US 1302246 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. A. TRACE.
MACHINE FOR FQRMING OIL CAKES. APPLICATION FILED JULY 30. I917.
19802 246, Patented Apr. 29,1919. 3 SHEETS-SHEEI 1. C jpl I RMQSQZ L R. A. TRACE.
MACH INE FOR FORMING OIL CAKES.
APPLICATION FILED JULY 30.1917. 7 1,802,2%u Patented Apr. 29,1919.
Invenfo Ru/ssll TPd/CG,
R.A.TRAOE. MACHINE FOR FORMING OIL CAKES. APPLICATION FILED. JULY 30. 1911.
I Patented Apr. 29, 1919.-
3 SHEET$SHEET 3.
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u .t CE, OF DAYTON, OHIO, ASSIGNOR TO BUCKEYE IRON AND BRASS WORKS,
OF DAYTON, OHIO, A CORPORATION OF OHIO.
macnnm ran some OIL-CAKES.
Specification of Letters Patent. Patgnt dl Ap 29 11919,
Application filed July 30, 1917. Serial No. 183,430.
10' allwhom it may concern: I Be it known, that I, RUssELL A. TRACE,
a citizen of the United States, residing at Dayton, in the county of Montgomery andject is to providean improved hydraulic 7 press particularly adapted for forming oil cakes and also usable in other relations,
the improvement comprising a method of operation whereby a much smaller amount of 011 or other liquid under pressure 1s required to operate the press.
The inventlonis illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
igure 1 is an end elevation of the press proper showing also a stand pipe or reservoir for liquid;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the press, but showing the hydraulic ram and its cylinder and operating valves in section; and
Fig. 3 is a side elevation of the press similar to Fig. 2, but showing the ram elevated and with some of the parts of Fig. 2 shown in side elevation.
The construction and operation of the press may be next described, and it will be understood that the liquid under pressure which is used to operate the press is supplied from a pump of any desired type driven by some motive power such as a steam engine or an electric motor. In order to equalize the work on the pump, the system includes an accumulator of some well known type into which the liquid is forced by the pump. The accumulator may be of the type having a heavy weight which serves to maintain a substantially constant pressure of the liquid. Thus the pump works continually against this constant pressure and its work is thereby equalized. In the use of such a system employing an accumulator there is a decided advantage in arranging the system to require as little liquid to be pumped as possible because it is pumped against a constant ressure.
To provide for the use 0 a small amount ber 83 in the rain.
of liquid is one of the objects of the present invention. This object is obtained by constructing the press so that during the greater part. of the stroke of the ram only a small area is exposed to the liquid pressure. This part of the stroke is occupied in bringing the mold box nearly up to the press head and the only resistance to this part of the movement is the weight of the meal and the weight of the moving parts, such as the ram and the cross head. When the mold box reaches the position at which pressure commences to be exerted on the meal, a much higher pressure is necessary and the construction herein is such "that at this stage of the operation a much larger area of the ram is exposed to the liquid pres sure from the accumulator. This second part of the stroke is comparatively small in extent and therefore does not require any great amount of liquid for its operation.
Referring now to Figs. 1, 2 and3, it will. be seen that in Fig. 2 the ram is just starting upward, the operating been actuated. by the workman, while in Fig. 3 the handle has been released and the ram is just starting down.
' The press as a whole is mounted on a base plate 70 which may in fact support the entire machine and which bears standards 71 and 72 supporting the press head 9 and forming block of the press. The cylinder 7 is provlded with the ram 74 which serves to ilevate the cross head 73 and the mold handle having The valve mechanism controlling the entrance of the liquid is shown in Figs. 2 and 3 and is operated by a lever not shown .car- I ried by a rod 100 and fast to this is anarm 101 which has a slot and pin connection with the valve stem102. The liquid entersthe device at the port 75 and passes around a cut away portion 75 of the valve stem.
