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Publication numberUS1309686 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 15, 1919
Filing dateNov 23, 1911
Publication numberUS 1309686 A, US 1309686A, US-A-1309686, US1309686 A, US1309686A
InventorsJ. A. Heidbrink
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Anesthetic apparatus
US 1309686 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



wrm/mon um) Nov. 23 w11.

l July 15, 1915i,

f2? of?? for J. A. HEIDBRINK.


APPUCATIDN FILED NOV. 23. |91!A Patented July 15, 1919.


In vento/1 1. A. HHDBRINK.



Patented J uly 15, 1919.




Speciilcation of Letters Patent.

Patented July 15, 191%.

Application led November 23, 1911. Serial No. 682.066.

To all whom t may concern:

Be it known that I, JAY A. HEIDBRJNK, a citizen of the United States, and a resident of Minneapolis, in the county of Hennepin and State of Minnesota, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Arlesn thetie Apparatus, of which the following is a specification:

My invention relates to apparatus for pro* ducing a state of anesthesia by the inhaletion of a mixture of nitrous-oxid (N20) and oxygen (O). With the proper mixture of these two gases anesthesia may be produced and maintained for a length ottime sufficient to erform the most delicate and dilicult surgical or dental operation with e minimum of nausea. or other bad effects resulting and with no danger to the lite of the subject.

The vital point in this method is to secure the proper quantitative relation ot the gases in the mixture administered, it being the general opinion that the oxygen should constitute from six to ten per cent. of the mixture. This per cent. may vary with di tferent subjects but with. any subject it is alwa s of the utmost importance to know et all times'the exact mixture being administetd. j*

It is the object of this invention to provide a reliable apparatus whereby it will be possible to deliver a mixture of'a predetermined volume and in which mixture the gases will bear an exact predetermined relution to each other. It is also the object of this invention to rovide Ineens for indicating t all' times tlie exact quantitative rela tion ot the ases in the mixture delivered and means or chan/ing that relation to another redetermine relation at will. Another ob]ect is to provide means for indiceting the total volume of the mixture delivered and for regulating the total volume delivered without changing the proportion of gases in the mixture. Other obJects of this invention are to provide means for automatic constant pressure control of the gases before mixing, means for electrically werming the gases, means for indicating the temperature of the mixture delivered and various details of construction as will be ex pleined farther on.

To enable those skilled in the nrt to which my invention relates to more fully underY stand the construction, o eration and ad vantages thereof. a particu ar emliedimont is more fully set forth in the following .speci-4 fication and illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which like figures ot reference indicate similar parts throughout. the several views.

In the drewing-- Figure l. is a diagrannnutic view of my apparatus showing the pipes, wiring, etc.

Fig. 2. is a top plan view of my apparatus with the cover removed, parts being broken away und parts in horizontal section.

Fig. 3. is an enlarged vertical section ou the line AB, Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. is an enlarged vertical section on one of the clamping attachments and a. part of one ot' the gas cylinder valves taken ou the line C--D Fig. 2;

Fig. 5. is e partly broken away, paitly sectional end view showing the door on the front of the ease artlv open and the rase cover open containing the bellows partly infiated, parts also being shown in dotted lines for the sake of clearness.

Fig. 6. is a side elevation partly in sertiun i4 and partly broken away.

Fig. 7. is a partly sectional and partly broken sway View of the mouth iuhnlerl Fig. 8. is an enlarged elevation of art of one of the total How or mixing inllvrs andwill be explained further on; g

Fig, 9. is n section on the line Emi" in Fig. 8.

ig. 10. is an enlarged elcvetion of another part of one of the total flow valves.

Fig. 11. is e section on the line G-ll in Fig. 10.

Fig. l2. is en elevation of a. nasal iuhalvr. Fig. 13. is a diagrammatic View oi one of the electrical valve operating mechanisms.

As will be seen in Fig. 1., two ges cylinders 1, 2, containing compressed nitrousoxid are connected'. to the expanding chamher 5. In the neck of euch cylinder 1, 2, is interposed u small regulating vulve 7, 8, to eontrol the fiow of gas therefrom.

