|Publication number||US1306861 A|
|Publication date||Jun 17, 1919|
|Filing date||Dec 17, 1917|
|Publication number||US 1306861 A, US 1306861A, US-A-1306861, US1306861 A, US1306861A|
|Inventors||John Oobdon Sparkes|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J. G. SPARKES.
DRAWING APPARATUS. APPLICATION FILED DEC. 11. 1917.
Patented June 17, 1919.
3 SHEETSSH EET 1.
' J. G. SPARKES.
DRAWING APPARATUS. APPLICATION men 020.11. 1911 Patented June 17, 1919.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
. G. SPARKES DRAWING APPARATUS APPUCATION FILED DEC. 1?. :92].
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3:
' inDrawing V In is a specification.
. are laborious and tedious.
UNITED sr TEs PATENT OFFICE.
JOHN GORDON srA aKEs, or BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA.
To all whom it may concern: I
Be it known that I, JOHN GORDON SPARKES, a citizen of the United Statesof America, residing at Birmingham, in the county of Jefferson and State of Alabama, have invented certain new and useful Improvements v y lnventionrelates to a drafting apparatus especially designed for use in making- Patent Oilice drawings, technical illustrations, or for use in any branch of drawing whereincopy or reproduction work to the same size, or other sizes, than the original, or where drawing from the object itself is desired. I
My invention is likewise adapted to any shadow projection sketching, such as the outline from an opaque object or the tracing of a'drawing, or parts of a drawing, onto' another drawing by shadow projection.
In particular, in the making of a Patent Ofiice drawing, it often occurs that an invention is to operate in combination with somestandard piece of apparatus or machine, as an attachment, and it is then necessary to select a. drawing or photograph of the machine, generally from a catalogue, and copy it by a laborious process of measure: ment; andifthe illustration is not of a con? venient size to be adapted to the patent sheet the process necessitates the use of a scale or proportional dividers, both-of which Furthermore these methods are often injurious to the copy either soiling, or piercing with divider points; whereas when using this apparatus the copy is not handled.
Likewise in technical illustrations, parts of an old drawing must be worked into the new, a. reduction of a large working drawing must be made, or a correct drawing must-be transposed to other material. Often the erfect model of a machine or Object is at liand and to make a drawing of comparatively accurate proportion requires careful .measurements of more or less complication;
and to make an assembled perspective view becomes a matter of free hand sketching object require reduction or enlargement the problem becomes more complicated.
pparatus, of which the follow- DRAWING APPARATUS.
v specification of Letters Patent. Patented June 17, 1919.- 7 Application filed December 17, 1917. Serial No. 207,597.
ties, especially if the tracing is to be made from an old blue print or a new drawing built up from several old ones. This apparatus as will be understood later provides a means to pass light rays, parallel to each other by the original Object and to the trac: ing material, thereby giving a sharp definite projection and further provides opportunity for the tracing of the outline of an object by inserting it in the path paraxial rays.
It is the object or" this invention to provide a means to conveniently and economically'accomplish this work primarily 'but it may likewise be adapted to many other drawing Operations as enlarging and reducing ornamental letters, designs, trade-marks, maps, etc.
In its preferred design, the instrument is built into a novel cabinet form, so as to provide a convenient drawing desk, embodying the image forming and projection apparatus as an integral part of the instrument. However the desi used forillustration is only one specific orm and it is understood that many other arrangements otdetailscan be made without departing from the scope of the invention.
In the drawings Figure 1 is a side elevation of the apparatus when open and ready for pro ection work.
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the apparatus when closed.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken on the line 33 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a plan view of the object plane looking from the line 44 of Fig. 1.
' Fig. 5 is a sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 1, and shows the lens, holder and guide in elevation and section, respectively.
Fig. 6 is aplan view showing the graduations forming the scale along the slot in the lens guide, and is taken from the line 66 in Fig. 1. 4
Fig. 7 is a plan view showing the graduated positions on the object lane guides, and is taken from the line 7'? of Fig. 1.
opaque of the F ig. 8 is a plan View showing the arrangements of the adjusting slots in the top boar'ds.
Similar reference numerals refer to similar parts throughout thedrawings.
