wilks and p
US 1313569 A
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A. H. WILKS AND P. H. HARTSHORNB.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 28. 1911.
1,313,569. Pate11ted Aug.19,l919.
4 $HEETSSHEET l- I H. WILKS AND P. H. HARTSHORNE.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
- APRLICATION FILED SEPT-28.1917.
1,313,569. Y PatentedAug. 19,1919.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
A. H. WILKS AND P. H. HARTSHORNE. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
} APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 28. I911- 1,313;569. Patented Aug. 19, 1919.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE.
APPLlCATlON FILED SEPT- 28. I917.
Patented Aug. 19, 1919.
4 SHEETS SHEET 4.
.3323 z .'/WIVII7IIIIIIA,IIIII, 1
w MN o 1 I 0% i/ UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
ARTHUR HAROLD WILKS, 0F OLTON, NEAR- IBIBMINGHAM, AND PERCY HAROLD HARTSHORNE, 0F BIRMINGHAM, ENGLAND.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Aug. 19, 1919.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that we, ARTHUR HAROLD WILKS, of Lansdown, Warwick Road, Olton, near Birmingham, England, and PERCY HAROLD HARTSHORNE, of 22 Claremont road, Smethwick, Birmingham, England, and 110w in the British royal naval air service, both subjects of the King of Great Britain, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Internal-Combustion Engines, of which the following is a specification.
This invention has reference to internalcombustion engines for aeroplanes and the like, and consists in an improved engine of the rotary cylinder type, which operates on the two-stroke or two-cycle principle.
The general arrangement of the said engine is shown in the accompanying drawings, in which 7 Figure 1 is a half longitudinal section,
and half side elevation; the sectional part illustrating one of the cylinders, with its piston and its system of inlet, transfer, ex-- haust and firing ports.
Fig. 2 is a half end elevation and a half transverse section, while Fig. 3 is an enlarged sectional View of one of the cylinders showing the positions of the pistons and valve sleeve pertaining to that cylinder when the pistons are at the outer ends of the strokes and the ports in the reciprocating and nonreciprocating parts which are then fully open.
Fig. 4 is a sectional view of oneof the cylinders showing the positions of the various portswhen the pistons are at the inner .ends of their strokes.
The same letters of reference indicate corresponding parts in the several figures.
An engine constructed in accordance with the said invention comprises a rotary cylinder member or unit which is connected to, and rotates with, the engine shaft, and a stationary member or casing which is bolted to a fixed frame or other support and carries the carburetors and is furnished internally is built-up of bolted-together sections (preferabl two end sections 12 and a middle section which are provided externally with arms or web's whereby the same may be bolted to a fixed frame or other support, while the two end sections are furnished centrally with journal and thrust bearings for the rotary engine-shaft e that is directed horizontally through the said casing. Each of the said end section supports has on its inner side a stationary thrust-transforming cam or track. C, which is more fully described hereafter while the middle section Z2 is provided externally with two carbureter unlons, which are arranged diametri cally opposite to one another, and to whose intakes 6, suitable carburetors are connected.
The rotary unit A consists of a body memher a which is also preferably an aluminum casting, and carries the group or block of twelve cylinders a, arranged in an annular series, with their axes parallel with the axis of the engine shaft. The cylinders consist of open-ended steel tubes or liners, which are shrunk in the body casting, and whose open ends are closed by gland-plates or castings a which are bolted to the opposite ends of the said body casting, and also to flanges c at the inner ends of the sections e of the shaft e; each of the said gland plates being formed with a series of glands a whose axes register with the axes of the cylinder-tubes and wherethrough the reciprocating piston rods ,1 of'the engine work. These gland plates close the outer ends of the cylindertubes and form transfer compression chambers or pump-chambers f outward of each piston.
