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Publication numberUS1304451 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 20, 1919
Filing dateJan 29, 1917
Publication numberUS 1304451 A, US 1304451A, US-A-1304451, US1304451 A, US1304451A
InventorsLocke H. Bttrnham
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Locke h
US 1304451 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


TRANSFORMER. APPLICATION FILED JAN-29; H117- Patented May 20, 1919.

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' Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented May 20, 1919.

7 Application filedianuai'y 29, 1917. Serial No. 145.131.

To all Mam it may concern:

- auto-transformers or compensators, some 'thereo reactances, etc. It particularly relates to suchdevices of the so-called core type and similar forms in which considerable portions of the external surfaces of the windings are exposed to the influence of a cooling fluid, and preferably are arranged to be cooled'bythe forced flow of the cooling lfluid. Some of the objects of my invention 20.

are to improve the cooling or ventilating of such afparatus, and increase the capacity The increase in capacity is secured by better cooling or ventilation. v

I accomplish the objects ofmy invention by requiring the cooling fluid to flow in thorough contact with the transformers, or at least the windings thereof, preferably in directions generally parallel to the extent of the core legs, and preferably by means of casings or barriers fairly closely and unithe parts to be cooled for directing the owof the cooling fluid thereover; preferably the "casings or barri'ersare used' in combination with means for forcing the flowof the coollng fluid.

The casings or barriers of. my nvention 1 may be employed fwithmanytypes of wind;

.ings, but it isnotable .that'usm such casings or barriers with wmdm s o separatedv 4 0.

disk coils, with which type 0 winding such direction. of fluid flow as'is-obtained by my invention would seem to'ha've' little promise, I have secured quite surprisingly sat1sfa c-' to? results usi'n air as the coolmg fiu1d an 'I forcing the ow1thereof.

In the accompanying lowin description I ave illustrated and descri ed in some detail certain preferred embodiments ofmy invention in transform- "ers of the core type, from which m invention may be more completely un erstood.

Figure 1 is an elevation artly in section of an air blast concentric diskcylindrical coil inventiona. Fig. ,2 is an elevation partially in section of drawings and fola concentric cylindrical '-coi|l transformer also embodying my invention. Fig. 3 is a plan view of the transformer of Fig. 2. Fig.4 is an elevation also partially in section of an interleaved disk, coil transformer embodying my invention; this figure also illustrates a casing about a transformer and provided-with ventilations for governing the amount of coolingfluid flowing through the transformer. In all the figures the transformers are shown in very simple form, all

Within the'cylindrical coil 8 and spaced therefrom and from the core leg 6 is a cylinder or barrier 11 of insulating material for .both assisting in the insulation of thecoilB from the core leg'6 and for directing and proportioning the air fiowin over the core leg6 and over the inner sur ace of the coil 8. Likewise between the coil 8 and the disk coils 9, and separated fromall these coils,

is a similar cylinder or barrier 12 likewise assisting in the insulation of the coil- 8 and prpportioning the air to the inner edges of the disk coils 9 and to the outer surface of the coil 8. An inclosing casing or barrier 13 dis osed close to theouter edges of the disk coi 9 substantially surroundsv and is substantially uniformly spaced from the entire circumferences of the windings on both the core legs 6 and 7. The shape of this casing 13 in plan more clearly appears in- Fig. 3. It will be understood that the windings and internal cylinders or barriers on the core 1e 7 are similar to those on the core leg 6. T e coils. and insulating casings and bar-.'

.riers (that 'isll, 12 and 13) are spaced from each other by any suitable. spacers providing for the-exposure of so much of the coil surfaces, faces and edges, to the flow of thecooling air as possible, the ventilating.

' spacer or :passages adjacent the barrier be; ing preferably parallel to the winding-axis.

Surrounding the lower yoke of the core 5 is a receiving compartment or casing 15 resting directly on the fioor 16 carrying the transformer. The top of this receiving casing .15 is provided with an opening of the same shape as the plan of the casing 13 and the casing 13 sets into this opening, the sides of the casing being joined to the. edges of this opening as appears from Fig. 1.

The lower end of the receiving casing 15 is open to the flooropenings 17 through which air is forced into the transformer through the passage 18 from the compressor or blower 19.

