|Publication number||US1303730 A|
|Publication date||May 13, 1919|
|Filing date||Jan 11, 1919|
|Publication number||US 1303730 A, US 1303730A, US-A-1303730, US1303730 A, US1303730A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. H. ROGERS.
APPLICATION FILED IAN. II. |919.
31,893,73@ Patented May 13, 1919.
'lllllllllii 111151554 JAMES HARRIS ROGERS, 0F HYATTSVILLE, MARYLAND.
Specification of Letters Patent. 4
Patented May 13, 1919.
Application filed January 11, 1919. Serial No. 270,669.
To all whom t may concern:
Be it known that I, JAMES HARRIS ROG- ERS, a citizen of the United States, residing at Hyattsville, in the county of Prince Georges and State of Maryland, have invented new and useful Improvements in Radiosignaling Systems, of which the following is a specification.
My invention relates to radio signaling systems and apparatus for sending and receiving signals through space by means of electromagnetic waves, and it relates particularly to that portion of such systems known as the antenna.
I have discovered that radio conducto-rs or antennae are highly eiiicient when disposed horizontally or substantially parallel to the surface of the earth but completely insulated ,therefrom and inclosed in an inclosing metallic covering, screen or casing practically throughou-t their entire length, but insulated therefrom. The metallic covering thus inclosing the antenna, but from which the latter is insulated, takes up the electromagnetic waves, in receiving, and transmits them to the antenna within at full strength and even with greater effect than when the antenna is used without the covering. A highly efiicient action is `thus obtained, the static is reduced, and at the'same time the antenna i-s fully protected from deterioration by the corroding action of earth and water.
In such a. system it has been found necessary, in order to obtain the best results, to employ radio conductors and casings of very considerable length, that is, '250 feet, 500 feet, 1,000 feet, or even 5,000 feet or more in length. With the use of such long conductors and casings, however, it is found that the static increases in proportion to the length, that is, as the length of conductor and casing increases, the static increases in about the same proportion, and this increase in the static prevents obtaining the best results.
Now, it is the object of the present invention to reduce the proportion which the static bears to the length of the radio conductor employed. A further obj ect is to render ossible the employment of longer radio lcon uctors or-antennae in proportion tothe incoming wave length.
In carrying the invention into eifect the metallic covering, screen or casing of the radio conductor or antenna is made sectional, the sections being insulated from each other by rubber hose, such as garden hose, or equivalent.
The invention consists in the novel construction and arrangement of apparatus and parts thereof for sending and receiving radio signals hereinafter described and claimed, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which drawings- Figure 1 is a diagrammatic View showing the antenna buried beneath the surface of the earth, receiving instruments being associated with the antenna;
Fig. l2L shows a conventional arrangement of sending instruments which may be substituted for the receiving instruments for transmitting signals, it being understood that either the sending or receiving instruments shown in Fig. l1 are to be used in connection with the arrangements shown in the remaining figures;
Fig. 1b is a longitudinal section of one of the couplings or section connections, shown on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 1c is a transverse section taken on the line c-c of Fig. 1b;
Fig. 2 is a View similar to Fig. l showing two antennae extending in opposite directions beneath the surface of the earth, the connection for signaling instruments being located between the antennae and also beneath the surface of the earth;
Figi 3 is a View similar to Fig. 2 but showing t e antenna resting upon the surface of the earth with the signal instruments upon or above the surface;
Fig. 4 is a View similar to Fig. 3 but showing the antennae supported above the surface of the earth but in close proximity thereto;
5 is a view similar to Fig.V 2 in which the antennae are shown submerged in water.
Fig. 6 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing a modification.
Referrin to the drawings, 10 indicates the signal instruments, which in Fig. 1 are those for receiving signals, while in Fig. 1a the instruments for sending signals are shown. In Fig. 1, 11 is a detector of any type, preferably an audion, 12 a telephone, and 13 and 14 the usual condensers. Any
desired type of instruments and arrangement of connecting circuits may be employ'ed.
ln Fig. 1a suitable sending instruments are conventionally shown. These comprise a generator 15, transformer 16, spark gap 17, condenser 18 and key 19..
.The above-mentioned instruments are well known in the art of radio or magnetic wave signaling, and need not be further described.
