Improvement in ffire-arms and in theaapparatust used therewith
US 1304 A
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miran @trames SAMUEL com, on eAfrEEsos, NEW JEnsnY.
IMPROVEMENT IN Vl-'lFllE-RMS AND lN THEAAPPARATUS USEDTHEREWITH.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. Hd, dated August 29, 1839.
, 25th day of February, in the year 1836, and
that I have'made certain improvements in the construction of the said tire-arms, and also in the apparatus for loading and priming the same; and I do herebydelarethat the following is a full and exact description of my said improvements.
My first improvements appertain to rides, guns, and pistols; mysecond to the construction of a capprimer for containing the percus- .sion-caps and placing the same upon the nipples, and my third to a flask and othergapparatus for loading the riile or gun.
For the general construction ot` -my tire-arms, as originally patented I referto the Letters l Patent rst above named, the same being necessary to a perfect understanding ot the im-v provements thereon, which I am now about to describe.
Figure l in the accompanying drawings rep resents a section through the lock and breech of my ride or gunand two ot'the chambers of the revolving receiver, B being a part ot' the barrel of the gun. The mguths ofthe chambers and the 'end et' the barrel have their edges chamfered or beveled, as shown at a a inthe drawings. In all guns of this description there is necessarily a lateral discharge between the receiver and the barrel, and this lateral dis-V charge may endanger the ignition of the pow- Fig. 2 shows a part of the arbor upon. which the receiver turns. b is the portion thereof which is immediately below the chamber in contact with the barrel, andin this part a channel or groove is made descending from the pointb in both directions, so as toform twoinclined planes meeting at the point b. These planes or sections o'f the grooves may form an angle at forty-tive degreeswith each other. This groove or channel serves as a chimney to conduct olt the smoke of the'lateral discharge, so that it shall pass directly between the receiver and the barrel and prevent its spreading, so as to pass in between the receiveraud the arbor and the barrel and the arbor,. and consequently from condensing there and rendering them i foul. The barrel is connected with the receiver and with the stock of the gun 'by the aid ot' the arbor which at the rear end, is a solid piece with the shield or solid piece ot' metal which receives the recoil and constitutes a component part ofthe metallic frame-work or foundation of the lock and its appendages. The part C of the arbor is that upon which the receiver revolves, and the part C enters' a eylindrical cavity in a mass ot'iron, D D, to which the barrel is brazed or other-wise attached.
Fig. 3 shows the piece of iron -D D and a part ot' the barrel Bv which is attached to it. The dotted lines in this representthecylindrical cavity which receives the outer end of the arbor C. The two are keyed together by the passing ofa suitable key through a mortise in the piece D D- and a corresponding one in the arbor.
c, Figs. 1, 3, 4, and 5, represents the key.
Fig. 4 shows its upper and Fig. 5 its' under side. d d are two iut'ed channels along its upper side toreceive the heads ol' twoscrews which are screwed into4 the piece DD close to the mortise and on -the side opposite to that shown in Fig. 3., The heads ot' these screws lap a little over the mortise and'are' received into the tluted channels d d. Illhese heads 'prevent the' key from jfalling out and check it in either direction, and mugstbe' withdrawn in order to remove the key, A s thckey-,c is to act laterally as a wedge t'o drawfthe receiver and the barrelinto .proper.`cohtact, it is of 'importance that it should be checked when forced sutlcieutly far' in, o'r the receiver Amight be wedged up and prevented from turning. For
.this purpose I insert a screw, e, Figj," into the steel button f, which "is attached to D' D,- to strengthen the end of the mortise and prevent the bruising of 'it bythe recoil. The .head ot' this screw, overlapping the'end of the mortise,
receives the wedge and checks it. By turning this screw the force of the wedge may be tem-. pered. In Fig. 5, gis a spring-latch on the under side of the key, which catches upon D when the key is forced in and prevents its ac cdental removal.
Fig. 6 represents a percussion tube or nipple,'through which the fire from the percussioncap is to be conducted to the chamber. Fig. 7 representsthe samein section. Theouterend, h, of the tube has the opening made as large as convenience fwill allow, and it goes tapering or conical until at the inner end, i, it is as small as a proper entrance of the (lame from the per cussion-powder will warrant. By giving the conical or funnel-formed opening-to the tube the effect ofthe percussion-powder is greatly increased. v
E, Figs. 1 and 8, is a bolt for locking the receiver when a loaded chamber is brought4 to coincide with the barrel, the rounded end j being forced into a hole in the receiver by the action of a spring on its outer end k. This bolt is drawn backby the hammer F in the 'act of cocking.