The instrument has two vertical side walls 1, held in rigid and fixed relative position by a number of spacers 2, disposed horizontally, and are raised from the floor by two bottom pieces 3, which are substantially longer than the width of the sides to provide a steady bas support. The spacers 2 also act as guides for a convenient number of drawers 43.1161 5, which slide between the walls 1. The drawers 4 are substantially the .width of the cabinet but the drawers 5 are smaller and are spaced from each other by a partition 6, set vertically against and between the upper spacer 2 and the next lower spacer 2 These spacers 2 and 2 are narrower than the lower spacers 2, and this will. be obviously necessary for clearance of the projection apparatus, reference to which will follow. The lower spacer 2 is extended to lap and extend beyond a back spacer 7, which is set vertically at the rear ends of spacers 2 to form a drawer stop and more particularly to prevent a movement of the sides 1 in a plane perpendicular to the spacers 2. .Likewise for the same purpose the panel 8 is used under the spacer 2, and it also forms a closure for the lower front of the cabinet.
' It will be noticed, Fig. 1, that the spacers 2, 7 and 8 form, when screwed together, a Z-shaped support, the spacer 2 absolutely preventing a movement of the sides in a horizontal plane andthe spacers 7 and 8 pre- The upper part of the cabinet is left open to form a mounting for the projection apparatus and upon inturned flanges 11? of suitable brackets 11, is mounted a supporting board 12, and by means of two pivoting bolts 13, passing through hearings in the brackets 11, this board maybe tilted to any desired angle ranging from horizontal to vertical. a
As the board 12 extends over both of the sides 1, it is necessary for the corners of the sides 1 to be curved concentric to the hearing bolt 13. To retain positively the board in any -desired angle, the brackets are provided with quadrant arms 14 having slots- 15 concentrically located to the bearing bolts 13 and passing a flattened portion v16 on clamp screws 17, passing through the walls 1 of the cabinet. The clamp screw 17 has a head 18 and a hand nut 19, which, when coacting, draw the bracket quadrant arm 14 tight against the cabinet wall 1, thereby locking or clamping the top 12 in any desired position within the range of the arm. The flattened shoulder '16 on the clamp screw 17 prevents rotation of the .Screw, when the hand nut 19 is turned;
. The bearing bolts 13 are provided with suitable washers and nuts to permit a free rotation of the board 12, when the clamp screws 17 are released. Fastened to flanges 11", inturned from the brackets 11 along their rear vertical edges, is the central part of the cabinet back. This back has an '22 and 23, leaving clearance for the free passage in and out of the swinging back 20 and 21. .These back panels 22 and 23 are held in position by' screws passing through the Walls 1 and braced by being screwed to the extension of the spacer 2. sion of the spacer 2 is notched, or cutaway to pass or receive the guide rods later referred to as 26, when they are brought into closed position.
The back 20 and 21 has out along its longitudinal axis a slot 22, which guides a bolt 23, which maybe clamped at any position by a hand nut 24. Adapted to slide on the inner face. of this guide is a lens holder 25 formed preferably of a front upright portion 25 substantially perpendicular to the guide face, and a projecting arm 25, parallel to-the guide face. The arm '25 is provided with a suitable hole to pass the clamp bolt 23, and the back is cut to form a suitable shoulder 25 to coact'with the head of the bolt so as to prevent turning of the bolt with the hand nut. The arm 25 has cut inits guide following face two parallel holes or grooves, adapted to receive two rods 26. The ends of the rods are firmly retained in the grooves by a metal strap 27 which passes over both rods and extends'up ach side-ofthe block 25 and is held in tight and fixed position by screws 28. The portion 25' has a hole bored-through it of size suflicient to retain a lens 29. The lens is.
