US 1299627 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
APPLICATION FILED MAY 29. 19I7.
Patented Apr. 8,1919.
2 sIIEETs-sHEIzT I.
ATTORNEY WITN ESSES H. SIMON.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 29, 1917.
Patented Apr. 8, 1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
AT1-ORN EY UNTTED sTATEs PATENT oEEioE.
HENRY SIMON, OF LAGUNA BEACH, CALIFORNIA.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patented Apr. 8, 1919.
Application led May-29, 1917. Serial No. 171,685.
the telescoping folding type, and is designed to provide a structure of exceptional strength and resistance to injury from ordinary use, and especially adapted for both interior and outside measurements, the rule being characterized by small size and eX- treme simplicity of construction.
A prime consideration in the construction of the rule is to obtain correct measurements without having to make allowance vfor errors, such measurements being accurate within an extremely small limit, say, one one-hundredth of an inch, or less.
In accordance with the invention the rule is made up of a series of telescoping members of generally tubular form and elliptical cross-section, although conformity to a true ellipse is not demanded.
The construction is such .that the innermost member isprovided with a head giving ample fngerhold, the members are held together by friction, provision is made for integral or other stops, and the sections of the rule are made up of thin walled tubes hkof a conformation rendering them particularly resistant to distortion, and at the same time providing a degree of elasticity producing the desired amount of frictional engagement to hold the sections in yany position of projection onel with relation to the other, whereby measurements may be taken and transferred without liability of slippage of the tubes which would destroy the accuracy of the measurement. Y
The invention will be best understood from aV consideration of the following detailed description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings forming part of this specification, 'with the further understanding that while the drawings show a practicall form of the invention, the latter is not confined to any strict conformity with the showing of the drawings, but may be changed and modified so long as such changes and modifications come within the scope of the appended claims.
In the drawings Figure 1 is a plan view of the sections;v of a four section rule removed one from the other and laid side by side.
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the assembled rule.
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section through the assembled rule with the sections or members pulled apart for a short distance, and drawn on a larger scale than the preceding figures.
Fig. 4 is a section on line L1--4 of Fig. 2 but drawn on a larger scale.
Fig. 5 is a section similar to illustrating a modification.
Fig. 6 is a plan view of one end of one section of the rule of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a plan view of a portion of another modiiied form of the rule.
Fig. 8 is an end view of the head end of 'Eigener the rule.
. a rule made up of an outer section 1, an
inner section 2, and intermediate `sections 3, 4, respectively, the particular rule shown being a four sectionitelescopic rule, but it will be understood that Vany number of sections desired may be employed. In the particular arrangement indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, the rule constitutes a two lfoot rule, but may be madelonger or shorter by increasing or decreasing the length of the sections or increasing or decreasing the number of the sections, or both. Each section is of'tubular form` preferably elliptical, or a near approach to such form and made of thin ,gage sheet metal. In most of the forms shown the tubes constituting the members of the rule are made bv stamping a blank out of sheet metal, and then shaping it into a fiat elliptical form. When so made the sections 1, 3 and 4 are split lengthwise along one of the flatter sides, and. have matching cut away portions 5, which when the blank is shaped into a tube produce a longitudinal slot 6. The section 2 constituting the innermost section of the rule is not' so cut away and consequently has no longitudinal slot. 1n section 1 the slot 6 stops short o1 each end. of the tube, leaving an unslotted space 7 at one end and an unslotted space 8 at the other end of greater length in tliedirection of the length of the tube than the space 7. The tubular section 3 has, at one end of the slot 6, tongues 9 folded upon themselves to constitute stops for a purpose to be described. The section 3 has at the end remote from the stop 9 a portion 10 corresponding tothe portion 8 .of the tube 1, but of less length, and the slot 6 extends closer to the corresponding` end of the tube than does the slot 6 of tube 1. The tubular section 4 has its slot 6 closer to the end 11 corresponding to the end 10 of the tube 3 than is the case with the tubes 1 and 3, and the tube 4 has stop members 12 like the stop members 9 of tube 3.
