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Publication numberUS1311060 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 22, 1919
Filing dateJan 19, 1918
Publication numberUS 1311060 A, US 1311060A, US-A-1311060, US1311060 A, US1311060A
InventorsPaul Felix
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Planooraph co
US 1311060 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



APPLICATION FILED IAN-19,1918- nzuzwsu JAN. 15. 19:9.

1,31 1 ,O6(). Patented July 22, 1919.

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v 1 ,31 1 ,060. I Patented July 22, 1919.


'awmwtoz P. F ELIXF mumc'vumoea ENGINE. APPLICATIUN FILED 1AN .I9. I918- RENEWED JAN.,I5, l'9l9. I 1,31 1,060. Patented July 22, 1919.






Speeification'of Letters Patent.

Application-filed January 19, 1918, Serial No. 212,708. Renewed January 15, 1919. Serial No. 271,340.

a To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, PAUL FELIX, a citizen of the United States, residing at Knoxville, I

in the county of Knox and State of Tennes see, have invented new and useful Improvements in Multicylinder Engines, (Case 3,) of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to internal combustion engines, and more especially to those having opposed cylinders; and the ob ects of the same are to eliminate the. conventional connecting rods, topermit the casting of the cylinders en bloc with the crank case and each valve case as a separate unit, to detachably connect the castings so that all the valves at either or both sides of the main casting can be taken off, to provide a removable cover for the crank casing and improved valve actuating mechanism which can be lifted'out of place without disturbing the other elements, to provide means for removingthe cam shaft and the main or crank shaft without necessarily removing the pistons, to alsoprovide means for then removing the pistons separately and selec-- tively, to provide a peculiar rollerbearing and its mountings on the crank shaft between each pair of pistons, to provide novelmeans for lubricating the parts-automatically, and withal to core the walls of the several castings with passages which com.- Inunic'ate when the castings are assembled and makeup a jacket for an efiicient water cooling system. These and other objects are accomplished by the construction hereinafter more fully described and claimed,

and as shown in the drawings wherein Figure 1 is a vertical section through this engine complete, beingv taken on the line .1-1 of Fig. 2; Fig. 2'is a plan viewwith the cover removed and with the intakejand' outlet dotted; Fig. 3 is a horizontal sec;-

tion on about the line 3-3 of Fig. l-,'with the pistons in a difl'erent position; F ig.. 4 is a left end elevation with the valve casing in the foreground omitted; Fig. 5 is a sectional detail on about the line 5-5 of-Fig. .1; Fig. 6 is an enlarged vertical. section through one of the valves, and Fig.7 perspective detail of the yoke employed in the valve-actuating mechanism; Fig. 8 is a plan view in detail of a portion of the main s'haft showing its double crank; F ig. 9 is a detail of the fulcrum for one of the rocker is'a.

sages P open at orated or even further arms,'with its parts removed; and Fig. 10 isa detail of one of the socket members employed in such fulcrum; Fig. 11 is a side elevation of a yoke of modified construction showing another form of connection between the piston rods and the crank shaft; Fig. 12' is a horizontal section through the same.

In the drawings herewith I have shown my invention as applied to a four-cylinder internal combustion engine, although I do not wish to be limited in this respect. For sake of simplicity I have omitted some features which are not involved in the present invention, as, for instance, the ignition and timing systems, the carburetor, the fly wheel and clutch, etc. Also I have indicated at I in Fig. 2 where the inlet manifold is to be applied vand dotted the inlet to two of the valves, and -I' have indicated the outlet or exhaust manifold at X in the same view, said exhaust manifold communicating with the other two valvesassu ming, of course,

proved'valve-actuating ,mechanism. I reserve the broadest latitude in respect of all features thus far mentioned.

Patented July 22, 1919.