.When the operating handle is depressed to operate the ram the valve stem 102 is elevated and the liquid may then pass from entrance port 75 through the cut away portion 75*, then through port 87 and through a passage 80 giving entrance to a standard 81 carried by the cylinder 7 and around which the ram 7 4 is guided. This standard 81 has a vertical passage 82 for the liquid, leading from passage 80 and through which the liquid passes upward and into the cham- It will be seen that this chamber has a comparatively small cross section and thus no great amount of liquid is required to lift the ram from the position of .Fig. 2 to substantially the position of Fig. 3. When the ram reaches the position at which pressure must be exerted on the meal, a greater amount of liquid pressure is required and this is obtained by providing a chamber 84 in the cylinder to which liquid may be admitted whereby liquid pressure under the entire r: m may be obtained. To attain this end, the standard 81 is pierced part way up its length by a port 85 from the'vertical passage 82. The under side of the ram is cut away, as indicated at 86, and it will be understood that as soon as the edge of this cut away portion opens the passage 85, liquid under pressure may pass through this passage and exert pressure under the whole of the under surface of the ram. I
It will be seen, however, that to fill the entire chamber 84 with liquid through passage 85 would require as much liquid under pressure as if the liquid was admitted directly to chamber 84. To avoidthis, means are provided for admitting enough liquid to chamber 84 to fill it as the ram moves upward, but this liquid need not be and is not su lied by the accumulator, but is provided from a supply device shown as a standpipe 79. This standpipe is shown in Fig. 1 and it. is connected by a large pipe 77 in which is a check valve (not shown), which prevents oil passing from chamber 84 back to the standpipe through pipe 77. It will be understood that this pipe 77 opens directly into chamber 84 and as the standpipe 79 is continually full of liquid, the elevation of ram 74 by the liquid passing into the interior chamber 83 permits liquid to pass from the standpipe through pipe 77 and fill the chamber 84. In fact,'the elevation of ram 74 by liquid entering chamber 83 will serve to suck the liquid through pipe 77 if the standpipe has no part at a higher elevation than the cylinder 7 itself.
When the ram has been elevated sutii-.
ciently to compress the meal to the desired extent, the operator releases the handle which thereulpon permits; the valve mechanism to return to the position of Fig. 3. In this position the cut away portion 7 5 of the valve stem 102 connects the port 87 with the exit pipe 78 running to the supply tank for the pump. The weight of the ram 74 and the parts carried thereby is suflicient to force itdownwardly thereby carrying the liquid in chamber 83 out through passages 82 and 80 through port? 87 to the exitpipe 78.
Also the liquid then in chamber 84 must be'withdrawn and the weight of the ram and parts carried thereby is suflicient toeffect this. It is not desired to withdraw the liquid from chamber 84 through pipe 77, and
permit the withdrawal of the liquid in chamber 84, a pipe "89 is connected to a passage 88 running from chamber 84 and normally held closed by a valve 89. This valve normally prevents liquid passing from standpipe 79 through pipe 89 into the chamber 84. A passage 90 runs from port 87 into passage 88 above the valve 89.-
'hen the valve mechanism is in the position of Fig. 2 and liquid. enters the device through entrance port 75, it also passes through the passage 90 above the valve 89 and forces the valve from the position of Fig. 2 to that of'Fig. 3, thus entirely shutting oif pipe 89. Thus no liquid can pass into chamber 84 from standpipe 79 through pipe 89, but must pass through the large pipe 77.