7 As may be observed from Fig. 1 and the above description, air from the blower 19 is forced to flow through the passage 18 and the openings 17 into the receiving casing 15, and from thence vertically upward within the casing or barrier 13 until it escapes to the atmosphere above the upper end of the casing 13. In its passage upward air from the receiving casing ,is directed into thorough contact with the outer edges of all the disk coils 9 by means of a casing-or barrier 13, this casing or barrier being preferably sufliciently closely placed to the edges of these coils to secure this result. Furthermore this air is brought 'into substantially thorough contact about substantially the entire circumferences of the windings by reasonof the peculiar shape 'of the casing-13 .(as appears from Fig. 3) whereby the casing 13 is substantially uniformly spaced from the exteriors of the windings which in this-case are the parts of the transformer particularly to be cooled; Other portions of the air comin into the receiving casing 15 pass upward etween the inner edges of the coils -9 and the outer surfaces of the cylinders 12, between the-inner surfaces of e cylinders 12 and the inner surfaces of the coils-8, between the inner surfaces of the coils 8 and the outer surfaces of the vcylinders 1'1 andbetween the inner surfaces. of the cylinders lland the outer surfaces of the core legs. Undoubtedly there is more or less circulation of the cooling fluid between, the coils 9 for some distances from their edges. The cylinders 11 and 12 are placed as close to the-adjacent coils as is necessary to secure the most efficient cool ing of the windings so far as the other con- .ditions of the transformer allowor justify;

the spacing of the casing 13 from the winding surfaces can depend more upon the efiiciency of cooling to be secured thereby-.- If the casings which direct the flow of the cool ing fluid are disposed too closely to the parts to be cooled thereby, the amount of cooling or the economy of a given'heat loss:

is less than 'it need-be, and likewise if the casings. are too far movedthe same efiects "are experienced. If the casings or barriers cooling are properly disposed, however, elficient is developed. I have found that disposlng the casings about a toof 'an the windings inch radially from the circumference of the windings gives very satisfactory results when the cooling fluid is air and is forced through the apparatus. It will be understood of course that this spacing will vary with the different constructions. The casings or barriers are preferably substantially uniformly spaced from the parts to be cooled, in the case illustrated from thewinding circumference, in order that those parts may be uniformly cooled.

In F ig. 2 the transformer is likewise the core type, but the windings are of the concentric cylindrical type. In this transformer there are likewise three barriers bearing the same reference characters as the.

three barriers of Fig. 1. Likewise there is a receiving casing 15 open at the bottom as before. The spacers 21 for spacing the coils and barriers are illustrated in this figure, and also in Fig. 3 which is a plan view of the same transformer.

' The transformer of Fig. 4 is of the interleaved disk coil type. Like the transformers of the preceding figures this transformer is provided with an inclosing casing or barrier 41 (which in plan is like the casing 13 of Fig. 3), and in addition is provided with a casing 42,, totally inclosing the transformer and the casing or barrier 41' and providing the exterior surface of the device. The

casing 42 is provided in its cover with a number of openings which may be more or less closed by adjustable leaves 43. There is coils from each other as necessary, and pre erably are separated from the coil faces to allow access of the cooling fluid to those faces. Suitable spacers may be used to maintain the proper spacing between the barriers, insulating plates and coils, such spacers being separated from each other to rovide ventilatmg passages and spaces as 'efore indicated. While the inclosing casing 41 generally conforms in plan to the casing 13 of the preceding figures, the casing 42 may be of substantially any desired shape'in plan. This latter is allowable since the casing 41. closely and uniforml rounds the windings and-directs the ow of the cooling fluid in through contact with derstood o for the transformer of Fig. 4 enters the and corelegs. It will be uncourse, that the cooling fluid transformer adjacent one yoke and leaves adjacent the other, the entire flow being within the casing 41 and preferably upward. The cooling fluid leaves the casing 42 below the leaves 43.