Each-cylinder of the group is provided with a pair of pistons f rigidly attached respectively to the inner ends of the two pis- (i. e., the valve-controlling piston) carries a tubular extension or sleeve 7 that reciprocates within the cylinder and sockets over the other piston 7 which reciprocates within the said sleeve; the valve-controlling piston being provided with a piston-ring or rings f fitting the interior of the cylinder, and the second or short piston f having a piston-ring or rings f fitting the interior of the reciprocating sleeve. The sleeve itself may also be furnished with an additional piston-ring or rings f fitting the cylinder.
At a sultable istance from the ends of each cylinder tube there are formed a pair of induction 'ports 9 and 9 both communicating with a common induction passage 9 which is cast in the walls of the cylinder body, and whose intake 9 is adapted to periodically register with induction passages in the walls of the stationary members that communicate with the carbureters by way of intakes I); both the cylinder induction ports g and 9 being controlled or opened and closed by the reciprocating sleeve valve or piston extension 7, which is also formed with a port at i which registers with the induction port g only when the pistons at the inner ends of their strokes, or on their in-centers as shown in Fig. 4.' Both ports 9 g are then uncovered or open for admitting explosive charges into the pumpchambers as the sleeve-port f registers with the right-hand induction port 9 while the left-hand induction port g leads straight into thepump-chamber f outward of the left-hand piston;
T'wo transfer ports 71 and i are also formed in the outward end of every cylinder tube; each pair of said ports being in connection with one another by a transfer passage 5 cast in the cylinder body, and .they (the ports 11 and i are respectively 1 controlled by suitable ports 7' and 7' in valve sleeve in such a manner as will admit of transfer of explosive mixture from the pump-chamber f into the combustion-chamber it between the pistons during outward strokes of the latter.
An exhaust port In for each cylinder is formed in about the middle of each cylinder tube; this being in constant communication with an exhaust passage is cast in the cylinder body, and controlled by a port 76 that is formed in the valve sleeve and is timed to register with the cylinder exhaust port-when the pistons are at the outer ends of the strokes (see Figs. 1 and 3), The sleeve also has a suitably-disposed firing port (not shown in the drawings) which, after compression of the charge in the combustion chamber by the in-strokes of the piston, registers w1th a firin port m in the cylinder and with'a spar 'ng plugchamber m in the cylinder body; thus providing for the ignition of the compressed charge at the ap- Les ee pro riate time. The chambers 5 are fitted witl sparking plugs which are wired to a' rotary distributer carried on the engine shaft. i
The whole 'of the exhaust passages k in the body of the rotary cylinder unit communicate with an exhaust manifold is which may be cast in the cylinder body and is conrected up with an exhaust pipe that is directed outward throu h a hollow section of the main shaft; an .aiestos or like jacket being pressed into the said hollow part of the shaft where it passes through the bearing in order to protect the latter from the heat. The gland plates at the vright-handside of the cylinder unit are formed, on their inner sides, with annular clearances a, that register with the cylinder tube ends into which the right-hand ends of the corresponding valve sleeves extend during the inward strokes of the pistons The engine is air-coo ed; the exterior walls of the cylinder body bein ably arranged cooling '1 s or fins, while openings are formed in t e end gland plates of the rotary unit to provide for the circulation of air through the inside of the said body. v
Each of the reciprocating rods f of the cylinders is forkedat' its outer end n and the fork is fitted with aroller or bushing n mounted on ball or other anti-friction bearings interposed between the said roller and a pin a that is located across the branches or cheeks of the said fork. These to the engine-shaft, and are of the same diameter as that of the circle which contains the axes of the annular series of cylinder tubes; each track comprising a succession of four inclined planes arranged in the form of two complete V-like cams, with one ide of each V sloping inwardly from the end of the fixed casing toward the rotary unit,
and the other side sloping in the reverse direction, 2'. 6., from the rotary unit toward the casing ends.