When the Valve mechanism is moved to the position of Fig. 3, by release of the operating lever, the parts are restorexl to normal position. The cut away portion 75 of valve stem 102 cuts ofi entrance port 75, and thus the valve 89 is no longer held down (as in Fig. 3) by the pressure of the liquid above it. The Weight of the ram 74 and the parts carried thereby can then force the valve 89 upwardly to the position of Fig. 2, thereby uncovering the return pipe 89 to the standpipe 79. Then the liquid-in chamber 84 is forced out through passage 88 and pipe 89 into the standpipe 79. If more is ejected than the standpipe will hold, the surplus moves through a pipe 91 connected to the top of the standpipe back to the supply tank for the pump. Thus, the chamber 84 is filled with liquid from the standpipe 79 at each operation of the press and this liquid together with whatever liquid passes through the port 85 into the cylinder 84 will be re turned to'the standpipe through exit pipe 89. It will be understood that only arelatively small amount of liquid passes into the chamber 84 through the passage 85. To this end the passage 85 is positioned at a point such that the cut away portion 86 of the ram will open this passage at substantially the point where the meal begins to be compressed and where therefore a much higher pressure is necessary.
The specification has referred to the use of liquid and it will be .understood that any desired liquid, such as oil, water or glycerin may be employed.
By the provision of the two chambers 83 and 84 it will be seen that the pressure of the liquid is efiective on the entire diameter of the ram. That is, the pressure on the under side of the ram from the liquid in the chamber 84 after passage 85 is open is added to the liquid pressure in the chamber 83. The sum of these two pressures is the same as would be the case if the ram was solid and not provided with the standard 81;
- 60 this time neoaaae The pipe 79 has been referred to as a standpipe and with the parts as shown m Fig. 1 the liquid in this pipe Will be under more or less pressure due to its gravity head. The pipe 77 is always open into the chamber 84 of the mm, but the weight of the parts is so much that the liquid cannot pass from pipe 79 into the ram cylinder until the ram is elevated by the liquid underpressure coming through entrance port 75. It is not desired to.limit the invention to the use of a standpipe furnishing a gravity head as the device is entirely operative with a construction wherein the supply for the chamber 84 is entirely at a lower elevation than the chamber itself. In other Words'the liquid may well be sucked into the chamber 84 by atmospheric pressure on the pipe 79, whereby no effect due to gravity would be obtained. For simplicity many of the claims recite means for admitting liquid by suction and this is done to emphasize the fact that no gravity head in the standpipe 79 is required. In fact, even when there is a gravity head the action will be partly by suction because of atmospheric pressure on the standpipe.
The liquid passing from standpipe 79 to chamber 84 through pipe 77 is all returned to the standpipe through the passage 89.
Also whatever liquid passes 85 is carried to.
the standpipe. Thus, a slightly greater amount of liquid is returned to the standpipe at each operation than is taken from it 5 and this small surplus'will return through pipe 91 to the supply tank for the pump.
In the claims the terms pumped liquid and suction liquid are employed and by these it is intended to distinguish the two 0 sources of liquid supply, one coming from some type of accumulator and being under high pressure, the other coming from a standpipe or hquid supply device and being supplied wholly by suction due to atmos-' pheric pressure, or partly by such suction and partly by gravity.
The pressing operation is readily accomplished by actuating the operating lever. The depression of this lever raises the valve mechanism for the press to the position of Fig. 2, thus permitting liquid under pres-' sure from. the accumulator to pass through passage 80 and up the inside passage 82 into chamber 83 of the ram. The ram moves up- Ward carrying its mold box and charge of meal and liquid from the standpipe 79 passes through pipe 77 past the check valve into the chamber 84, maintaining it completely filled with liquid. The valve 89 at prevents the passage of, liquid through the pipe 89 from the standpipe, be-
v ing held seated by the liquid pressure through passage 90. As the ram approaches the .end ofits upward stroke the passage 85 is opened and liquid under pressure may the meal.
communication between the primary chamber,
then pass therethrough and complete the operation of raising the ram and pressing At this time the entire ram is under pressure both in the chamber 83 and in the chamber 84. When the meal has been sufficiently compressed the workman releases the operating lever and the valve mechanism then returns to the position of Fig. 3.