I am aware that it has been heretofore,

proposed to use barriers or casings about whole transformers, and even about indi vidual parts of transformers, which to some I intended only 5 for water coils, etc.

extent direct the flow of the cooling fluid something likeparallel to the winding axis. However,so far as I am aware, these barriers and casings have beendisposed quite differently than the barriers or casings of:

my invention; so in; as I am aware there hasbeen no realization of the advantages of disposing the barriers or casings in the man-v ner I propose, that is so that substantially the. whole of the cooling fluid is forced to flow in thorough contact with the parts of the transformers to be cooled. The prior known barriers or casings seem to have been from those of my invention, as preventing eddy currentsin the cooling fluid, separat ing the cooling'fluid into 'tWo bodies so that the fluid itself is more efliciently cooled, separating the cooling fluid into two or more portions as one 'for cooling the coils and another portion for cooling the core, for

eflectually directing the cooling fluid into contact with the cooling means therefor as disposed without the. consideration of their effect which is particularly the subject of my invention, that is, directing the flow of the fluid into direct contact with all the transformer parts to be cooled by the fluid flow. My invention therefore distinguished from ;such prior constructions.

While I: have described the principle of my invention and the best mode I have contemplated for'applying this principle, other modifications'will occur to those skilled in this art and I aim in the a ended claims to cover all modifications w ichdo-not involve a departure from the spirit and scope of my invention. v What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is:

1. The combination with a core, of a plurality of coiled windings 'coaxially mounted to surround a legof .said core, meansfor supplying a stream ofa cooling and insulating medium to said windings, and means relatively close to the edges of said wind ings for causing said stream to be divided intocurrents moving substantially parallel.

' to the windingaxis and passing over both the inner and outer edges of said windings. 2. The combination with a casing having a core therein, of a plurality of coiled windings coaxially mounted to surround aleg of said core, means for suppl'yina stream of a cooling and insulating m ium to said urposes quite difl'erent To carry out these pur-- poses, the barriers and casings have been windings, and means relatively close to the edges of. said windings for causing said stream. to be divided into currents moving mined distance from the edges of said windings and adapted to divide said stream into currents 'movi'ng substantially parallel to I the Winding axis and passing over both the inner and outeredges of the windings; said casing having an outlet for the united currents. v

4. The combination with .a casing having.

a core therein, of a plurality of coiled windings coaxially mounted to surround a leg'of a cooling and insulating medium to said windings, and inner and outer cylindrical barriers spaced a predetermined distance from the-respective inner and outer-edges of said windings arranged to divide said stream into currentsmoving substantially parallel to the winding axis and passing over the ed es of said windings; said casing being provided with a common outlet for the united currents. 5. The combination with a casing having said core, means -for supplying a stream of a core therein, of a plurality of COilBdJNiIld- I ings coaxially mounted to surrounda leg of said core, a receiving compartment adjacent one end of said casing, means for supplying a cooling and insulating medium to said compartment, means close to but spaced a predetermined distance from both. the inner andouter edges of said windings for dividing the medium in said compartment into currentsmoving-parallel to the windlng axis and over the edges of said windings; said currents emerging from the casing as a reunited stream.

6. The combination with a casing having 7 a core therein, of a plurality of coiled windings coaxially mounted to, surround a leg of one end of said casing, cylindrical barriers placed adjacent to'but a predetermined distance from the edges of said windings and arranged to divide the medium supplied to said compartment into a plurality of currents moving substantially parallel to'the.

'said core, a receiving compartment adjacent winding axis andover both the inner and outer edges of said windings; said casing having a common outlet for the emerging currents.

.7.-The combination with a casing having a core therein,'of a plurality of coiled windings coaxially mounted to surround a leg of said core, a receiving compartment adjacent one end of said casing, open ended barriers projecting into said compartment and spaced a predetermined distance from the edges of said windings, said barriers arranged to have one end divide the medium supplied to said compartment into a plurality of currents moving substantially parallelto the-winding axis and over both the inner and outer edges of said windings; said casing having a common discharge for the currents emerging from the other end of said barriers; I I

8. The combination with a casing having a core therein, of a plurality of disk coils arranged coaxially on a leg of said core,

insulating collars interleaved with said coils,

a receiving compartment formed in said casing, means for forcing a cooling and insulating fluid into said compartment, insulating cylinders placed adjacent to and at a predetermined distance from both the inner and outer edges of said coils said cylinders having one end projecting into said compartment, the casing being provided with an outlet for said fluid adjacent to the other end of said cylinders. v

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-third day of J an., 1917.


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U.S. Classification336/57, 336/185, 174/DIG.250, 336/60, 336/59
Cooperative ClassificationH01F27/12, Y10S174/25