The extenheld between an annular bead 30 and a ring 31 which is pressed in after the lens is in place. I It isnow obvious that the block 25 carrying the lens, can bymeans of the bolt 23 and the hand nut 24 be moved the entire length of the guide slot 22 and be clamped at any position in the slot. The
rods 26 extend downwardly from the block from the object any desired position and jaws 47 and at the lower extremity of the guide back 21 pass through holes ina lateral cladrlnp 32, which forms a guide for the rods an ment of the rods both as to the 21 and to each other. serves to bind the two guide 21, formed by the the back 21. In orderthat an adjustable friction may be provided between the clamp 32 and the rods 26, the clamp is divided so as to have a clamping portion 32*, which may close by means of a clamp screw 33, against the rods 26 and force themagainst the .upper portion-32 n the lower ends of the rods 26, projecting beyond the strip 32 is mounted an object plane, adapted to be moved to and clamped at any desired position. This plane' consists of a platform 34, having grooves 35 along its upper edge to engage and when co-acting with aclamp bar 36 will grasp and clamp on the rods 26. The clamp bar is held in position by a screw 37, made fast in the platform at one end, and after passing through the clamp bar 36 is provided with a hand nut 38 and washer 39.
It will be noticed that by releasing the hand nut 38 sufficiently the bar 36 can be guide back This clamp 32 also ends of the back the object plane completely removed. As the object will generally be in the form of a drawing or photograph a transparent cover 40 is hinged to the plane by hinges This cover will retain the object 44 in assure a fiat smooth surface. -Lines 42 and 43, scribed on the surface of the transparent cover aid in securing a central alinemento'f the object 44 with the'optical system.
To illuminate the object an electric lamp. d
45 mounted with a reflecting cover 45 is supported on a bracket the embodiment shown dotted in position in the'longitudinal axis of the 'lamp and terminates in a clamp 47,v which has one of its integral with the bracket and the other 47 separate but retained by a screw 48. sections'of the rods ing the screw 48 sufficiently the jaw 47 can be turned about the screw and the lamp removed from the rod 26.
.In most cases it will be desirable to use two lamps, one on each side and each clamping its respective rod 26. It will be apparent that this construction is of peculiar advantage as thelampand bracket can be turned about the rod 26 as a center, out plane, sovas to leave this plane accessible for the insertion and removal of the object. The screw 48 provides assures an absolutely parallel move.-,
slot 22 dividing,
l which fold in alinement of j with the image of the object -it may be clamped toward the center and turned to parallelism with the rods. 26 and 58 passes through these 46 and clamped to the rod-26 or to the object plane 34. In
The jaws are shaped to conform to the or tubes 26. By loosenthe required pressure to furnish the necessary friction between the jaws and the rod to hold the lamp in any desired position. The lamp is provided with any standard electrical connections, preferably consistingof a flexible/cord 49 terminating in a plug 50. The lower part of the cabinet houses the object plane and the lamps, when the apparatus is closed. The top board 12 has an opening 51 cut through it to pass the light' fr the lens to an image screen support 53 set in\a superimposed board 52. This board 52" has an opening 52 and a recessed inner edge 52 to act as a retainer for the image screen support 53. Inorder to permit an easy the particular space on the image screen or paper when it may be desired to project the image for the purpose of drawing, the board 52 is free to move in any direction sliding over the board 12, and after alinement and squaring up with the .paper, by means of the hand nut 58. To make this adjustment the board 12 is provided with a through slot 54 parallel to and set in from-its front edge,
I while the board 52 has a T slot 55 parallel A bolt 56 having a head 57 and hand nut slots, the head 57 working freely in the T slot 55 and the hand nut 58 on the under face of the board .12. The head 57 co-acting with the hand nut 58 through the bolt 56, engages and draws the boards 12 and 52 firmly together and locks them in any desired relative position within the range of the slots. By means of these crossed slots and bolt it is apparent that the board 52 carrying the rawing paper can quickly be moved to any desired position. and thereby makes alinement of the drawing paper and image simple and without the shifting of the object or the shifting of the paper by removal from the board. Also the object may always havetheadvantage of being in the optical axis of the lens system, thereby forming a 'clearer image.
The image screen support 53 is a transparent plane built up of an under rigid plate 53, preferably glass, and having cemented to its upper face a sheet 53 of softer material, preferably transparent celluloid. Both of these form the image screen support and are set in the board flush so as to form a perfectly smooth surface at the imageplane.
Now it will be necessary to point out that -in order to form an image it is necessary to inforcement "clamped and the rant 14 and lock the pro ectlng apparatus a catalogue,
paper should not be used either the glass or celluloid could have a ground surface.