The four cylinders 1, 2, 3 and 4 are cast en bloc and in opposed pairs with and at opposite sides of the upright crank casing 5,

whose integral end walls 7 are formed with openings 8 of considerable size, having rounded loweren'ds and open through the top of these walls as seen in Fig. 1. The walls off-the cylinders are cored with pastheir .outer *ends (Fig.

3) communicating. with .other passages J formed in the valve casings described below-'-all constituting part of a water cooling system'whose details need not be elabreferred to herein in fact, the manufacturer engine by some othersystem, or possibly to omit the cooling. The otherwise open top of the crank case is removably closed bya top plate 9 which is shown in section only in-FigQ 1. I

One end of the crank case 5 is closed by an end plate, 10 whichmay well form part whose bottom is closed integrally as at 6 and may elect to cool this of the clutch case C as seen in Fig. 2, said plate fitting into the opening 8 in that end wall of the case and possibly havinga flange 11 through which bolts or screws 12 are passed at appropriate points to hold said plate in place. The other end of the crank case 5 is closed by a second end plate 13 fitting in the openings 8 at that end, and this plate may well be cupped as seen in Fig. 3 to constitute a housing 14 for. the gears hereinafter referred to. Through lugs 15 on the housing pass bolts or screws 16 which hold this end plate to the crank case. With this construction it will be clear that when the screws 12 and 16 are removed, the end plates and all that is carried by them may be lifted out of the crank case as the openings 8 open through the upper edge of the end walls 7 and the top plate 9 is removable. The main shaft M is journaled in appropriate bearings 17 in the end plates and is cranked between them in a manner yet to be described, and a short cam shaft S is mounted in appropriate bearings directly above the cranked portion of the main shaft, the same being driven by a gear 18 fast thereon within the housing 14 and meshing with a pinion 19 fast on the main shaft below, as perhaps best seen in Fig. 1. The clutch within the case C connects with the other end of. the main shaft in a manner not necessary to illustrate and describe.

Each piston P reciprocates within its respective cylinder, and instead of having a pivoted piston rod it is provided with a stem 20 of skeleton formation projecting rigidly inward from the piston head and connected (preferably integrally) with one side 21 of an upright yoke of loop-shape which stands midway between two piston heads and incloses one crank of the main shaft. T he' complementary side is numbered 22 in Fig. 1, and the two sides are substantially L- shaped with the feet of the Us in contact so as to leave between the stems of the Us an opening 23 for the passage of the crank.

Said feet-have complementary lugs 24 detachably connected face to face by bolts 25,

and the upper ends of the stems of the Us also have lugs 26 adapted to be connected by bolts 27. The upper connections differ from the lower, however, in that spacers 28 are strung on the bolts between the comple mentary lugs 26, said spacers standing above the openings 23 in the ends of the yokes. Obviously the withdrawal of the bolts 27 and removal of the spacers 28 leaves the upper end of the openings 23 open so that the cranks may be lifted out of the same. in a manner yet to be described, and still the sides of the yokes will be connected by the lower bolts 25 and the pistons need not have been disturbed. It is further obvious that if new the lower bolts 25 are withdrawn the sides of the yoke are disconnected and the pistons are free from each other. Then one piston may be moved to the outer extreme of its cylinder to permit the opposing piston to be moved to the inner extreme of its movement and lifted out of place. Thus the specific construction of the yokes constitutes an essential feature 'of the present invention because it renders the several parts removable one after the other.

Next inside its pinion 19 the main shaft M may well be formed with a disk 50, and a wrist pin 51 thereon constitutes one crank. This wrist pin may well have a reduced end 52 as seen in Fig. 8, the disk 50 having a socket 53 into which said reduced end projects as shown in section in Fig. 3. The other end of the wrist pin or crank carries an integral cross bar 54 which extends across the axial line of the main shaft indicated by dots in Fig. 8, and the other crank 55 is attached to the other end of this crossbar. This crank also may have a reduced end 56 entering a socket 57 in another disk 58 as shown at the bot-tom of Fig. 3. Finally bolts 59 are passed through the disks and the cranksand cross bar to hold all parts inner ends of these bolts against the cross can be drawn longitudinally out of place.