The tube 2 constituting the innermost tube of the rule has no slot at all, but is provided with stop members 13 near one end corresponding to the stop members 9 and 12 of tubes 3 and 4, but more distant from, the end near Which they are located than is the case with the tubes 3 and 4. rlhe other end of the tube 2 is closed by a plug head or reinforced cap portion 14 held by rivets 15 or otherwise lto the tube and this head has a cross-sectional size corresponding to the cross-section of the tube 1, so that when the tubes are nested the margins of the head 14 are flush with the outer walls of the tubel,
which latter is the outside and therefore the largest of the series of tubes. The tube 1 has a closure or reinforced head portion 16 for the end remote from that entered by the other tubes, and this closure may be secured in place by rivets 17 or otherwise. While rivets are shown as means for fastening the head 14 and closure 16 to the respective tubes, it will be understood that any other means, such as soldering and the like, may be employed, since these heads need not be disturbed after having been once secured in place in the respective tubes.
The series of telescoping tubes or mem bers have their vlongitudinal axes coinciding` and the cap portion 14 and head portion 16 have terminal faces of substantially equal profile axially encompassing the remaining portions of the rule.
Since the tubes are more or less yieldable to interior expansive forces because the tubes are longitudinally split along one edge, and, moreover, the walls ot the tubes being of thin gage, that endy of. the tube 3 Vcarrying,r
the stop 9 may be compressed or the end 8 of the tube 1 may be expanded to admit the passage of the stop 9 into the tube 1. until it snaps into the slot 6, whereupon the tube 3 may be pushed intov the tube 1 until the stop 9 engages the opposite end of the slot 6 at the end 7 of the tube 1. The two tubes have such relative lengths that when the stop 9 engages the inner closed end of the slot 6, the other ends of the two -tubes are flush one with thel other. Since the tubes may be made to gage and t snugly they may further be made to slide one in the other with sufficient friction to hold them in place. To increase the fiictional fit, the tubes 1, 3 and 4 may each have a depressed portion 18 at the ends entered by the next smaller tube in order to bear upon the next smaller tube with additional friction and such friction may be so regulated that while the tubes may be drawn out or moved into veach other with relative ease, they will hold the posi; tions to which they are moved Without liability of disturbance of such positions ui'r der ordinary conditions of use.
While the tube 4 is shown as ofthe same length as the tube 3 and telescopes thereinto, the stop 12 is located at a distance from that end ot' the tube 4 entering the tube 3 that when it engages the stop 9 the corresponding ends of the `two tubes are flush. One end of the slot 6 in the tube 1 remote from the end 8 of the tube serves as an arresting means for the stop 9 and the stop 9 servesl as an arresting means for the stop 12, so that when tubes and 4 are within the tube 1, the ends 10 `and 11 of the tubes 3 and 4 are flush with the end 8 of the tube 1. Thetube of a length corresponding to that of tubes` 3 and 4 and the stop 13 is so located as to be arrested by the stop 12 when the tube is fully telescoped into the tube 4,v-\vhile the overlfianging part of the head 14engages the ends 8, 10 and 11 of the tubes .1, 3'and'4. ln the particular arrangement shown Ythe full length of the rule 1 fully telescoped is seven and one-half inches, while the head 14 projects a half inch beyond the other mem.- bers ot' the rule, thus providing ample linger space tor grasping the innermost member of the rule to withdraw it, Wherefore it is feasible to make the membersV of the rule slide stiilly as. may be desired one in the other and hence correspondingly resist disturbing` :forces which might change the measurements for which the rule has been set. The particular measurements indicated in the drawings provide for a rule twenty-four inches long with the four sections shown in F ig. 1 when. they are all drawn out to the fullest extent, while the shortest inside measurement which may be obtained is seven and one-half inehesh The various sections of the rule are inl alinement, and hence in- .head 14 is provided on its outer face With a recess or cavity 20 in Which there is lodged a scoring blade 21 held in place by a screw' 2'2, the blade having a small lug 23 on the face toward the bottom of the cavity to seat in a groove '24 in the bottom of the cavity 20. The blade is provided with a sharp cutting end 25, as is customary in scoring blades, and the other end 26 of the blade is rounded in conformity with the corresponding end of the head 14. The blade 21 may be so situated in the cavity 20 that its cutting edge is entirely housed therein and protected from contact, or the blade may be reversed so that its cutting edge projects a short distance beyond the corresponding edge of the rule 'to permit the production of a knifeedge cut in the Work being measured with the cut coinciding'accurately With the corresponding end of the rule.
