US 1308738 A
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APPLICATION FILED MAR-29.1915.
Patented July 1, 1919.
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aura/55 S. LAKE.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 29. 1915.
l ,308,738, Patented July 1,-1919.
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SUBMARINE BOAT. APPLLCAHO'N FILED MAR-29.1915.
11,30 ,73 Patented July 1,1919.
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J I m 1 l I I l 7/ m r/vissss INVEN I? 'fl Simon, [aka S. LAKE.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 29.1915,
1,308,738. Patented July 1, 1919.
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. ciently near UNITED sTATEs PATENT OFFICE.
SIMON LAKE, OF MILFORD, CONNECTICUT, ASSIGNOB TO THE LAKE TORPEDO BOAT COMPANY OF MAINE, OF BRIDGEPORT, CONNECTICUT, A CORPORATION OF MAINE.
Application filed Marsh 29, 1915.
To all whom it may concern: Be it known that I, SIMON LAKE, a citizen of the United States, residing at Milford, in the county of New vHaven and State of Connecticut, have invented certain new .an useful Improvements in Submarine Boats, of which the following is a specification.
Owing to the imperfect development of the sighting instruments now employed for use in connection with submarine boats for obtaining observation when the boat is operating submerged, it has heretofore been proven impracticable to maneuver the boats at night or in ing in the presence of an enemy it is practice to operate the boats in a semi-submerged condition-that is to saywith the conningtower projected above. the surface 'so as to enable the commander or lookout to obtain a view of surrounding objects. Operating submarine boats at night in this condition, however,
is extremely hazardous owing to the fact that with the use of the powerful searchlights carried by all surface war 'vessels, the projected portions of the submarine boat may be readily detected at a considerable distance and before the submarine boat can approach a hostile surface vessel suiiito efiectively discharge its torpedoes. I
The object of my invention is to avoid this objection and to construct a submarine torpedo boat so as to enable the commander or lookout to obtain a clear view at night of the entire horizon and to enable the occupants of the sel with a minimum chance of detection by those stationed on the surface vessel, and without exposing any of the vital portion of the craft, the arrangement being such that the boat may be operated with the deck entirely submerged while approaching an enemy, and yet retaining the important advantage of maintaining a'lookout above the surface. Afurther object of the invention is to provide a submarine boat with a super-- osed buoyant superstructure whereby to add greater stability both when operating upon the surface and submerged.
The invention consists in constructing a submarine torpedo boat-with a superpose buoyant superstructure and with a transparent observation pit or station upon the deck of the superstructure, and in providing the boat with a superposed buoyant chamber Specification of Letters Patent.
fog since whenoperatboat to approach a hostile ves-' SUBMARINE BOAT.
Patented July 1, Serial No. 17,797.
with the observation pit or station and with the hull of the boat, said buoyant chamber being divided into several compartments to afford escape for the observer in the event of the coaming of the observation pit being damaged and the stacommunicating tion flooded, and also to provide officers quarters and compartments affording access to the deck, to the interior of the boat, and to the su )erstructure thereof, the .said superposed uoyant chamber being preferably arranged within the space of the superposed superstructure.
. The invention further consists in provid-- mg a submarine or submersible torpedo boat with a buoyant designed to add additional buoyancy when the boat is operating submerged, and to add stability when operating on the surface, and further to provide for the storage of supplie's and for the accommodations for the crew of the boat, thus adapting the boat for long distance crulsing without the aid of arent ships. The invention further comprises certain details of construction, combinations and arrangements as will hereinafter be fully described and then claimed.
In the drawings, Figure matic side elevation, partly broken away, 0 a submarine or submersible boat embodying my invention. Fig. 2, is a diagrammatic plan view of the after end of the boat. Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic transverse section drawn on a larger scale on the line a-a. 0 Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a vertical longitudinal section drawn through the amidship section of the boat. Fig. 5 is a transverse section drawn on a larger scale on' the line b-?) of Fig. 1. Fig. 6 is a horizontal section drawn on the line 0---@ of Fig. 5. Fig. 7 is a horizontal section drawn through the casing arranged within the superstructure on the line (l(l of Fig. 5. Fig. 8 is a vertical section drawn through the fighting mast illustrating a modified arrangement for elevating the mast. Fig. 9 is a detail section drawn on the line ee of Fig. 8. Fig. 10 is a similar View drawn on the line of Fig. 8. Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic plan view of 1 is a diagramd the transparent coaming arranged upon the the boat.
