US 1315483 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
T. J. EDWARDS.
GAME APPARATUS APPLICANON FILED 029.22. 1916 1,315,483. PatentedSept. 9,1919.
Imam/Z277? THE mummn PLANOQDAPXI co., WAsmNG'roN, n. c.
T. l. EDWARDS.
APPLICATION FILED DEC. 22. 1915.
1,315,483. r PatentedSept. 9,1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET Z.
THOMAS JOSEPH EDWARDS, OF BRISTOL, ENGLAND.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Sept. 9, 1919.
Application filed. December 22, 1916. Serial No. 138,371.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, THOMAS JOSEPH ED- WARDS, a subject of the King of England, residing at Bristol, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Game Apparatus, of whichthe following is a specification.
This invention relates to war games and apparatus for playing the same comprising a board and movable pieces,.and has for its object improvements which enable games to.
be played which involve complex movements in the face of varying conditions similar to those to which armies at war are subjected, thus calling for the exercise of skill closely resembling the strategy employed in actual warfare.
The present invention comprises an improved board which represents the field of hostilities and is provided with frontiers, provinces or sections, capitals, rail bases, towns, fortresses adapted to contain a concealed garrison (which may be removed when reduced), roads, and railways, woods and other obstacles (such as mountains and rivers, and passes), bridges (which can be removed when blown-up and by which rivers and like obstacles can alone be passed,) and removable screens hereinafter described.
The improved apparatus for playing the new game also includes army pieces, whose strength and mobility may be varied (according to the tactics or strategy employed, or the circumstances of the game) as well as means of masking the strength of such pieces, and pontoon bridge pieces.
In carrying my invention into practice the board will represent the maps of the countries or territories of the belligerents showing their respective capitals, towns, villanes, and bases, as well as the roads and railways connecting them. The sections hereinbefore referred to, some of which may represent provinces, or other territorial divisions are represented by squares formed by horizontal and perpendicular lines and constitute the unit of movement across country for the opposing forces. The other physical features, such as woods, rivers, mountains and passes may alsobe represented thereon. Bridges over rivers, cuttings and the like are preferably represented by pieces which may be removed when the bridge is destroyed and replaced when it is repaired. Fortified towns and bases are-provided with fort pieces adapted to be removed when reduced during hositilities. These fort pieces may be hollow to enable them to conceal any fighting units which may be moved 11 1l30l)l16111 to reinforce the permanent garrison.
In order that the belligerents may not know the strength and dispositions of each others forces removable screens are provided for the capital behind which any reserves may be stationed and the strength of the various pieces increased or decreased. Screens may also be provided for use along the frontiers at the commencement of the game for the same purpose. Smaller screens for use around fortified towns and bases may also be used to enable the strength of the garrison to be increased or decreased without the knowledge of the enemy.
In some cases dummy pieces may be enr ployed to mislead an opponent as to the strength of the other side. These dummy pieces closely resemble the fighting units 011 one side but may be distinguished from them by a different color or marking on the other side.
Each army piece which is assumed for the purpose of the game to include all necessary equipment is composed of several parts and comprises a motor transport which may take the form of a disk having a central post upon which are placed the army units, each of which may be represented by a disk with a hole or a slot in it. Alternatively the motor transport may consist of a disk with three or more posts arranged around its edge between which the army units which may consist of plain disks may be placed. A mask consisting of a cylindrical cover with a hole through the top is adapted to fit over the units in order to hide the strength of the army from the enemy, until the opposing forces are in contact, although one or more units that it may be desirable to detach during an advance or retreat, may be placed on top of the mask. Troop trains are represented by a box into which the army piece is placed for transporting along railways. I do not, however, limit myself to these constructions, as I may represent an army by a piece of some other design composed of suitable detachable elements adapted to perform the same functions, Without departing from the spirit of my invention.
I will now proceed to more particularly describe a preferred form of the improved apparatus for playing my new war game, and the mode of playing the same with the aid of the accompanying drawings in which:-
Figure 1 illustrates a. plan of one form of the improved board with screens and fort pieces removed.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the board on a reduced scale with the frontier and capital screens in position but omitting other details.
Fig. 3 is a perspective View of an army piece shown on a larger scale.
Fig. 4 shows an army transport piece in elevation.
Fig. 5 shows a fighting unit in plan.
Fig. 6 is a vertical section through an army piece showing some of its fighting units screened.
Fig. 7 is a train piece.
Fig. 8 is a bridge or pontoon piece.
Fig. 9 is a railway-cut piece.
Fig. 10 i a perspective view illustrating a fore piece, and
Fig. 11 is a movable screen for use on any part of the board when it is desired to change the strength of a fortified position without disclosing the strength to the enemy.
According to the prefer ed construction, illustrated by the drawings, the board a is provided with a plan of the territories marked 6 and c respectively of the contending forces (Fig. 1) showing frontiers 10 their respective capitals (Z, rail bases 6 fortresses f, towns g, roads 7?. and railways i.