On each crank and within each yoke are journaled rollers 60, 61 standing side by side as perhaps best seen in Fig. 3, and each part or half of the yoke is cut away or recessed as at 62 opposite one roller so that it shall not contact therewith, leaving a track 63 toward the other end of the yoke which contacts with the other roller. The result is that as the crank rises and falls within the opening 23 in the yoke, frictionis pre vented by this roller bearing which is interposed between the crank and the piston on the active side thereof. 01', to put it differently. when the piston is driven inward by the force of the explosion, the track .63 contacts with the roller 61 and power is comnmnicatcd to the crank and then to the main shaft M. The fact that the opbar so that when they are removed the bolts posite side of the roller does not touch the other side of the yoke permits the roller to turn first in one direction and then in the other as the crank rises and falls in its revolution. Although it is not illustrated, the timing mechanism will be so arranged that explosions occur in opposite cylinders alternately, driving first one piston inward and shown, appropriate disposition of the cranks will be made. The valves- V open and close to admit a charge and to exhaust the spent gases, as usual in internal combustion engines. V

The side wall of the crank case 5 is shown in Figs. 1 and 2 as provided along the outer side of its upper edge with a rib 70 cast with a series of open-topped pockets 71 having transverse slots through them as at 72, the series of pockets capable of bein closed by a cover plate 73 removably held 1n place by a bolt or screw 7 4. Removably seated in each pocket is a four-part socket, whereof one part 75 is shown in Fig. 10 and two parts are shown in Fig. 9. The four parts when assembled make up a plug which fits the pocket 71, and they all contain parts of a cavity 75 adapted to receive a ball 76 which may well be formed integral. with and 'at about the midlength of a'rocker arm 76 which plays freely in the-slots 72. The inner ends of the several arms overlie cams on the cam shaft S and the other ends are forked at 77 and the fork-arms provided with downwardly-opening notches 78. The latter removably engage pins 79 projecting outward from the arms 80 of a yoke 81 (see Fig. 7) and through the center of the yoke ispassed a screw 82 preferably having a ball 83 at its inner end which fits in a socket at the upper end of the valve stem 84. as seen in Fig. 6. A jam nut 85 on the screw holds it in place after it has been adjusted.

By preference the valve spring 86 bears at its upper end against the pm 87 through the stem 84 so that'the spring is entirely independent of the yoke. With this construction, when the topplate 9 is removed, access is permitted to the cam shaft; when the cover plates 73 are removed, access is per mitted to the ball-and-socket joints between the rocker arms and the crank case 5, and any rocker arm may be lifted readily out of place because its notches 78 will lift off the pins 79; and when a rocker arm is removed, any yoke may be lifted off the exposed end of its valve stem. All of the valves V at each side of the crank case are by preference mounted within a single casting 88 which constitutes the valve casing, the same being removably attached to the open outer ends of the cylinders by screws or bolts 89 as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 6; and therefore when these are withdrawn the valve casing and all its valves may be taken off for examination, cleanin and repairs. I mi ht say that before this 1s done, the inlet an exhaust manifold must be disconnected, and in Fig. 2 I have shown unions in the exhaust manifold for this purpos, whereas the inlet manifold is wholly omitted. This view also indicates in dotted lines how theinlet is supplied tothe two innermost valves on each side and the ex" haust is taken from the two outermost valves, but I do not wish to be limited in this particular;