superposed superstructure 1 designates the inner or main hull section section 2, the upper edges of which are connected airand water-tight to the plating of the hull 1 by horizontal plates 3, the space thus formed between the main hull l and the semi-circular outer hull 2 being utilized for water ballast compartments and preferably divided by transverse partitions 4, Fig. 4, in the usual manner. Extending from the outer edges of the outer hull section 2, are the sides 5 of the main superstructure 6, having a substantially flat deck 7 and built upon the deck 7 ofthe superstructure 6, and extending practically throughout the length of the boat, is a superposed superstructure 8 preferably constructed of buoyant material and designed to be opened through scuppers 9 shown in Figs. 1,4 and 5, to the surrounding body of water when the boat is submerged. The
- valves 10 operated within the main hull superposed superstructure scuppers 9 are controlled by suitable closures, in the present construction shown as hand operated doors 10. Water may be admitted to the superstructure 6 through by hand wheels 11 from It will be understood that the outerhull 2 will be braced to the main hull 1 the usual manner, also that the superstructure 6 will be constructed of frames and plating, but as these details form no part of the present invention, I have ,not necessary to illustrate or to describe them. The superposed superstructure is preferably constructed ofplanking secured together in any well known or suitable manner and having the intermediate joints calked to make them water-tight, the sides and the deck of the superstructure'being braced and supported by metal frames 8 as shownin Fig. 5.
Arranged within the space formed by the 8 is a cylindrical buoyant chamber 12 having closed ends 13, Fig. 4, which are provided with openings 14 controlled by doors 15 whereby access may be had to-the forward and'after ends of, the superposed superstructure .8, and also having transverse partitions or bulkheads 16 which are provided with openings 17 controlled by doors 18 as shown. The partitions or bulkheads 16 divide the buoyant chamber 12 into compartments 18, 19, 20 and 21, the central compartment 19 being designed for officers quarters and communicating with the main hull 1 through a hatchway 22 controlledloy a cover 23 which opens into the chamber 19, and also communicating with the deck of the superposed superstructure through a hatchway 24 opening thought it through the said deck. controlled by an outwardly opening cover The compartments 18 and 21 communicate with the main hull 1 through-hatchways 26 controlled by covers 27. The compartinent 20 provides an escape compartment. for the purpose hereinafter described, and this compartment communicates with the deck of the boat through a hatchway which is surrounded by a downwardly extending sleeve or trunk '28, the upper end of which is provided with a cover 29 to which is connected a rod 30 extending through the sleeve or trunk and the compartment 20 and having its lower end provided with a piston 31 which operates in a pneumatic cylinder 32 arranged within the main hulla's shown in Fig. 4. The rod 30 provides a slide rod to The hatchway 24 is I permit quick entrance of one stationed upon the deck and it also serves to permit the automatic closing of the cover 29 upon the hatch by the weight of the person sliding down the rod as will also be hereinafter further described. The compartment 20 is provided with a valvular drain 33, Fig. 4.
34 designates dead lights arranged in the sides of the buoyant chamber 12 opposite suitable openings (not shown) formed in the sides 35 designates a vent tube extending through .the buoyant chamber 12 and having its upper end extending slightlyabove the deck 8" of the superposed superstructure 8 and provided with a suitable cover whereby said tube may be closed water-tight when the boat is to be submerged.
Built upon the deck 8" of the superposed superstructure 8 is a transparent coaming 36 substantially double conoidal shape in longitudinal horizontal. section so as to present an even surface to the water whichnot only serves to offer the least possible resistance to the vessel when running submerged but also avoids the formation of a wake when the boat is being operated with the deck of the superposed superstructure submerged and with only the upper end of the trans-. parent coaming exposed above the surface. The transparent coaming provides a conning-station or conning-pit when operating of the superposed superstructure 8.
coaming exposed, and as a fairwater to protect the navigator when the boat is operating upon the surface. For surface work, removable steering gear and signaling devices will be located upon the deck Within the conning-station as indicated in dotted lines in Fi s. l and 4.