The whole area is marked off by vertical and horizontal lines is and Z into sections j which constitute the unit of movement acrosscountry. Other physical features, such as rivers m, mountains n and passes 0 are also represented. Bridges o for crossing rivers and cuttings are also provided which may be removed when destroyed and restored to position when repaired.
The fortress pieces w and bridges o are provided with pegs which engage holes in the board to prevent their accidental removal while playing the game. I
The pieces with which my new war game is played comprise army piece 9 (Fig. 3) comprising a transport piece r consisting of a base provided with a central post as shown in Fig. at, disks 8 representing fighting units (Fig. 5), and a cylindrical cover 25 (Fig. 6) constituting an army creen or mask. Train pieces a (Fi 7) which may consist of a boX provided with a lid bearing a representation of a train (not shown) and into which one or more units or an army piece must be placed for transport by railway are also provided, as well as bridge or pontoon pieces '0 (Fig. 8) by means of which rivers and cuttings can alone be crossed, railwaycu-t pieces to (Fig. 9), fort pieces a (Fig. 10) and fort-screen pieces y (Fig. 11
The bridge pieces '0 are preferably provided with a peg '0 adapted to enter holes "0 in the board. No peg, however, is provided in the case of pontoon pieces or railway-cut pieces w. The fort pieces m may consist of a shallow box-like part provided with a peg m adapted to enter a hole m in the board. The fort pieces are also provided with a lid to hide the niunber of fighting units reinforcing its garrison. The fort screens 3/ may consist of three sides and the top of a rectangular inclosure adapted to be placed on the board around a fort piece while the strength of its garrison is being changed.
In playing my new war game each of the opposing sides is represented by an equal or other number of army pieces, composed of fighting units, rolling stock and fort pieces, according to the rules of the game which may take into account the advantages offered by the physical or other features of a mountainous country over a neighboring fiat country, or the handicapping of a better player, or the relative degree of preparedness of one of the countries as shown by the number and disposition of its fortified positions. According to one set of rules, each side is provided with sixteen fighting units, with equipment for four armies, and a corresponding number of train pieces, a suitable number of fort pieces and a fort screen, as well a railway-cut pieces and ponton pieces.
Before beginning the gamewhich period corresponds with that preceding the declaration of warthe opposing sides decide on the strategic distribution of their first line units which represents their peace strength for which purpose a temporary screen may be erected along the frontier to enable such dispositions to be carried out without the knowledge of the enemy. Or, the strength of the various fortified positions and armies may be altered in the capi- 1 0 tal which may be provided with a removable screen behind which the number of units decided upon may be introduced into the various fort-pieces andthe masked and unmasked strength of the dilferent armies adjusted whereafter they may be distributed according to the judgment of the players.
According to the embodiment illustrated by the drawings, the frontier screen 2 and capital screen 1 are placed in the position shown in Fig. 2, before commencing the game in order that the opposing sides may distribute their forces without the knowledge of each other. The frontier screen .2 preferably consists of a series of posts 2 adapted to enter holes 3 in the board onthe frontier line. These posts support a strip of sheet material 4 of sufficient height to prevent one opponent overlooking the 'others dispositions. The capital screens 1 preferably consistof three sides and the top of a rectangular inclosure provided with pegs (not shown) adapted to enter holes in the board, behind which screen the army pieces are assembled and among which army pieces some or all of the fighting units are distributed, While the remainder may be inclosed in the fort pieces to strengthen the garrisons which are used to fortify the strategic points, according to the players judgment. This latter distribution may be made behind the frontier screen in order that the opponent may not know the strength of the garrisons.
In order that an army may be moved without the enemy knowing its strength, some of its fighting units may be placed beneath the mask 6 when screened from View within the capital, while the remainder of its units may be exposed on top of the mask in the manner shown in Figs. 3 and 6.
Var having been declared and the oppos- 111g forces having been disposed, according to the judgment of each player, the frontier screen 2 is removed and each side moves according to the rules of the game which may be alternately either from section to section across-country (that is, where there are no connecting roads) or from town to town, along roads; or any distance along intact portions of the railway, if train pieces are available. Rules may provide that forces may only move along railways in train pieces which must first be brought to the place occupied by the force, and that a rail-road is not intact if under fire or occupied at any point to be passed by the force. An army or disconnected units occupying cross-roads or a junction may at one move distribute its strength or a part of it among the first towns along two or more roads radiating from it. In like manner several units occupying positions at a distance of one move from another town or section may reinforce each other at that point in one move. Rules may also provide that rivers and cuttings can only be crossed by bridges and if same have been destroyed they must first be repaired by moving the force to the place where the brldge was to establish a bridgehead, which means that an extra move'must be taken causing a delay, as in the case of actual warfare when bridges are destroyed.
Forces one move distant from each other are in contact and may be taken by a superior force the efficiency of which varies according to the nature of the place in which the action is fought.
A superior force can take a weaker force situated at one move distance unless the latter retreats before its opponent moves.