At times it is desirable to be able to produce the knife cuts at both ends of the rule, and for such purpose the closure 16 may have a scoring knife 27 lodged therein in the same manner as the scoring knife 21 with respect to the head 14. The scoring knife or blade 27 is shown in Fig. T and requires no further description.
In. the showing of Fig. 1 and associated figures, the stops 9, 12 and 13 are produced by folded over portions of the fingers at both cut away parts 5. A somewhat more compact arrangement is provided in the structure shownyin Fig. 6, Where a section has a lug 9L on one side only of the slot 6, and in. this arrangement the lugs may be so positioned as to engage the end of the slot 6 in tube 1 instead of only the lug of the first tube in order entering the tube 1 so engaging. In this event all the stop lugs are at the eXtreme ends of the respective tubes. The two arrangements are indicated in Figs. 4 and 5. In Fig. 4 double lugs or stops 9, 12 and 13 are shown, andas they cannot pass. each other, being all in the same line, they must be displaced lengthvise of the tubes. In Fig. 5 the single lugs 9, 12a and 13a, respectively, do not interfere with each other.
Instead of forming the lugs by producing tongues and folding them upon themselves laterally of the length of the slot 6, a tongue 28 may be produced at the corresponding end of the particular tube and bent upon itself lengthwise of the tube, as indicated in Fig. 14.
Again, Vthe rule sections may be made from seamless tubing formed into shape, and one end of sucha tube is indicated at 4a in Fig. 18, it being apparent that all the tubes may be similarly formed.
The cross-sectional shape of the rule is of importance, that of Figs. 4 and 5, indicating a fiat ellipse, being found to be a good form. rIhe form of Fig. 9, which may be taken as showing a head 14a without ,the scoring blade, is also a convenient form, having the faces of the rule more rounded than in Figs. 4 and 5. The showing of Fig. 10 is that of a head 14b and indicates a rule of the same general form as that of Fig. 9, but With flats 29 on opposite faces. indicated a head 14c showing What may be the cross-sectional shape of the rule, in which case one edge 30 is at throughout nearly its Whole Width, While the other edge is made up of angular portions 30a near the sides and a central fiat portion 30T parallel With the edge 30. In 111g. 12 there is indicated a head 14d of the same general shape as would be the case in the rule shown in cross-section in Figs. 4 and 5,' but With intermediate depressions 31 on opposite Wide faces permitting the sinking of the stops Well below the` faces of the rule. The depressions or channels 31 extending lengthwise of the rule serve to stiifen the rule when extended, and reduce the liability of the rule becoming dented or injured, as Well as placing the slots and stopsbelow the general surface and entirely out Vof the lWay k'of harm.
Possibly the form shown in Fig. 9 is Vthe best suited for all around Work asl having the advantage of an almost flat shape with facility of Working With a rounded surface Which imparts great strength to the rule. In fact, all the various shapes contri-bute to the strength of the rule, While those of Figs. 4, 10, 11 and 1Q are suitable for Working on flat surfaces.