The bottom plate 6 is provided with a plurality of transverse channels 90, preferably corresponding in number with the pis: tons, and four are shown in this case in Figs. 4 and5. In each channel is mounted a scoop 91 formed at the lower end of a tube 92 whose body preferably has a llIllOIl 93 in its length and leads upward past one side of the yoke as seen in Fig. 1- and then obliquely inward into the piston stem 20 as seen in Fig. 2, its upper end opening at 94 through the top of said stem where the latter is provided with a groove 95 leading thence inward and downward as seen in dotted lines in Fig. .1 and opening throu 'h one side of the yoke to its interior as in icated at 96 in Fig. 3. The tube 92 shown in the foreground on Fig. 1 is connected with the skeleton stem of the right hand piston P, and when this piston moves inward the scoop travels in its channel 90 and some of the oil therein is forcedupward through the tube as will be clear. Successive impulses of the pistons cause the scoops to take up more and more lubricant, and finally the latter'runs out at 94, travels down the groove 95, and issues at 96 into the yoke as to thoroughly lubricate the roller bearing therein. The next scoop shown in Fig. 1 is inclined in the opposite direction and carried by the stem 20 and the left hand piston. The third and fourth scoops illustrated in Fig. 2 are correspondingly connected with the stems of the remaining pis-- tons in a manner which will be clear. I

prefer to employ the unions 93 at somepoints within the length of these tubes so that, when the pistons are to be removed from their cylinders, the operator may first disconnect the lower portions of the tubes in order to permit the pistons to be turned as already described. The forcible driving of the scoops through the oil within the channels 90will also splash a certain amount of said oil upward as indicated by the arrow in Fig. 1, and it will lubricate the interior of the cylinder 2 as usual; and. to an extent it Wlll of course be s attered over the entire inner surface of t e crank case and all parts connected therewith and opening thereinto; therefore by the provisionof this simple expedient I have adopted a lubricatin system capable of use in connec: tion with of its parts.

I have already described how the top plate 9 can be taken off and the several rockers 76 removed. Whether the valve cases 88 are then removed or not, the upper ends of the yokes may now be opened by withdrawing the bolts 27 and the spacers 28,

an engine of this type and which in no wise interferes with the removability and then by loosening the screws'12 and 16' 4 both end plates and the main and cam shafts can be lifted bodily out of the crank case, along with their bearings 17 and their gear and pinion connections. If there be a fly wheel on the front end of the main shaft M (its upper end as seen in Fig. 2) this may be removed first or can be lifted out with the shaft. Before lifting out the main shaft, the cone or other clutch element within the case C will have to be disconnected from its rear end, but as the clutch forms no part of the present invention this detail is not illustrated. The important feature of a construction which makes it possible to remove these shafts and their connections bodily from the crank case without interrupting the position of the pistons, can not be overestimated. Thereafter if desired the pistons can be selectively or successively removed in the manner above described; and the importance of this possibility without the necessity for disconnecting the valve or valve casings is also a feature of my invention which may well be emphasized. All parts are of the desired materials and proportions, and changes in details may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention. Under the arrangement illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12, I employ a pair of traveling track rings T and T and be= tween said track rings and the crank shafts S, I interpose an annular series of antifriction rollers R and R having journals which are received in bearin in circular retainers Z which hold the ro lers in spaced relation to each other. The rings T and T roll in contact with tracks M which are received in shallow guide in the inner face of the yo e Y. The traveling rings and the tracks just referred to have beveled or )l-shaped meeting faces, the object being to increase the contact surfaces of each traveling ring, thereby preventing slip and consequent wear of the parts, also'to deepen or increase the section of each ring to. impart greater strength thereto and greater power of resistance to deflection under heavy loads. The construction just referred to also prevents the overturning of the piston assembly.

What I claim is 1. In an engine of the type described, a crank case cast with opposed cylinders and an integral bottom plate open at its top, and having integral end walls with openings therein which open through the upper edges of said walls, and a removable top plate;

I combined with pistons in pairs in said cylinder, yokes connecting their stems, end plates removably mounted in the openings in said end walls beneath said top plate, bearings in the end plates, a main shaft mounted in certain of said bearings and having cranks between them moving in the rooves G formedyokes, a superposed cam shaft mounted in other of said bearings, a housing on one end plate, gear connectlons therein between said shafts, valve casings removably attached to and closing the outer ends of. the cylinders, means for detachably connecting said casings with the intake and exhaust manifolds, valves in the casings, and for each valve a rocker arm having its outer end connected with the valve stem and its inner end overlying a cam on said cam shaft, and a fulcrum between its ends.