ocated within the main hull preferably in the forward end thereof, is an upright cylindrical casing 37 having its upper end connected to a casting 38 surrounding an open: ing formed in the main hull and in which operates a vertically movable and rotatable fighting mast or turret 39 which also operformed by the superposed superstructure 8,
and having its upper end connected to the deck 8" of the superstructure 8 and its lower end connected to and surrounding an opening in the deck of the superstructure 6. Journaled in the upper end of the fighting mast or turret 39, and upon opposite sides thereof, are rapid fire guns 42 having hollow trunnions 43 which are journaled in castings 44 secured to the sides of-the said mast or turret and provided with stuffingboxes. The inner ends of the trunnions are provided. with worm-wheels 45, Figs. 5, 8 and 10, and meshin each wheel is a worm 46 held upon a vertlcal shaft 46 journaled in the mast, each shaft having a ratchet handle 46" upon its upper end by which the shafts may be rotated to revolve the guns so as to train them on an objecteither upon the water or in the air. In order to enable the occupant ofthe turret to properly train the guns upon an object, I provide the turret with rotatable sighting instruments 48 vconstructed of right-angularly disposed tubular sections journaled 1n castings 49 secured to the sides of the mast and provided with stufiing-boxes '50, the outer end of each tube being provided with a suitable lensor object glass and with prisms 51, the latter for bending the light-rays throughthe tubes as will be well understood. The inner end of each sighting instrument is provided with I an eye-piece52 having a, lens 53 as shown. In order to rotate the sighting instruments simultaneously with the guns-42 and to thus enable the occupant to accurately train the guns, I mount upon the inner end of 'each sighting instrument a sprocket wheel 54 over w ich operates a sprocket chain.55 which also operates around a-sprocket wheel 56 carriedby each gun and of the same size as the sprocket wheel 54, so that, as either gun is revolved its co-acting sighting instrument will be correspondingly moved, it being understood that the operator will look through either instrument and then rotate the worm shaft'46' of the co-acting gun until the gun is brought to bear upon the object to be fired at. The extreme upper end of fighting mast or turret is provided with a series of port holes 57 having suitable glass covers in the usual manner. As shown in Figs. 5.
and 8 the lower end of the cylindrical casing 37 is closed and to the lower end of the mast or turret is connected a piston 58 which is made to snu 1% fit the cylinder. As shown in Fig. 5 the h g ting mast or turret may be raised by means of compressed air which is let into the lower end of the cylinder 37 through a'pipe 59 extending from a suitable source of compressed air supply (not shown), or as shown in Fig. 8, I may employ a telescopic hydraulically or pneumatically for elevating the mast.
In order to rotate the fighting mast or tur ret- I provide the casting 38 with internal gear teeth 61 which are meshed by a gear 62 carried upon the lower end of a shaft 63 extending through the bottom of the mast or turret and through'a stuffing-box 64 connected thereto and having its upper end provided with a hand Wheel 65. By this arrangement when the mast is extended to its extreme uppermost position the gear wheel 62' will be brought into mesh with the gear teeth 61. The piston 58 is connected to the lower end of the fighting mast or turret through castings 66 as shown.
A doorway 67 is formed in the side of the fighting mast or turret adjacent to the lower end thereof and is controlled by an inwardly opening door 68, the said doorway 67 being designed to register with a' doorway 69 [formed in the side of the casing 37 and coninlet of water to the mast and to the boat in the event of the mast being injured.
The upper end of the casing 41 is formed with laterally disposed bowed sections 72 to receive the guns and sighting instruments when the turret is lowered. 73 designates rungs of a ladder within the mast.
In practice I purpose making the superposed superstructure of suflicient size to provide sleeping quarters and storage compartments for the crew of the boat and as will be readily understood, the superstructure may be fitted for hammocks not shown or bunks not shown, it of course, being understood that when the boat is submerged the hammocks. and mattresses of the bunks will be removed and stored within the main hull of the boat. Access to the superstructure from the interior of the main hull may be had through hatches 75- as shown in Fig. 1 and from the deck of the boat through hatches 76, the hatches being provided with covers in the usual manner. 77 designates the propellers of the boat and 78 the rudder, the post 79 of which is extended upwardly through the main hull and carries a rudder 80 at its upper end which as shown in Fig. 2, is arranged at the end .of the superposed superstructure.