In all the variousshapes the edge portions are in the form of arcs of circles either actually or very closely approaching half circles. Such curved edges While just as convenient and practical for reading as the square edge of common rules, provide the greatest strength that it is possible to obtain for all the rule sections down to tho innermost or smallest one, and also the greatest possible resistance to injury.
While the seamless tube of Fig. 18 is a strong construction, the split tubes have the advantage that they are elastic due to the splitting, so that the sections may be compressed laterally and longitudinally, and
In Fig. 11 there isV thus absorb and render harmless knocks or blows or sudden twisting and side strains which might otherwise be permanently harmful. Again, the split tube permits the spreading or yielding of the ends of the rule sections entered by the smaller sections, so that such ends may spread under sudden strains without permanent enlargement which might otherwise occur.
Furthermore, the split constructionV has the decided advantage of providing an even and lasting friction practically unaected by wear and not readily altered by small amounts of `l`dust or dirt working in between the working surfaces. to an advantage already noted in that it renders it possible to take the rule to pieces for cleaning and inspection and to reassemble it easily and quickly without the necessity of the use of any tools or the removal of any fastening means.
What is claimed is 1. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with their longitudinal axes coinciding, the innermost and outermost members being provided at their respectively outer ends with terminal portions having outer faces of substantially equal profile and pierced by the common longitudinal axis of the members at the same relative points, and all portions of the rule between the outer faces of the terminal portions being substantially contained within a body made by the projection of the profile of the outer faces of the terminal portions parallel with the longitudinal axis of the rule, whereby the rule can be laid down flat on any plane surface in any position or stage of extension with corresponding points of the outer faces of both terminal portions touching the fiat surface and the common axis of the tubes parallel to the flat surface, to render possible the use of the rule for measuring distances on any flat surface along any side or edge of the rule.
2; An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with their longitudinal axes coinciding, the outermost member being provided at its outer end with a cap portion and the innermost member at the corresponding opposite end with a thickened head portion having an extent lengthwiseof the body of the rule to provide a hold for the fingers Vof the human hand for extending the rule, the cap portion and head portion having terminal faces fof substantially equal profile axially encompassing all remaining portions of the rule, the projected end elevations of the rule thus being substantially equal and coaxial and all portions of the rule being contained within the compalss of the projected end elevations of the ruv e.
rlhis is in addition 3. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with their longitudinal axes coinciding and with the innermost member having at one end a lateral, area corresponding to the cross sectional area of the outermost member and, when the rule is closed, constituting a cover for those ends of the other members presentedV toward the head.
t. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping tubes with their longitudinal axes coinciding and with theinnermost tube provided with. a terminal head having a lateral area corresponding to the cross sectional area of the outermost tube, and the corresponding ends of all the tubes outside of the innermost tube substantially abutting the head when the rule is closed.
5. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with their longitudinal axes coinciding and the innermost member provided with a terminal head constituting a cover for those ends of the other members presented toward the head, and said head being of an axial length to be grasped by the fingers of the human hand, for extending and contracting the rule.
6. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with the innermost member having a head at its outer end of a lat-eral extent corresponding to the cross sectional area of the outermost one of the members, and a marking blade carried by the head flush with that face of the head re- '.mote from the body of the rule.
7. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with the innermost member having a head at one end of a lateral extent corresponding to the cross sectional area of the outermost member, and a marking blade carried by the head Hush with the face of the head remote from the body of the rule and normally flush with the margin of the head, said marking blade being eccentrically mounted for the projection of the blade beyond the marginal portion of the head.
8. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with the innermost; member having a head at its outer end of a lateral extent corresponding to the crosssectional area of the outermost one of the members, and a marking blade carried by the head flush with that face of the head remote fromthe body of the rule, and the rule also being provided with a marking blade at the end remote from .said head.
9. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with the innermost member having a head at one end of a lateral extent corresponding to the cross sectional area of the outermost member, and a marking blade carried by the head flush with' of alined telescoping members with the ends of the rule of substantially the same cross sectional area, said rule being provided with permanently placed terminal marking means normally located wholly within the cross sectional area of the rule and movable therebeyond for marking purposes in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rule.