Z, Figs. 1 and 9, is a spring-cam, which is screwed to the hammer at m. It is made of spring-steel, so that its cam end n may recede from or approach the hammer F. The cam n `bears against the projection o on the bolt E on the side which lies againstthe hammer, and as the hammer is drawn back causes the bolt to recede'. The bolt is notched to enable it to be withdrawn without interfering with the joint-pin q of the hammer. The lateral springing of the cam-piece lis necessary to admit of its passing by the projection o of 'the bolt when the hammer is made to strike upon a percussion-cap. To enableA the spring-cam to pass the bolt E, the lower end of it, n, is made wedge-shaped, diminishingto a point or edge at its extremity, and as it is made to spring laterally it is received into a recess in the hammer as the latter passes the bolt in making the discharge.v I
Fig. 10 shows the ratchet-wheel and hand or pawl bywhich the receiver is made to revolve to the distance from one chamber to another in the act of cocking. The cylindrical periphery q of the ratchet-wheel ts, into a corresponding cavity on the back end ot' the receiver, as shown at q q, Fig. 1. r is a protection to prevent its tur'nin ground, this being adapted to a notch made to receive it. S is a. hand or pawl, which falls into the teeth of the ratchet-wheel, said pawl being forced forward by thet spring S. The arbor t on which the hand turns is received'into the opening t. In the hammer, Fig. 1, the hand itself being= on the opposite side of said hammer fromthat shown, its position is shown bythe dotted lilies surrounding'its arbor t. The cocking of the gun causes it to actupoii th'e'ratchet-wheel, and when turned to the proper distance the bolt E is forced by its spring'iuto the proper opening in the receiver. The mainspring is 'connected to the lock-plate at u, and to the hammer' by a stirrupfat-V. The trigger is shown at w'. These parts, not diiering in their construction and operation from analogous parts in other gun-locks, need no particular description, aud from the description #above given of the structure and operation of those parts of the ride or gun which are new, the action of the whole will, it is believed, be
clearly understood. 4
Fig. 11 is a sectional view of a pistol, thc general construction of which is the same with that of the rifle or gun already described, such modifications only being made as are rendered necessary by its size and other considerations. F is. the hammer carrying the hand or pawl S, which operates on the ratchetwheel, which wheel and hand are arrangedin the saine way with the same parts inthe ritie; but the hand is as here represented on the reverse side. The bolt which holds the receiver is, however, di'erently constructed to enable it to act in the space which it must occupy.
Fig. 12 is a view ofthe hammer on the side the reverse of that shown in Fig. 11; and E,
Fig. 13, is the bolt adapted thereto. j isthe piu on the bolt,.which holds the receiver by falling into openings on its periphery instead of in its end. The pin j is shown 'in place in Fig. 11. The bolt E vibrates on enjoint-pin at x, which is nearly in the same line with the joint-pin y 4on the trigger', Figs. 1l and 15, by which it is hidden in those figures. y z is a cam formed in a recess`in the hammer, Fig.
12, which cam is to act upon the bolt E and to disengage it from the receiver. Theeuds a' a? of this bolt are capable of receding from' or approaching toward each other,as they con stitute two spring-cheeks `formed by splitting or foi-king the bolts, as shown in the drawings. The end 0L2 liesabove the cam z on the hammer when the pistol isnot cocked, and the lower end of a2, as well as the upper end of z,being dat, the bolt E is .lifted in the act of cocking until the pin j is disengaged, and the ends of a and z' then pass each other.' The ca m z is .made wedge shape by sloping from its upper to its lower end, and thecend a2 of thebolt is similarly formed, butin .the reverse direction, so that when the piece is discharged the end a2 will bemade to spring in, allowing.,r the hammer to pass readily, when the end d2 again rests upon -z as before.