2O is an antenna for radiating or receiving electromagnetic waves, and as shown in Fig. 1 extends horizontally or substantially` parallel to the earths surface and buried in the earth. This antenna may be of any suitable or desired length, and is completely inclosed within a metallic covering, casing or screen 21 which may be a tube or pipe of lead, iron or any other suitable metal. The antenna is insulated from the metallic covering or casing by means of insulation 22. It will thus be seen that while the antenna is buried in the earth it is completely insulated therefrom and from the metallic covering or casglhe receivin instruments shown in Fig. 1 are associated with the antenna by means of an inductive coupling comprising windings 23 and 24; of a transformer, but mayl be associated therewith in any other suitable manner. The other terminal of winding 24 of the couplin is connected to ground at 25.
In the embo iment of the invention'shown in Fig. 2 the ground connection is replaced by a second antenna 20 extending in a direction different from the direction of antenna 20, the signal instruments being connected between the antennae as indicated by the winding 24 of the inductive coupling. In this figure alsov is shown the arran ement by which the signal instruments are located in the chamber 26 below the surface of the earth.
Fi Fig. l but with the employment of a second antenna 20 in place of the ground connecltion shown in Fig. 3. I
`Fig. et shows an arrangement similar to Fig. 3, but with the antennae slightly elevated above thel surface of the earth by means ofstruts or pins 28. Thus while the antennae extend su stantially parallel with the surface of the earth, the metallic coverf mg or casing is not in direct contact with the earth but is separated therefrom by a short space. It may or mayl not be insulated from the earth according to the material of which the struts or pins 28 are made, that is whether they are of conducting or of nonconductin material. l
Fig. 5 s ows the employment of two antennae submer ed beneath the surface of the earth wheretere is water, the water being indicated at 29. Here the metallic covering or casing is in contact with the water, but
g. 3 shows an arrangement similar to the length of ordinary iron pipe which may be used for the purpose. The sections 31 are connected to-l each other by insulating couplings 32, which may be made of rubber hose clamped to the metallic sections by clamps 33 or other suitable means.
Careful tests and experiments have shown that by the employment of sectional metallic casing in intimate contact with the earth but insulated from the radio conductor or antenna, the sections of the casing being insulated from each other and connected by couplings of insulating material, very much longer antennae may be employed than is possible with the continuous metallic casing. Also, when comparing the use of antennae of the same length, the vstatic is much less with the sectional casing.
It will be understood that while I have shown and described arrangements embodying my invention in which one antenna and also two antennae are employed, any desired number may be used, and itis desirable to have them extend in the proper direction to obtain the maximum eli'ect both in sending and receiving of the electromagnetic Waves. For this purpose a number of antennae may be employed radiating in different directions from the instruments, and suitable switching mechanism may he provided for connecting any one or more of the antennae to the signal instruments. Such an arrangement 1s shown and described in the pendin application of myself jointly with HenrygH Lyon, S. No. 130,603, to which reference is here made for further details, so that it is 1mnecessary to describe such an arrangement in Jthis application.
It has been stated that the invention is ilo' applicable to the surface of the earth where A there is water, one such application being illustrated in Fig. 6. Tt will be understood the invention and all such I aim to. include in the scope of the appended claims. Y
What I -claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the Unitedl States is:
1. A radio signaling system comprising an antenna4 extending horizontally substantially parallel to the surface of the earth and insulated therefrom, a metallic covering comprising' sections insulated from each other and inclosing said antenna throughout its length but insulated therefrom, and signal instruments associated with said antenna.
2. A radio signaling system comprising an antenna extendin horizontally substantially parallel to the surface of the earth, a metallic covering comprising short sections connectedby couplings of insulating materialand inclosingk said antennabut insulated therefrom, andsignal instruments associated with said antenna. l
3. A radio signaling system comprising an antenna extending horizontally substantially parallel to the surface of the earth, a metallic covering'comprising sections insulated from each other and inclosing said antenna but insulated therefrom and in contact. with thesa'rth substantially throughoutA its length, and signal instruments associated with said antenna.
4. A radio signaling system comprising an .antenna extending horizontally substantially parallel to the surface of the earth, a metallic covering forl said antenna comprising sections insulated from each other and inclosing said antenna but insulated therefrom, said metallic covering being buried in the earth with its sections in intimate contact therewith, and signal instruments associated with said antenna.
5. A radio signaling system comprising signal instruments, an antenna extending outwardly therefrom, a second antenna eX- tending in a different direction, said antennae being substantially parallel to the surface of the earth but insulated therefrom and said instruments being connected between said antennae, and a metallic covering for each of said antennae comprising sections insulated from each other and. inclosing the antenna throughout its length but insulated therefrom.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
JAMES HARRIS Roenes.` e
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|U.S. Classification||343/719, 343/841, 343/907, 455/280|