11. An extension rule comprising a series of alined telescoping members and provided with terminal marking means normally flush with the ends of the rule, said marking means being capable of projection into operative position by a movement substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rule.
12. An extension rule, comprising a series of telescoping members each provided with means Jfor arresting it when pulled out to a predetermined limit and the arresting means on the successive members being progresls)ively spaced closer to the ends of said memers.
13. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping members with each member smaller than the outermost member provided with a projecting stop and each member larger than the innermost member having a longitudinal slot receiving the stop of the next smaller member, the stops being arranged at diiierent distances from the corresponding ends of the members on which they are located, whereby all the inner members larger than the innermost member may be wholly lodged within the outer member.
14. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping tubes with each tube smaller than the outermost tube provided with a .-rojecting stop near one end and each tube larger than the innermost tube having a longitudinal slot receiving the stop of the next smaller tube, the stops being arranged at different distances from the corresponding ends of the tubes on which they are located, whereby all the inner tubes larger than the innermost tube may be wholly lodged within the outermost tube, and the slots of the inner slotted tubes approaching progressively closer to the opposite ends of most tube being provided with a head of a.
size corresponding to the cross-sectional area of the outermost tube, whereby the head provides a hand hold'for extending the-rule,
and the rule when closed is of Vsubstantially the same cross-sectional Yarea throughout its length.
16. An extension rule comprising a telescoping series of thin metal tubes of elliptical conformation, each tube being split lengthwise to elastically grip the next smaller tube, and the innermost and outermost tubes having closures at respectively opposite ends with the end closure of the innermost tube of a lateral spread to an extent corresponding to the cross-sectional size of the outermost tube and forming an abutment for all the tubes larger than the innermost tube.
17. An extension rule comprising a series of telescoping metallic tubes of greater width than thickness and oii' thin gage, and also having the long edges of the rule rounded, the innermost tube of the series being provided with a terminal head having a lateral area equal to the cross sectional area of the outermost tube.
18. An extension rule comprising a telescoping series of thin gage tubes ofv elliptical cross section and split throughout their entire length, the innermost tube of the series having a head of a lateral extent equal to the cross sectional area of the innermost tube and forming an abutment for the corresponding ends of all the tubes exterior to the innermost tube.
19. An extension rule comprising a telescoping series of thin gage tubes of elliptical cross section and split throughout their entire length, the innermost tube of the series having a head of a lateral extent equal to the cross sectional area of the innermost tube and forming an abutment for the corresponding ends of all the tubes exterior to the innermost tube, and the head being provided witl a marking blade normally flush therewit 20. An extension rule comprising a telescoping series of thin gage tubes of elliptical cross section and split throughout their entire length, the innermost tube of the series having a head of a lateral extent equal to the cross sectional area of the innermost tube and forming an abutment for the corresponding ends of all the tubes exterior to the innermost tube, and the head being provided with a marking blade normally flush therewith, said blade being mounted eccentrically in the head and movable about its aXis to project beyond the margin of the head for marking purposes.
2l. An extension rule comprising a telescoping series of thin tubes of elliptical conformation, the innermost and outermost tubes having closures at respectively opposite ends, with the end closure of the innermost tube of a lateral spread, corresponding to thecross-sectional size of the outermost tube and forming an abutment for all the tubes larger than the innermost tube.
22. An extension rule .comprising a telescoping series of thin tubes of elliptical conformation and channeled longitudinally.
23. An extension rule comprising a series of thin-Walled telescoping tubes of greater Width than thickness and channeled longitudinally between the sides.
In testimony, that Iclaim the foregoing as my own, 'I have hereto aiiiXed my signature in the presence ot' two witnesses.
ELMER ELLEsWoRTH JoBRoUs, CARL EARL HOPER.
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' Washington, D. C.