I desire it understood that I do not limit the invention to the arrangement of a transparent coaming upon the deck of a superposed superstructure, as it will be apparent that this particular feature of my invention may be equally well adapted to submarine boats of the present design having only one superstructure and a conning-tower ext-ending from the main hull. As shown in Fig. 12, I may extend a metal coaming 81 from the main hull through the deck of the superstructure 6 and arrange a transparent coaming 82 upon the upper end of the metal coaming which, as shown, would extend above the top of the conning-tower. In this construction-I purpose arranging an air-lock 83 back of the conning-tower having hatchways communicating, respectively, with the said conning-tower, with the conning-pit, and with the main hull of the boat. Provision may also be made, as by a pump 84, (Fig. 12), for pumping water from the conning-pit in the event of the connlng pit being flooded, especially when the boat is operating in rough weather. Provision Wlll also be made, as through scuppers 85, for admitting water to the conning-station or pit, as indicated in Figs. 4 and 12. In either con struction, however, it will be understood that when the boat is operating submerged, with only the upper end of the transparent coaming extended above the surface of the water, added buoyancy will be given to the boat, and in order to effect complete submergence without taking on additional water ballast in the main ballast tanks to overcome the buoyancy added by the conning-station or pit, that the said'station orpit willbe opened to the surrounding body of water so that it may automatically fill as the boat submerges. It will also be understood that the valves controlling the passages through the souppers will be arranged to be operated either from within the buoyant chamber 12 or the main hull 1 of the boat as the case may be. As shown in Fig. 4, the glass coaming may be made up of glass plates, held in a suitable frame 36 of light weight construction, but I do not Wish to be limited to this detail, as it is apparent that the sidesof the coaming may be made of single plates held together at their forward and after ends in metal frames as indicated in Fig. 11.
When operating at night in the presence of an enemy, the boat is submerged so that the deck of the superposed superstructure will be completely under the water and with only the transparent coaming of the con ning-station or pit projected above the surface. The lookout then enters the conningstation or pit and may be provided with a telephone or speaking tube to facilitate the transmission of messages to the steersman or tovthe commander of the boat, to thus properly navigate the boat and also to make such other observations as will be well appreciated. In the event of an ememy being sighted, the operator may then enter the hatch so that only his head and shoulders will be projected above the deck, so that, should a searchlight be thrown upon the transparent coaming, the operator may lower his head below the water line and thus avoid detection. Should it become necessary for the observer to quickly enter the compartment 20 of the buoyant chamber when the boat is, being operated in the condition above described, and which may be necessary in the event of injury to the'transparent coaming or of the sudden flooding of the conning-station or pit, the observer may slide down the rod 30, and by his own weight thus automatically close the cover 28. The sleeve or trunk 28 extends down into the said compartment to such extent that when the water within the sald compartment reaches the lower end of the sleeve or trunk 28, the air trapped within the compartment above the lower end of the sleeve will prevent the compartment from being completely filled, this arrangement serving to permit the observer to dive down under the sleeve and then extend his head above the level of the water within the compartment in which position he, of course, remains until the hatch 29 is closed and locked, and the water is drained from the compartment. It will be further understood that when operating as above described, the doors controlling the doorways 17 leading into the compartment 20, are kept closed.
I have found from actual practice that a plate of glass projected above the surface of the water is extremely diiiicult of detection at a comparatively short distance even in the daytime, and. at night, although a Searchlight may be played upon the plate, that it is impossible to detect the plate at a distance of only several hundred yards, hence the im ortance of providing a submarine torpedb boat with a conning-station or pit having a transparent coaming, whereby to permit maneuvering of the boat at night time will be readily appreciated.
By my peculiar construction and arrangement of the fighting mast or turret, it will also be appreciated that I provide an arrangement whereby the hull and deck of the boat may be completely submerged when operating in the presence of an enemy so that the occupants of the boat may ward off attacks from small surface craft or from aerial craft while maneuvering to discharge its torpedoes and at the same time, presenting a very small target to the enemy.
What I claim is J 1. A submarine boat, having a main superstructure, a superstructure superposed on said main superstructure, and a buoyant chamber arranged wholly Within said superposed superstructure.
2. A submarine boat, having a main sujperstructure, a superstructure superposed on said main superstructure, and a longitudinally extending buoyant chamber arranged .above the main superstructure and within the superposed superstructure.