The outer ends of the two piston rods of each cylinder are slidably connected or coupled respectively with the cam-rings at the opposite ends of the casing B by reason of the fact that their forks n saddle over the corresponding'rings, and. the arrangement is such that, as each piston rod makes its outward or working stroke under the impulse derived from the explosion of a cylinder charge, it travels along an outwardly sloping or retiring'plane of its cam ring which re-acts, through the piston rod,
cast with-suitupon the rotatable cylinder unit A and thus transforms the longitudinal piston thrust into a rotary motion for drivin around the said cylinder unit A and sha e, whereas when each iston rod has completed its driving stroke own the outwardly-sloping plane and comes into engagement with the succeeding inwardly-sloping or advancing plane, it is forced inward by the action of the said plane for the induction and compression stroke.
' Thus, as the right-hand pistons of all the cylinders are in engagement with the righthand fixed cam-ring and all the left-hand pistons are in engagement with the left-hand cam-ring, and as there are two inward planes alternating with two outward planes in each ring, it follows that, in the twelve-cyllnder rotary unit now being described, ,the'two pistons of each cylinder make two worki or impulse strokes and two induction an compression strokes during each complete rotation of the said unit.
All the piston rods arepreferably made hollow for lightness and so also that they may be used to convey oil ("by passages 0 to the piston walls, and also to the ballbearings of the cam-engaging forks through holes 0 that are drilled in the said rods and communicate with supply leads or passages 0 formed in the gland plates; the distribution of oil to the cylinder walls and bearings in the rotary unit bei assisted by the centrifugal action. Sui le pipes or other connections such as 0 o are also provided for supplying oil to the main shaft bearings, and preferably all the passages, pipes and leads of the system are suitably connected with a central oil'reservoir connected to a suitably arranged oil-pump, while partition plates 0 fitting the cylinders may be arranged on the inner ends of the hollow piston rods, outward of the piston-oiling leads 0 from the said hollow rods, to revent the escape of charges of gas from t e transfer compression chambers during the transfer strokes.
Oil-retaining covers p may be fixed inside the ends of the stationary casing to extend over the end gland-plates of the rotary unit and so inclose the cam-rings and piston rod ends working thereon; these covers being provided with suitable oil-drainage-pipes 12 connected with the oil-circulating system. Packin rings g may also be inserted between t e outside of the middle part of the rotary cylinder body and the interior of the stationary casing, to prevent air-leaks into the induction passages that is cast in thls part of the said cylinder body.
As already the formation and disposition of the cam rings insures that each cylinder will give adowble impulse twice in each revolution of the rotary unit; all twelve cylinders firing twice during each revolution and the diametrically opposed cylinders firing simultaneously. The firing angle is 30 so that six cylinders are doing work at the same time;-two being two-thirds through the working stroke, two one-third through, and two commencing; each of these pairs being diametrically opposed. Thus the driving effort is practically continuous while the general arrangement of the parts makes for perfect balance and reduces vibration to a minimum.
It may be added that, when the improved,
engine is running, as each iston approaches its in-centerthe in-cham r f in the outer end of the cylinder, and that, at a certain point before this in-center is reached, the sleeve valve opens communication between the cylinder induction-ports g'*" and the chambers f to enable new charges to pass into the outer ends of the cylinder. On further rotation, and as the pistons move outward, these charges will pam through the transfer ports and passages into the combustion chambers between the backs of the pistons, while as the continuation of the rotation takes the pistons back to in-center again, the transferred charges are compressed and fired to give the impulse stroke. The valvesleeve exhaust ports are opened or brought into register with the exhaust passages of the cylinder body as the pistons ap proach their outer center; the cycle of operations providing for each pair of pistons 'obtainingan impulse at each in-center and two reciprocating pistons arranged in each ofpaid cylinders, a valve sleeve connected to one of said pistons, induction, transfer and exhaust ports adapted to be controlled by sa1d sleeve, cam tracks adapted to accommodate the action of the piston in effecting the rotation of the rotary member comprising oppositely inclined contact edges or surfaces dlsposed outward of the opposite ends of the series of cylinders and devices on the rods of the pistons for engaging said cam tracks.