At the opposite side of the apparatus are cylinders 3. l, containing pure oxygen, which are connected to their expanding chamber 9, through the valves` 10. 11, in their necks, and the three-way valve 12. in the sume. manner the nitrous-oXid cylinders 1, 2, are connected to their expansion chamber 5, through their valves 7, 8 and the three-way valve Vt5. A small pointer on each three-way "alve indicates the cylinder being used.

Each ot' the expansion clunnhers 5, l), is directly conneced to an individual gas holder in the form ot' a bellows 1.3, 14. These bellows are identical in construction and are designed to uutintain equal pressure in the expansion chambers 5, 9. From these eX- pansion chambers 5, 9, and the bellows 1.3,

il, the gases pass through the total flow or quantitative proportion valves 15, 16, and around the warming lamp 17, und thermometer 18, to the main discharge pipe 19. From this main discharge pipe a hose not shown conducts the mixture to the inhaler attached to the subject.

A gas bag Q0, provided to hold a sul'licient: quantity ot' the mixture fo enable the subject to breathe regularly and easily at all limes and also to relieve any excessive pressure that might pass the total How valves lf3, it being desirable to have the mixture :it such u .slight pressure that it will only tlou through the discharge pipe 19, when the subject being anesthetized inhziles.

Two pipes 2l, 22, together with their eutoif valves 215, El, t-onneet with the expansion ehainhers 5, S). Tui C. not shown, connecting with these pipes Qi, 22, pass to the mouth inhaler shown in Fig. 7, Where they connect with the tuo pipes 25, 26, leading through the regulating valves 27, 28, and the cut-ofi' valve 29, to the month discharge pipe 30, one end of which is placed in the open mouth of the subject. This mouth inhale'r is especialljvv designed for operations in theniouth and head when it is neeessary to keep the sulljevts mouth open during the operation as in dental work. The subject may be anesthetized with zx. nasal inhaler even though the month he open. the suhjects self control causing nlisal breathing even in a prolonged shite of analgesia; however when a complete ,st-.ite of anesthesia has .heen produced the subject liable to breathe through the mouth and provision is thus made to keep the mouth filled at all times with the proper mixture of unesthetizing gases in order to prevent the. suhjects breathing a suiicient, amount of air to counteract the anesthetic.

The regulating valves 27, 28, in the mouth inhaler serve to regulate the quantitative mixture of the gases since they are taken from the expansion chan'ibeifs 5, 9, and do not pss through the main mixing valves 15, lli. ln this instance the gases are taken directly from the expansion chambers in order to get :i sultivicnl pressure to cause them to liow into n nd lill the mouth of the subject. at all times.

lf one ot' the cylinders 1, fl, containing nitrous-oxid should become exhausted. during un operation the three-way val ve (3, may be turned lo instantly place the other cylinder in operation. The three-way vulve 12, may be used to change the oxygen cylinders in the same manner.

'l'he two total How valves `15, 16, which are .dso the main mixing valves, are Controlled hy a common shaft 31, (Fig. 2.) and o erute together one valve. Each of tiese valves 15, 1G, is made u of two main parts 32, 33, which are eylin( rical in shape each having three equal slots and three extensions. Each of lthe three extensions around the periphery of the two parts 32, 33, fit snugly into the slots in the other part and when put together form a closed hollow cylindrical vulve which entirely closes both of the ports 34, 35 in the valve chamber 36 (Fig. 2.). A regulating screw 37, passing through the valve chamber head 38, engages with its threaded portion the threaded center opening of the part 33 of the valve which is thereby longitudinally movable in the chamber 36. It will thus he seen that when the screw 37, is turned the valve part 33, will he withdrawn slightly from the valve part 32, leaving three open ports around the periphery of the valve as shown liest in Fig. 1. Each of these ports will extend around one-sixth of the circumference ot' the valve, or sixty degrees. The width of these ports depends upon the amount the screw 3T, is turned, its pitch, etc, By turning the shaft 31, together with the valve parts two of these openings will be brought opposite the two ports 31, 35 in the valve case thus permitting the gas to flow through the valve.