3. A submarine boat, having a main suthe same and with the hull of the vessel, and
perstructure, a superstructure super osed on said main superstructure, and a cy indrical buoyant chamber extending longltudinally of the boat abovethe main superstructure and inclosed within the superposed superstructure.
4. A submarine boat, having a. mam hull 'and an outer hull extending part way up the sides of the main hull, a superstructure erected upon the outer hull and over the main hull, a superstructure superposed upon saidfirst-named superstructure, and a buoyant chamber arranged longitudinally within the superposed superstructure and communicating with the main hull and vwith the deck of the superposed superstructure.
5. A submarine boat, having a main hull and an outer hull extending part way up the sides of the main hull, a superstructure erected upon the outer hull and over the main hull, a superstructure superposed upon said first-named superstructure, anda buoyant chamber arranged longitudinally withthe superposed superstructure and communicating with the main hull and with the deck of the su erposed superstructure, said buoyant cham r divided into a series communicating compartments.
6. A submarlne boat, having a superposed superstructure, and an uncovered transparout coaming arranged above said superposed structure and serving also'as a conning-station or pit.
'7. A submarine boat, having a. main superstructure, a superstructure superposed on said main superstructure, a buoyant chamber arranged wholly within-said superposed superstructure, and a transparent coaming arranged upon said superposed superstructure and of substantially the same length as the'buo ant chamber.
also vaith the fore and aft portions of the superposed superstructure.
11. In a submarine boat, a main hull, a main superstructure erected. upon said hull,
a superstructure superposed upon said main superstructure and having a deck, and a buoyant chamber arranged wholly within said superposed superstructure and having communication wit with the hull.
12. In a submarine boat, a superposed superstructure, a buoyant chamber arranged therein, and a quick entrance hatchway for communicating between the chamber and the deck of the superposed superstructure, a cover for said hatchway, said hatch cover the said deck and also having a cushioned slide rod connected thereto and adapted to operate as set forth. 13. In a submarine boat, the combination with a buoyant chamber, of a quick entrance hatchway, a cover for said hatchway, a slide rod connected to said- ,hatch cover ,and a cushion device for said rod, adapted to op- 8; A su marine boat, having a main superstructure, a superstructure superposed on" t 7 said main superstructure, a buoyant cham-- ber arranged wholly within said superposed superstructure, and an uncoveredtransparent coaming arranged above the superposed superstructure and serving also as a conning,
station or pit.
9. A submarine boat, having a main superstructure, a superstructure superposed on said main superstructure, a buoyant chamber arranged wholly within said superposed superstructure, and an uncovered transparent coaming arranged above said superposed superstructure and serving also as an observation pit when the deck is; substantially awash. Y 10. In a, submarine boat, a su erosed s 1: perstructure having a buoyant ec a' glass coaming upon said deck, a buoyant chamber below said deck .and communicating with erate as setv forth.
14. In a submarine boat, a superstructure and a buoyant superposed superstructure, 'a
transparent coaming arranged upon the deck of said superposed superstructure providing a conning-station or pit, a buoyant chamber arranged within said superposed superstructure having an escape compartment com- Inunicating with the said conning-station, a sleeve surrounding said communication and. extending into said escape compartment, a
cover for said communication, anda cushent uncovered coaming of substantially ouble'conoida1 shape in plan rising from the deck thereof and providing a conning-stagior or pit-adapted for the purposes specie l v 18. A submarine boat, havin a transparent uncovered coaming extending from the deck thereof roviding a conning-station or pit ada ted or the purposes specified, and
. A submarine boat, having a trans armeans or admitting water to said station or pit.
19. Asubmarine boat having'a superstructure, and an uncovered transparent coamin Y arranged upon said superstructure, provi ing'a conning station or pit, sai 1-,conning.; v
stationior pitcommunicatmg-withf theiirij terior of the boat 20. A submarine boat, having a mein superstructure, a superstructure superposed on said main superstructure, a buoyant chamber arranged Wholly within said superposed 5 superstructure, and a. transparent coaming arranged upon sald superposed superstruc- Q ture.
. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand this 8th day of March, A. D. 1915.
.- Witnesses: C. E. ADAMS, M. E. HITGHOOCK.