To protect this image plane when not in .il iary drawing board when I provide an use and for use as a no projection is to be made, auxiliary board 59=mounted on by hinges 60 This board 59 also has a function in its raised position as shown in Fig. 1; but this can better be described in the operation. 7 Onthe top board 12and surrounding the opening 51 1s a downwardly projecting re- 61 which strengthens the top board 12 and also provides a fastening flange for the large end of a folding bellows 62. The forward end or the small end of'the bellows is attached tothe sliding lens block 25 by'a smaller fastening flange 61. This bellows prevents any side light from entering between the lens and the image screen.
In operation, the app'a atus in closed position, as shown in Fig. 2, the hand nuts 19 are released and the boards 12 and 52 are swung upward through an angle of about, 25, moving about the center bearing bolts 13 and causing the back 20 and 21 to swing outwardly. The hand nuts are then bolts 17 engage the quad- The lamps 45 are then to clear the object plane. The object in this case, assume a cut from is inserted on the object plane 34 and held in position by the transparent cover 40 and adjusted to center by aid of lines 42 and 43. The reduction or enlargement of the object is determined upon, prefin this position.
' erably in tenths and by reference to a calculated table or chart the exact distance required from the center of the lens to the surface of the object and the corresponding distance from the center of the lens to the upper surface of the translucent image screen can be found and the lens and object plane-set and clamped in these positions. The most convenient manner however is shown in Figs. 6 and 7 and here the distances are marked ofi. and denoted in tenths magnification. Suppose, for sake of illustration, that the image is to be shown of magnification one and four-tenths actual size of object or as shown on the scale 65, Fig. 6, and 66, Fig. 7, fourteen-tenths.- The hand nut 24-. is released and the lens block 25 is moved until its indicator67 is at the graduation fourteen-tenths and clamped. This operation sets the lens at the proper distance. from the image screen. The clamp nut 38' is now released and the object is moved by sliding the object plane until the indicator 68 is at the position of the graduation 14 on the rod 26, and clamped. It
will be noted that the distances from the ends of the the top board 'screen alined with the central and move with it.
The distances having been set, the auxtransparent image screen support. The drawing paper is fastened over this and. the I point oflocation of the proposed drawing on the paper. The light is then turned on, preferably by a switch convenient to the operator and board 59 is turned up to expose the to the lighting circuit. The light emitted I fracted to form the lmage at the image :screen.
Now the auxiliary board 59 serves as a screen to exclude light to a practical extent from the image screen and by its shadow permits a more apparent contrast of line and field on the image screen. Topass paraxial rays sary to set the lamp at the .focal point of the'lens. The operator can now proceed to make the drawing, using'any required instruments. The image furnishes the outline and the operator has been relieved of any measuring or scaling and may upon the paper, often times 1n ink.
The image screen support plane is built up as previously described with a soft material over the rigid, so that in mechanical work the points of compasses may find a firm setting and without danger of turning or blunting the sharp point. v
It will likewise be noted that the image is erect and not perverted. To correct the draw direct 7 5 through the plug 50 and suitable connectlons to the drafting surface it is only necesordinary inversion it is necessary to insert the object inverted but perversion 1s corthrough the paper fore the drawing is made.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Let ters Patent, is a i 1. A drawing apparatus comprising an optical system, a drafting'surface disposed on one side thereof, an object plane on the other side; centering lines intersecting at the optical axis of the said system, and disposed between said optical system and said object plane and adapted to be projected with the object onto said drafting surface.
2. A drawing apparatus comp-risingan optical system, face disposed on-one plane on the other side; centering lines intersectin-g at the optical axis of the said syssaid optical sysand adapted to term, and disposed between tem and said object plane, be projected with the object ing surface.
3. A drawing apparatus comprisingan optical system, an adjustable translucent an adjustable drafting surside thereof, an object ale 1 onto said drafta recess to receive said screen on one side thereof, an object plane on the other side; centering lines intelsectsurface.
4. A drawin apparatus comprising a support plane %or an optical system, said systembeing adjustable along the longitudinal axis of the said plane; an adjustable translucent drafting screen set substantially perpendicular at one end thereof, an object plane adjustable along the optical axis, a transparent sheet having centering lines scribed thereon interposed between said op tical system and said object .plane and adapted to be projected with the object upon said translucent draftin screen.