Fig. 14 shows the hammer with thehand S and ratchet q, which need no further description rcer. 3
intothe chambers. The forward end ot' the lever H passes into the mortise e2, which receives the key by which the barrel is attached. The operation ot' the rammer H upon the ball d' will be apparent. In. using thiswlever the receiver is to be turned upon the arbor, and the chambers brought in succession under the ralnmer. `This lever, at its end e', constitutes a wrench forscrewing and unscrewing the percussion-tubes, and also contains a picker attached to a screw-cap, f. A fulcrum for the lever H may be formed on the barrel or otherwise, instead of usin g the motise o2, itpreferred.y
Figs. 17 and 18 are a top and sectional view ot' my iin-proved cap-primer, which diiers in some important particulars from the English and other cap-primers now in use. I make a spiral groove, a. a a, in a plate of brass or other metal, which groove is of such depth and width -asto receive the pereussion-caps, and to allow them to move freely therein. b b bare capsl within said groove. In the center of the primer, under'theplate c c, is a spiral spring, d dop -erating like the mainspring ot' alwatch upon its barrels and turning the plate c c. This plate has a groove acrossl it which carries a. sliding arm, e e', having under'its end e' a prol jecting piecewhich enters the groove, draws the aim out, and presses upon the row of' caps. At the mouth 0f the spiral groove, where the the cap b is seen, a steel spring, f, checks tbe cap and counteracts the pressure of the spiral spring d d; but when thecap b is placed upon the tube or nipple the spring j' will recede by the withdrawaLot the cap, and a new one will be made to occupy its place, and so on until the whole are exhausted. The cover g, which in Fig. 17 is shown as raised, is held down by a spring-catch at h. There is a. spring-catch at t', which holds the sliding arm e at its end e, when itis brought round to the inner end of the spiral groove,-its vuse being to detain the arm while the groove'is being titled with caps, when it is to be raised, and the arm left at liberty to operate. The spring d d may be wound up by a small key, k, or by inserting a .screw-driver in a notch made for that purpose,
or simply by forcing the arm e c round until it is caught by the catch t'.
Fig. 19^is a representation of my ammunition-tiask, by means of which all the chambers in my 'receiver may be simultaneously charged with powder and with balls. It corsists of two separate chambers, one ot' which is a powder and the other a bullet magazine, a being the former and b the-latter, the two-being connected together by a bayonet-joint at c. d d d are charging-tubes adapted in number and position to the mouths ofthe chambers of the receiver which they are to enter.
Fig. 21 showsthe closed top of the powdermagazine, with a valve or turn cover, e, which closes a hole through which the magazine is to 'be lled. This magazine occupies the space i'rom f to g, Fig. 19, where the powder is contained in bulk. The space from g to h 'is a receptacle which is divided by partitions into separate chambers, the same in number `with the tubes d d, each ofwhich chambers contains the quantity ot' powder required for the charge oi' a single chamber. i z' is the rim of this chambered receptacle, which is capable of being turned round to a short distanceby the thumb and linger for the purpose of charging the chambers with powder. This turning round brings openings u u, Fig.. 20, in the lower end of the chambered box to coincide with the openings in the tubes d d, so that the powder contained in the chambers in t' i may pass out therefrom into the chambers ot' the receiver. There are openings also in the upper plate or top ofthe receptacle it' corresponding with openings in the bottom of the magazine a, which are closed by turning the rim it', so as to prevent powder from falling `through from-the lnagazine while the receiver is being filled. Y
Fig. 27 is a section through the middle ofthe cbambered receptacle t' i, the circles r r repreresenting the chambers for containing the powder. s s are -the openings in the top plate of these chambers, through which the powder is admitted in to them from the magazine a. The' dotted lines t t show the pla-n ofthe openings inthe bottom plate of the chamber a, the chambered receiver being shown in* the position in which those openings are covered.
In Fig. 28 the same parts are represented; but the chambcred receiver is supposed to be turned round or standing iii its ordinary postion, so that the openings S S and t tcoincide. The cham bered receptacle is restoredl to its place bymeans of a springot'anysuitable form. The whole operation of this part willbe more `clearly made kn'own by the sectional representation ot' the 'magazine for balls, which I am now about to describe.
The end ofthe flask, Fig; 19, is, Ihave said, the magazine for balls. Fig. 22 is au end view of this magazine, and Fig. 23 a section along its axis. The portion from f to j, Figs. 159, 23, and 24, is divided into as many tubular chambers as there are chambers in the receiversa-y tive. These are open at top and are 'to be tlled with balls, as shown at klein the section Fig. 23. These tubes are also open at their lower ends, so that the balls may pass from them into a chambered receptacle, l l, similar to that for the'powder. From this chambered receptacle they are to4 fall into the chambers ot' the receiver when the lower end ofthe flask, Fig. 22, is applied thereto for that purpose, the .openings m min' the lower end of the flask being adapted thereto. The rim of.. the chambered' receiver l l is to be turned round to allow the balls'` to escape through m m,as a1- ready described in the charging with powder.V
In Fig. 22, n n are the divisions between the cham bers of the chamberedI receiver, and which,
retain one set or tier of ballsk until the rim is turned around so as to cause the chambers to coincide with the openings m m. The balls: will then pass through. The same motion of' the chambered receiver causes thedivisions betri-een the tubes and the chambered receiver to passunder and sustain the balls in the magazine. In the case of the powder-magazine the action is the same; but the powder being in tine particles, the apertures at one end ot'the receptacles must be perfectly closed before` those at the other begin to be opened, which is not necessary with the balls. In Fig. 24 a. por'- tion of the exterior ot' themagazine is removed to showhowa spring, o o, maybe placed wit-hin it so as to act upon ll; but spiral or other sprin gs may be placed in many ways to answer the same purpose. The central part of both'the magazines is tubular, as shown at pp, said tube fitting onto the arbor C', Fig. 1G, when the barrel' is removed therefrom, and the receiver left on'for the purpose of being charged, which operation does not require to be further explained. Upon the barrel of this tubular part the chambered receptacles are received and revolve.