'2. In an engine of the type described, a

crankcase having opposed cylinders open at their outer ends, a closed bottom, and an open top,each side wall having a longitudinal rib on its upper edge provided with a series of open-topped pockets and transverse slots intersecting the pockets, a cover plate removably closing each series of pockets,

and a top plate removably closing the easing; combined with pistons in the cylinders, means connecting them in pairs and each having a yoke, a main shaft having cranks,

engaging said yokes, a cam shaft above and driven by said main shaft, valve casings removably closing the outer ends of said cylinders, valves therein, and for each valve a "the cylinder with transverse slots through its walls, and a valve casing and valve at the outer end of the cylinder; of a yoke mounted on the valve stem, a rocker arm whose outer end is detachably connected with said yoke and whose inner end overlies a cam, and a ball fulcrum at the midlength of the arm removably mounted in said Pocket.

4. In an engine of the type described including a horizontal cylinder, its piston, its crank shaft, and a cam shaft driven from the latter, the combination with the crank casing having an open topped pocket above the cylinder with transverse slots through its walls, and a valve casing and valve at the outer end .of the cylinder; of a yoke removably connected with the stem of said 5. In an engine of the type described including a horizontal cylinder, Its piston, its

crank shaft, and a cam shaft driven from the latter, the combination with the crank casing having an open topped pocket above the cylinder with transverse slots through its walls, and a valve casing and valve at the cally from said socket andhaving complementary cavities surrounding said ball.

6. In an engine of the type described having opposed cylinders and an intervening crank case, the combination with pistons in pairs in vsaid cylinders, a yoke connected with their stems, a main shaft having a crank, and a rolling bearing on said crank within the yoke; of a tube carried by each stem and inclined downward and inward therefrom with its lower end open at the bottom of the crank case and its upper end opening at the top of the stem, the latter having a duct leading from the open upper end of the tube to the interior of the yoke.

7. In an engine of the type described having opposed cylinders and an intervening crank case, the combination with pistons in pairs in said cylinders, a yoke connected with their stems, a main shaft having a crank, and a bearing on said crank within the yoke; of a tube carried by each stem and inclined downward and inward therefrom, a scoop at the lower end of the tube and communicating with its bore, the bottom of the crank case having a channel Within which said scoop travels, and'a duct leading from the upper end of the tube to the interior of the yoke.

In testimony whereof I affix my signature.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2863426 *Aug 10, 1954Dec 9, 1958Arthur Summerlin FrederickInternal combustion engines
US2914045 *Mar 8, 1957Nov 24, 1959Ferguson Res Ltd HarryInternal combustion engine
US3119462 *Nov 13, 1961Jan 28, 1964Eugene A McmahanTwo cycle engine
US4603663 *Nov 1, 1983Aug 5, 1986Joseph GiocastroRockerarm system for controlling valves in an internal combustion engine
US5131353 *Nov 27, 1990Jul 21, 1992Ficht, GmbhCrank loop frame for a crank loop drive of an internal combustion engine
US6499453Oct 30, 2000Dec 31, 2002Tecumseh Products CompanyMid cam engine
US6612275Jul 25, 2002Sep 2, 2003Tecumseh Products CompanyMid cam engine
US7086367Aug 17, 2004Aug 8, 2006Briggs & Stratton CorporationAir flow arrangement for a reduced-emission single cylinder engine
US20060037577 *Aug 17, 2004Feb 23, 2006Dave ProcknowAir flow arrangement for a reduced-emission single cylinder engine
U.S. Classification123/55.5, 123/90.44, 123/DIG.600, 123/90.38
Cooperative ClassificationF02B75/246, Y10S123/06