- In this position the liquid supplied under pressure through passage is cut ofi? and 75 the return pipe 78 is opened. Thus, the liquid in the chamber 83 may pass out to the supply tank for the pump through passage and the liquid in chamber 84 moves through passage '88 and pipe 89 into the 30 standpipe 79. This latter movement of liquid is permitted'as the pressure through passage 90 is removed and the liquid in chamber 84 may readily elevate the valve 89*. Any excess of liquid returned through pipe 89 to 35 the standpipe 79 moves through pipe 91 to the supply tank forthe pump.
The economy in the use of liquid under high pressure in the press proper is very marked as only a relatively small amount 90 thereof is required compared to what would be necessary if the entire supply was furnished under the accumulator pressure.
Having thus fully described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by 95 Letters Patent, is
1. In a hylraulic press, the combination, with the ram and a plurality of constantly separate force chambers, of a three-way valve for admitting fluid under pressure to a force chamber, and means controlled by the movement of the ram forestablishing said chambers. whereby the fluid pressure is introduced successively into said chambers for operating the ram at varying powers, and a gravity valve cooperating with the threeway valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said chambers.
2. In a hydraulic press, the combination with the ram, of primary and secondary force chambers which are separate during the whole movement of the ram, a three-way valve for admitting fluid under pressure to means for maintaining the secondary chamber filled with fluid as the ram is moved by the fluid pressure in the primary chamber, and a port for establishing communication between said 'cham bers adapted to be opened by movement of the ram fora part of its stroke, whereby fluid pressure is introduced into the secondary chamber for continuing the stroke of the ram at greater pressure, and a gravity valve cooperating with the three-way valve 125 to permit dischargeof the fluid from said chambers.
3. In a hydraulic press, the combination of concentric cylinders, a hollow ram telescoping with said cylinders, a three-way 1 0 valve for supplying fluid under pressure to one cylinder and for filling the other cylinder with fluid as the ram is moved at low pressure, and a port for establishing communication between said cylinders which is opened by movement of the ram for a certain art of its stroke, the ram continuing throughout its reciprocations in telescopic relation with the concentric cylinders, and a gravity valve cooperating with the threeway valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said cylinders.
.4. In combination, plurality of constantly separate force chambers, a tubular ram telescoping with the walls of said chambers, and means controlled by movement of the ram for establishing communication between said force chambers, with a three-way valve for admitting fluid under pressure to one force chamber and supplying fluid to fill the other force chamber, whereby the ram is moved rapidly until the fluid pressure is introduced into both force chambers for continuing the stroke at increased pressure, and a gravity valve cooperating with the three-way valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said chambers.
5. In combination, a cylinder having a plurality of constantly separate force. chamers and a port, controlled by the rain, for establishing communication between said chambers, with a ram, and a three-way valve for admitting fluid underpressure to one force chamber to move the ram rapidly until it causes the opening of said port, Whereupon the stroke is continued by the operation of fluid pressure in both chambers, and a gravity valve cooperating with the threeway valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said chambers;
6. The combination of a cylinder, a tube a cylinder having; a I
within the cylinder provided with a lateral port, a hollow or bored ram working in said cylinder and on said tube, the ram when "retracted covering said port, and a threeconnections for I supplying fluid to both -chambers and a three-way valve for supplying the fluidunder pressure to one of them, means controlled by the ram for establishing communication between said chambers, and means whereby the fluid pressure can be introduced into both chambers before such communication is established, and a gravity valve cooperating with the threeway valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said chambers.
8. In a hydraulic press, the combination of concentric cylinders, a hollow ram telescopin with said cylinders, a three-way valve for supplying fluid under pressure to one cylinder, there being a port for establishing communication between said cylinders which is opened by movement of the ram for a certain part of its stroke, the ram continuing throughout its reciprocations in telescopic engagement with the concentric cylinders, and a gravity valve coiiperating with the three-way valve to permit discharge of the fluid from said cylinders.
In testimony whereof, I aflix my signature.
RUSSELL A. TRACE.