The quantitative proportion of the in the mixture is governed hy the distan'ce the valve parts 3Q, 33 are apart While the total flow is governed by the distance the valve is turned in the port openings 34, 35, und indicated on the scale 132, by the pointer 133 ath-iclied. to the common shaft 31. Both valves 15, 16, are turned by the eouunon shaft 31. lf it is desired to deliver a mixture of ten parts ot' nitrous-oxid to one part of oxygen the opening between the valve parts 32, 33 of the nitrous-oxid valve 15, is made ten times as large as the opening between the valve parts of the oxy en valve 16.

The valve chamber head 38,'15 integrally connected to the valve part 32, und shaft 31, and revolves therewith. A small indicator point on the screw 37, shows at all times by means of a scale 39 on the valve chamber head 38, the proportionate amounts of opening of the ports of the valves, and since the two gases are at the same pressure this will give the exact mixture delivered.

Although two of these adjusting screws 37, are shown (one for each valve 15, 16,) only one will in practice need to be used. The nitrous-oxid valve will be fixed at a certain opening (i. c. a certain distance between the valve parts), the scale and indicator point of the oxygen valve indicating the percentage of oxygen in the total mixture delivered. a

In order to determine the quantitative mixture of the gases delivered by the mouth inhaler the short screw valve 21T, is opened a certain amount and a cap 40, placed over it to prevent its being tampered with. The percentage of oxygen in the `mixture is then regulated by the hand valve 28, and indicated by the pointer 41. A butterfly valve 1.34, in the mouth pipe 30, serves to regulate the amount of mixture deliveredathe amount being indicated by a pointer 135..,

Nitros-oxid and oxygen may be purchased on the open market compressed in cylinders 1, 2, 3, 4, as shown. These c.ilin ders have a standard square neck 42, Fig. 4.) and are provided with a needle valve 43, which may be operated by a small hand or gear wheel. As it is of the utmost im partance to keep a constant supply of both nitrousoxid and oxygen during a prolonged operation it is advisable to have several extra cylinders on hand to replace any that may be emptied.- As my apparatus is provided with means fol1 holding two of each of the cylinders, when one of either kind is discharged totally the other may be `turned on and used while the discharged cylinder is being re laced by a full one.

It is (if extreme importance that all such changing must take but little of the operators time and therefore clamping attachments 44, 44 (Fig. 2.) are provided for each of the cylinders in use 1n the apparatus and soif extra ones provided for all extra cylinders on hand. x

This clamping attachment comprises a rame or yoke 45, (Fig. 4.) which goes around the square neck 42, of the cylinder; a clamping screw 47, with an extension 48, atits outer end to sup ort a part of the weight of the cylinder w en in use; a nipple 45, extending into the opening in the square neck 42 of the cylinder and a curved hollow neck 50, extending outward from the ni ple 49, and adapted to be quickly clampe in place on the apparatus by means of a clamp 51, one of which is located over one of each of the discharge openings 52, 52, in the machine proper. Gaskets of rubber or some similar material are provided to make tight joirgts around the nipple 49, and the outer end of the curved neck 50. 'Iuhus the clamp 51, may be quickly raised, the drum and clampingattachment lifted out, and another drum or cylinder and clamping attachment clamped in position, in a very short time. The clamp 51, is swiveled on its bearings 53, 53, as shown in Fig. 3.

The gases on expanding produce a very low temperature and in case of a long eriod of anesthesia would irritate the su jects air passages if means were not provided for warming the mixture before it passes the inhaler. For this purpose an incandescent electric light 17, is placed in such a position that the mixture must pass over and around it and in so doing absorb suiiicient heat from the light bulb to Warm the gases to a normal temperature. A small openin 54, (Fig. 2.) is made in the top covering p ate 55, of the apparatus directly over a portion of the light bulb and provided with a glass closure to enable the operator to know at all times that the light is burning.

A small thermometer 18, with its bulb interposed in the warming chamber is always in plain view of the operator showing at all times the exact temperature of the mixture as it passes to the inhaler.