Figs. 25 and 26 vrepresent a top view and a side view of a part of an improved bullet-mold, which l describe without intending to make any claim thereto, but merely for the' purpose of showing the whole ofthe apparatus employed in a complete and connected series. a a are the two handles of the mold, and b the handle of the knife by 'which the sprue is cut ot'. c is onc-half of the mold, of which l d is the hinge-joint. e isa plate of steel, through which there is a hole, j', for pouring in the lead, the lower edges of which constitute a knife by which the sprue is cut'o and the ball left peri fect. This knifev turns on thejoint-pin g.
Having thus fully described the manner in which I construct .and use my improved firearms, and the respective articles of apparatus appertainin'g thereto, it; has been necessary in so doing to mention manyparts which I do not claim 'as new, the same `being similar to what has been before used and patented by me, or which are common property. I do hereby declare, therefore, that I limit; my claim to the following particulars.
I claim- 1. The making of a groove or channel on the arbor, as represented at; b, Fig. 2, for the purpose of conducting oli' the smoke from thel 'lateral discharge, and thus preserving the arbor clean within the receiver, and the tube by which the barrel is connected.
2. The particular manner ot forming and governing the key by which the barrel is attached to the stock by making the same with grooves in which the heads of overlapping screw-headsare received,and with a temperingscrew to check and regulate its action as a wedge,.as set forth.
3. The makin gthe aperture through the tubes or nipples (which receive the percussion-caps) Y conical or funnelshaped, for the purpose of freely admitting the tire from the percussioncap and concentrating it asitenters the chatnber.
4. The mannerof arranging the boltE of the rifle and its spring cam Infor locking and unlocking the receiver, the same being constructed and operating as herein described.
5. 'Ihe manner of constructing and arranging the bolt. E and its spring-cam, operated upon by the cam or projecting piece z under that moditication thereof adopted in the pis-4 tol, and herein fully made known.
- .6. The improved manner of arranging the ratchet-wheel and hand, as set forth, by which the hinge-joint to allow ot' the lateral motion of this hand, as described by mein my former patent, is dispensed wit in consequence of the placing of the ratchet-tceth on the t'aceinstead lof on the side of the wheel, and operat-I ing the same in the manner described, as applied to the ritie and to the pistol.
7. The combination of thelever with its rammer for forcing the balls into the chambers ot' the receiver, as described.
8. In the'improved cap-primer, the making thereofwith a spiral groove to receive the caps, and with the sliding arm acted upon by the spiral spring elongating itself'and forcing the percussion-caps forward in the manner set forth.
9. The manner of constructing and arranging the respective parts of the magazines for powder and balls, in the tiask, by means of which the powder and the balls are 1n turn supplied to all the chambers in the receiver at the Sametime, the whole being made with the chamhercd receptacles and other parts, as
`set, forth. r.
THos. B. JoNEs, GEORGE WEST.
Disclaimer forming part of Letters Patent No. 1,304, dated August 29, 1839.
To the Honorable Commissioner of Patents:
The petition of SAMUEL COLT, of Hartford, in the State of Connecticut, respectfully represents that he is the sole patenteeand owner of Letters Patent granted to him on the 29th day of August, 1839, for au improvement in rearms and in the apparatus used therewith that he has reason to believe that through inadvertence and mistake the claim made in the specilication of said Letters Paten t is too broad,
I claim making the aperture through the tubes or nipples (which receive the percussioncaps) conical or funnel shaped, for the purpose of freely admitting the tire from the percussioncap' and concentrating it as it enters the chamher, which disclaimer is to operate to the exteutof the iuterestin said Letters Pateutvested in your petitioner, the same being the whole right, title, and interest thereby granted to him, as aforesaid, he having paid ten dollars into the Treasury of the United States agreeably to the provisions of the act of Congress in that case made and provided.
Dated at Hartford this 5th day of August, A. D. 1853.
In presence oi- L. I. SARGEANT.