2. An internal combustion engine operatmg on the two-stroke principle comprising a rotary member, a station-arty inclosin'g member, an annular series of parallel cylinders embodied in said rotary member, two reciprocating pistons, arranged in each of said cylinders, a valve sleeve connected to one of said pistons, induction, transfer and exhaust ports controlled by said sleeve, fixed cam tracks on said stationary member adapted to accommodate the action of the pistons in effecting the rotation of the, rotary member comprising oppositely inclined contact edges or surfaces disposed outward of the opposite ends of the cylinders, bearing devices on the rods of the pistons for engaging said cam tracks, a shaft to which the rotary member is connected and bearings carried in the stationary member for said shaft.
3. An internal combustion engine operating on the two-stroke principle comprising a rotary member consisting of a casting, an annular series of parallel cylinders formed from openended tubes secured in said casting, gland plates for closing the ends of said cylinders, two reciprocating pistons arranged in each of said cylinders, glands in said gland plates through which the rods of said pistons work, a valve sleeve connected to one of said pistons, induction, transfer and exhaust ports adapted to be controlled by said sleeve, fixed cam tracks adapted to accommodate the action of the pistons in e f-a fecting the rotation of the rotary memberw comprising oppositely inclined contact edges or surfaces disposed outward of the opposite ends of the cylinders and bearing devices on the rods of the piston/sfor engaging said .cam tracks. 7
4:. An internal comb stion engine operating on the two-stroke principle comprising a rotary member consisting of a casting, an annular series of parallel cylinders formed from open-ended tubes secured in said'casting, gland plates for closing the ends of said cylinders, two reciprocating pistons arranged in each of said cylinders, glands in said gland plates through which the rods of said pistons work, a valve sleeve pertaining to one of said pistons which sockets over the other piston, the space within the valve sleeve and between the pistons constituting the combustion chamber of the cylinder, induction transferiand exhaust ports opened and closed by said sleeve, fixed cam tracks adapted to accommodate the action of the pistons in efiecting the rotation of the rotary member comprising oppositely inclined contact edges -or surfaces disposed outward of the opposite ends of the cylinders'and bearing devices on the rods of the pistons for engaging said cam tracks.
5. An internal combustion engine operating on the two-strok principle comprising a rotary member consisting of a casting, an annular series of parallel cylinders formed from open-ended tubes secured in said casting, gland plates for closlng the ends of said cylinders, induction, transfer and exhaust .fer and exhaust ports in said cylinder tubes,
two reciprocating pistons arranged in each of said cylinders, lands in sa1d gland plates through which t erodsof sald p1S-. tons work, a valve sleeve pertaining to one of said pistons which sockets over the other piston, the space within the valve, sleeve and between the two pistons constituting the combustion chamber of the cylinder, ports in said sleeve for openin and closing said induction, transfer and e aust ports in the cylinder, fixed cam tracks adapted to accommodate the action of the pistons in eflecting the rotation of the rotary member comprising oppositely inclined contact edges or surfaces disposed outward of the opposite ends of the cylinders and bearing devices on the rods of the pistons for engaging said cam tracks.
6. An internal combustion engine operating on the two stroke principle comprising a rotary member, a stationary inclosing member, an annular series of twelve parallel cylinders embodied in said rotary member, two reciprocating pistons arranged in each of said cylinders, a valve sleeve connected to one of said pistons, induction, transfer and exhaust ports controlled by said sleeve,
a shaft to which the said rotary unit is connected and bearings for said shaft carried in the sald statlonary nclosing member, cam tracks on said stationary inclosing member adapted to accommodate the action of the pistons in effecting the rotation of the rostant contact with said cam track so that the two series of piston rods and the two opposing tracks cause the pistons of each cylinder to make two working or impulse strokes and twoinduction and compression strokes during each complete revolution of the said rotary cylinder unit, the simultaneous firing of two diametrically opposed cylinders resulting.
In testimony whereof we have hereunto set our hands in presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ARTHUR HAROLD WILKS. PERCY HAROLD HARTSHORNE. Witnesses:
ARTHUR SARTER, G. M. HOOKHAM.