It is very evident that in order to obtain a mixture of a predetermined quantitative value by means of the relative sizes of openings in the main valves 15, 16, the pressure of the nitrous-oxid in the expansion chamber 5, must always be exactly equal to the pressure of the oxygen in the expansion chamber 9. In order to maintain equal pressure in these tvvo chambers 5, 9, the two pair of bellows are provided and are always connected directly to the expansion chainbers by hinged telcscoping pipes, one of which 56, is shown in Fig. 5. partly in dotted lines. The only object of the hinges and telescoping arrangement is to provide means for carrying the gases into the hinged lid where the bellows are located.

In order to maintain a normal amount of the gases in the bellows at all times an automatie control is arranged to govern the flow of the gases through the valves 7, 8, 10, 1,1, in the necks of the cylinders. The valves 43, (shown more plainly in Fig. 4) have a large stem extending upward. These stems 5S, 58, (Fig. 2) are adapted to be engaged by hand or gear wheels 59, 60, which in turn are engaged by small pinions 61, 62 integrally mounted on the upper ends of small shafts 63, 64. These pinions are so arranged as to engage the wheels 59, 60, when placed in position to operate either one ofthe two c linders at each. end of the apparatus.

us, if the three-Way valve 6, were turned to discharge from the cylinder 1, the wheel 60, Wbuld then be laced on the valve stem 58, of the same cy inder 1. On the lower ends of the pinion shafts 63, 64, (Fig. 6) are worm wheels 65, 66 which are engaged by worin wheels 67, G8, mounted integrally to rotate with other worin wheels G9, 70. These worin wheels 69, 70, are engaged by worin gears 7l, 72, which are integrally inounted on shafts 73, 74, on the opposite ends of which are inountctl friction wheels 75, 70, one of which 75, niountotl on the shaft 73, with the worin gear 71, is shown in ing.- 5.

These friction wheels 75, 70, are operated hy the yokes, 77, 78, and the ariuaturcs 79, 80, 85, 80, as is shown niore plainly in Fig. 13. The coil spring 87, pushing against the armature 79, keeps'it normally at its outer limit of travel as shown in the drawing. When the bellows 14, is partially exhausted the stop 88, (Figs. 1 and contes in con-- tact with the uppei' contact spring ot' thil switch 89, pressing it against thc lower con` tact spring and closing thc electrical circuit through the solenoid 91, thus drawing in the armature 79, and yoke` 78.

The weight of the heavy yoke TS resting, upon thtl upper part oi' the t'rictiou wheel To.. causes it to revolve a part of a revolution and thusl operating the train of worin wheels and gears to turn thc pinion G1, and thusv open one of thc valves l0, 11, in thc cyliiulciA necks according to which cylinder is in usc.

Another switch 91, located near the yoke 78, is interposed in circuit with the solenoiil 81, and operated by a sinall projection 92, on the slide 93. This slide 921i, is operated hy the yoke 78, Striking upon small projections 94, 95, at either end of the slitte 93.

As the urinature is drawn in to its` inner limit of travel the yoke 78. striking thc pro-V jection 95, on the slide 93, inovcs it to the right. The projection 92, on the yslide 93. being thus withdrawn from contact with the lower spring of the switch 91., the springsl ol this switch are permitted to r-oiue apart. and open the solenoid circuit. The armature 79 is thus released and the coiled spring B7, which has been compressed by the indrawn armature now pushes the armature out again to its normal osition. As the ariuatuie 79, is pushed ont y the spring 87, the outer enti of the yoke 78, striking against the projcetion 94, moves the slide 93, back to its noi' mal position causing the contacts ot the switch 91, to again close the. circuit operating the solenoid 81, and thus to repeat the cycle of operations until the oxygen liberated by the opening of one of the valves 10, l1, in the cylinder necks raises the bellows 14, with. its stop 88, high enou h to release the upper spring of the switc i 89, and open the solenoid circuit and sto the action of the armature 79. It Should e noted in the operation of the armature 79, and yoke 78, that as the spring 7 ushes the armature to its outward position, t e small cani 9G, operating by fric'- tion due to the weight of the yoke. turns from the position shown in Fig. 13 to that shown in Fig. G thus raising the yoke high eriou h that its upper arni does not rest upon t e friction wheel 75, yet. not so high that its lower arui comes in contact with the under sitio ot' thc wheel 75. lili this way lio impulse is given the wheel on the outward stroke oi' thc armature. The cani 96 is aS- sistcit by a leal spring engageable beneath a portion thereof iu its lifting movement, .saiil springbeing compressed by the turning ot' the eccentric through friction of the arm 78 upon thc saine when said arm is inoved under the influence of solenoid 81.

