In testimony whereof-I have signed this. l
HENRY w. THAYEn