5. A drawing esk having side walls spaced from each other and braced by a plurality of spacers set substantially horizontally and vertically, ers interposed between said spacers and walls, a translucent drafting surface pivot ally mounted on said walls, and a projection apparatus carried face, said drawers being arranged to 'form projection apparatus, and means to hold said drafting surface in adjusted position. v
6. In a drawing apparatus,'a cabinet, a
hinged support means thereon carrying a;
translucent screen and a projection apparatus adapted to project an image on said screen, and a rearwardly opening recess in said cabinet into which said pro ection. ap-
paratus swings andis housed when said screen is in normal position.
7. A drawlng apparatus comprising a guide plane, a translucent screen'set at right,
angles to said plane and at one end thereof,
\a mounting carrying an optical system adjustable along the longitudinal axis of said plane, guide rods fixed at one end to the said mounting and movable therewith, guide means on said guide plane to engage and guide said rods, an object plane adjustable on "said rods, and means to illuminate said object plane.
8. A drawing apparatus comprising a guide plane, an adjustable translucent screen set at right angles to said plane and at one end thereof, a mounting carrying an optical system adjustable along the longitudinal axis of said plane, guide rods fixed at one end to the sa1d mounting and movable therewith, guide means on said guide plane to engage and guide said rods, an object plane adjustable ,on said rods,.and means to illuminate said object plane.
9. A drawing apparatus comprising a guide plane, an adjustable translucent screen set at right angles to said plane and at one end thereof, a mounting carrying an at one end to the said I plane to engage able therewith,
a plurality of draw-.
by said drafting sur-- gulde means on said gulde optical system adjustable along the longitudinal axis of said plane, guide rods fixed mounting and movguide means on said guide and guide said rods, an object plane adjustable on said rods, means to illuminate said object plane, and graduations on said guide plane and said guide rods adapted to co-act with indicators on able therewith,
said mounting and said object plane to indicate predetermined magnification.
10. A drawing apparatus comprising a guide plane, screen set at right angles to said plane and at one end thereof, a mounting carrying an optical system adjustable along the longitudinal axis of said plane, guide rods fixed at one end to the sa1d mounting and movguide means on said'guide' plane to engage andguide said rods, an object plane ad ustable on said rods, illu rni nating means for said-object plane adjusts.-
ably mounted on said rods, and graduations on said guide plane and said guide rods adapted to co-act with indicators on said mounting and said ob'ect plane to indicate predetermined magni cation.
11. In combination with .a projection apparatus, a supporting plane set substantially at right angles to the optical axis of .said projectlon apparatus, a plane super' imposed on said supporting plane having a transparent plane set in an opening'therein, and an adjusting and clamping means to permit the adjustment of said transparent plane and the clamping of said planes in position. a
12. A drawing desk having side walls spaced from each other and braced by a plurality of spacers set substantially horizontally'and vertically, a plurality of drawers interposed between said spacers and walls, an adjustable translucent draftin surface pivotally mounted on said walls, an a projection apparatus comprising a guide plane set substantially at right angles to said translucent drafting surface, a lens system adjustable along said guide plane, a folding bellows interposed between said translucent drafting surface and said lens system, guide rods fixed at one end to the an adjustable translucent said lens system and movable therewith,
plane to engage and guide said rods, an object plane ad .justable along said rods, and means to illu- 13. A drawing desk having side walls spaced from each other and braced by a plurality of spacers set substantially horizontally and vertically, a plurality of drawers interposed between said spacers and walls, an adjustable translucent drafting surface I Y pivotally mounted on said walls, and a projection apparatus comprising a guide plane set substantiall at rightangles to said translucent dra adjustable along said guide plane, a folding bellows interposed between said translucent drafting surface and said lenssystem,guide rods fixed at one end to the said lens system 7 and movable therewith,
guide means on said guide plane to engage and guide said rods,
an object plane adJustabl along said-rods and means to illuminate said objectplane,
ft-ing surface, a lens system I graduations on said vguide plane and said."
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