When the bellows 14, is nearly filled with oxygen the stop 88. comingr in eontactwith thtlowcr spi-ing of the switch 99, causes it to come in contact with the upper contact spi-inn and thus close the double Solenoid eircuit as is plainly shown in Fig. l, operating thc lower solenoid $55. at the saine time the upper solenoid 3l, is operated. The armature en. ot' the lower solenoid 83, carries a sinall roller at its upper ond which is pres-.sett against the uiuler side of the yoke 7h. when` both sohnoitls are operated and raisingh the yoke until its lower arni presses against thc under side of the friction wheel 7.7. thus causes the friction wheel to be turni-tl in an opposite direction to that in which it. turns when only the upper solenoid Hl, is operated.

The two solenoids operate together in this mania-r until the oxygen is turned otf enough to permit thc bellows 14 to lower and release thc switch contacts 90, which, coming apart, api-u the circuit anil thus stop the action.

rl`he bellows 13, regulates the tiow of nitrons-oxhl t'roin the cylinders l, in the saine manner by means ot its solenoitls 52, 84, armatures 80, 86, yoke 77, friction wheel 7G, and worin gear train to the valves 7, 8, and the .switches 97, 98, 99, corresponding to the switches 89, 90, 91, of the oxygen side.

After the gases have passed the mixing valv'cs l5, 16, they are at liberty to fully eX pand by tiowing freely into the light suspended bag 20, and thus practically all prossure is Wilieved, the bag 20, also acting as a reservoir to supply the intermittent breathing of the subject. To the lower part of this supply bav 20, is attached a light metal plate 100, whic when the bag isalmost empty, rests upon the two switch contacts 101, 102, and bridging across between theni closes the circuit through the Solenoid 103, which operatcs its armature 104, and yoke 105, and

friction wheel 106, together with a suitable f worin gear train to open the total tiow or main mixing valves 15, 16, in the same mam. v.

corresponds in its action in its circuit to thswitches 89, and 98 in their respective circuits already described. When the bagQG,

is filled it presses lightl against the switch 296, shown plainl in ig. 6 and closing 1t, causes the solenoi s 103, 107, to be operated together' in the manner already described in the operation of the oxygen regulating solenoids 81, 83, and thus slowly close the mixing valves 15, 16, until the bag 20, becoming partly exhausted releases the switch 206. The switch 109, in its functions corresponds to the switches 91 and 99 in their functions.

Thus the rgulation of the valves governing the pressure end the flow of the mixture is made entirely eliminatie and does not reqluire any of the operators attention. The e ectrieal current may be derived from any convenient source and is adinittcdto the apparatus by a double pole switch 110, and may be entire] disconnected by opening the switch 110. he solenoid set circuits and also the lamp circuits are controlled by individual single pole switches 111, 112, 113, 114, by means of which any solenoid set or the lump may be turned off at will.

The cylinder valves 7, 8, 10, 11, may be operated by hand by raising the gear Wheels 59, 60, out of engagement with the small pinions 61, 62. In the same manner the main valves 15, 16, may be operated by means of the thumb nut 115, (Fig. li l mounted on the same shaft with the friction wheel 106. Any desired form of inhaler may be used, a, nasal inhaler being shown iii Fig. 10. rihis inhaler is attached to the subjects forehead and a hose from the main discharge pipe 19, on the machine proper tio-the intake pipe 116, on the inhalen The mixture passing through the intake pipe 116, enters the chamber 117, which is provided with two flexible outlet pipes 118, 119. un ail' valve 120, and an exhaust valve 1211. These flexible outlet pipes 118, 119, are provided with curved nostril pieces, 45 122, 123, which ure swivel connected to the `flexible outlet pipes in such a manner as lo be fitted snugly to the Suhjects nostrils.

The entire apparatus is inclosed in a. carrying' case 124, provided with a deep hinged cover 57, in which are located the bellows '13, 14, in such a manner that they may be fold.- ed into the cover 4when it is closed. These bellows are guided in their movements by light lazy-tongs devices 126, 127, and man7 carry weights to give variations of pressure to the contents if desired.

Four telescoping legs 128, 129, 130, 131, (Fig. 2) are provided at the corners of the cese 124, which slide up into the case when not in use. A door 125, on the front of the euse 124, may be opened when the apparai- -tus is in operation so that ell operating;r parts will always bc in full view of the operator.

Hoving thus described my invention what l claim and desire to secure by Letters Pnt.- ent is the following:

l. An anesthetic administering appar-.ilus comprising; means including delivery valves for producing a mixture of gases of a prudetcrmined proportion, an cxpansiblc member for receiving the mixture as the same is delivered from the valves, and a system of' Solcnoids controlled by movement, of said expuusible member for controlling the valves.

A gas administering machine comprising` a plurality of sources of fluid supply under pressure, means for producing a mixture of such gases in predetermined proportions, means for deliveringV such mixture as the same is produced, land means for controlling and varying at will the rate of production and deliverance of said mixture while the relative amounts of gases in the mixture are kept constant.

3. A gas administering machine comprising' a plurality of sources of duid supply nndeil pressure, means for producing a mixture of such gases in predetermined proportions, mcans for delivering such mivturo` as the same is produced, and means for controlling and varying at will the rate of production and deliverance of said mixture while the relative amounts of gases rin the mixture are kept constant, said controlling means being provided with an indicatiinef device showing the quantity of mixture bcingrr produced.

4. A machine for mixing and administering ancsthetics comiirising a plurality of gas supplies each separately connected to a supply line, an expansion chamber in euch of said connections, valves in saidv line. a lexible chamber in said liuefcapablo of inflation, and means operative therefrom for operating said valves while mainlniniug a, constant proportion of seid ,gases in dilfcrcnt volumes.

5. A machine for mixing and administer ingr anestlictics comprising n. plurality ci fiuid retainers, valves for said retainers. expansion chambers having connection cilil said valves, and means operative from the cipansion of said chmubcrs for operating said valves to provide iand dclive:` vnrinble tionY of anesthetic at a constant proportion und ineens for indicating,lr the How' und the proportion.

- 6. In a device of the class described, a` series of Huid and ,que retainers, valves and flexible expansion chambers havingr connection with said retainers, means operative from the expansion of said chambers for operating said valves to provide a mixture of varyingi proportion, and an indicator for iudicating the proportion.

7. In anesthetic apparatus arranged to be equipped with a compressed gas cylinder, a

regulating vulve in cmmnunvntion with the In testimony that I claim the foregoing as 10.

rms Hu niv from mwh vvliudm. am ex mnSim f nwn. I have hereunto uixed mv simm- F v l 1 s 'v h n hh, elastlr; ,fj-ds Img cmxsututmg n, 'mllsnbleture, 1n the presence of two subscx'lbmg Wytpressure l'usvrmn' ful' :x` relatlvely large v01- A nesses.

Mme of gus ab a I'vlatively 10W pressure in TAY A HEIDBRINK 1 n c n t .A n n frve vommmucatmn mth thc gas-udmmlstel-mg passages of the apparatus, and means Wxtnesses:

govemwd by the infialdon of stu-h bug for CARL H. JOHNSON, r, contfolmg Saud rogulatmg valve. EARL T A1NEs.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2912979 *Feb 17, 1956Nov 17, 1959Lieber Samuel LoewensteinApparatus for administering and conserving gas
US3985131 *Nov 20, 1974Oct 12, 1976Searle Cardio-Pulmonary Systems Inc.Infant and pediatric ventilator
US4054133 *Mar 29, 1976Oct 18, 1977The Bendix CorporationControl for a demand cannula
US4832014 *Oct 13, 1987May 23, 1989Perkins Warren EMethod and means for dispensing two respirating gases by effecting a known displacement
U.S. Classification128/203.25, 128/203.28, 128/204.17
Cooperative ClassificationA61M16/18