The relative strength of attacking and defending forces depends on the nature of the country in which they are operating. Thus, in a fortified section an attacking force must be two fighting units stronger in order to effect a capture, thus five units are required to capture a force of three units.
When a defending force occupies a mountain pass, double its number plus one are required to effect a capture, thus, five units are required to capture a force two units strong. Under other conditions a force can be taken by another that is only one unit stronger.
A state of siege exists when the railway connecting a base of operations with its capital is cut or under the fire of enemy units one move distant from said railway, unless such base is held by one or more field units operating within three intact moves from another base which is not besieged. During a state of siege the beleaguered force must surrender one unit for every move made by his opponent. This has its counterpart in real warfare in the losses sustained by a garrison that cannot be made good during a siege.
A force occupying a position less than three or other prescribed number of intact moves from its base of operations has offensive power, that is to say it has the power to capture weaker forces of the enemy. A force which occupies a position the prescribed number of moves distant from its base has only defensive power that is to say it has power to resist capture by any but a stronger force.
A force occupying a position more than the prescribed number of moves distant from its base is regarded as an isolated force and can only escape capture by retreat. Forces operating from a besieged base are also regarded as isolated.
hen a masked force is attacked by the enemy it must either be got out of contact or its screen must be removed leaving its forces exposed to the enemys view before any other piece is. moved. If this force consists of more than 9 fighting units the excess must be placed on a section next to and in the rear of the position occupied before another move is made but this re-distribution of strength does not count as a move.
When any force is unmasked in a position outside the capital it may not again be masked unless first moved into the capital where forces may be re-organized as often as necessary during the course of the game, but such re-distribution within the capital shall not count as a move. Any number of masked pieces may occupy the capital at the same time but no section outside maybe occupied by more than one masked piece at the same time.
When the capital is attacked its sc rTaen must be removed and each piece within it unmasked before a reply move is made. When the enemy is in contact with his opponents capital no army piece in the sald capital may consist of more than 9 units and units must only move within the capital from section to section, during this period trains may not move in or out of the capital. After the attacking force has retreated from the capital 0. when enemy units are no longer in contact with it) its screen may be replaced and the'forces within it may be re-distributed and moved as before.
hen a hostile force is in contact with a railway, the railway is considered to be out until the hostile force has been driven away. In this case a railway-cut piece may be placed on the line which may not then be passed by any train piece. A force retreating across a bridge will be assumed to have afterward destroyed the bridge which will be indicated by the removal of the bridge piece or the employment of another part (not shown) to indicate that the bridge is destroyed. The river can then only be crossed by the enemy after he has restored the bridge, for which purpose a halt. must -be made to establish a bridge-head.
When a force desires to cross a river where there is no bridge he must first bring up a pontoon-piece from the nearest base unless the force is assumed to be equipped with one.
IV hen it is desired to vary the strength of a fort piece after it is in position a screen (see Fig. 11) may be placed around it while one or more units are introduced or with drawn.
The rules may provide for the employment of second line troops to be called up after war has been declared to bring the forces up to war strength. These may be mobilized by either side at any time after the first move.
Third line troops may be called up to keep the first and second line armies up to full strength and may be drawn in pro-determined numbers from each province not in enemy occupation. This relay of strength has its counterpart in real warfare in the resources of the country. 7
The fourth line troops may be equipped and mobilized by fines levied on provinces or sections occupied in the enemys country and has its counterpart in real warfare when the conquering side draws resources from the occupied country.
In some cases I may dispense with the frontier screen, fort screen (Fig. 11), removable bridge and railway-cut piece, in which latter case a railway will only be treated as cut or a bridge destroyed so long as a hostile force is in contact with it.
1. Apparatus for playing games compris ing a board having thereon representations of the opponents capitals, frontiers, mountains, rivers, and other physical and political features also bridges and fort-pieces; removable screens around the capitals and movable army pieces each of which comprises a variable number of concealed fighting units substantially as set forth.
2. Apparatus for playing games comprising a board having thereon representations of the opponents capitals, frontiers, mountains, rivers and other physical and political features, removable hollow bridge pieces, removable fort pieces to contain a concealed garrison, and movable army pieces substantially as set forth.
3. Apparatus for playing games comprising a board having thereon representations of the opponents capitals, frontiers, mountains, rivers and other physical and political features, holes in said board where bridges are indicated, bridge pieces having pe s to engage such holes, other holes in said board where forts are indicated, fort pieces having pegs to engage such holes and movable army pieces, substantially as set forth.
at. Apparatus for playing war games comprising a board in combination with movable army pieces each of which comprises a stand provided with a post, a plurality of disks representing fighting units and holes in said disks to engage said post substantially as set forth.
5. Apparatus for playing a game comprising a board in combination with movable army pieces each of which comprises a stand provided with a post a plurality of disks each representing a fighting unit, holes in said disks to engage said post and an outer cover to conceal the number of said disks so as to mask the strength of the force substantially as set forth.
6. Apparatus for playing a game comprising a board in combination with divisible pieces each of which comprises a stand representing the equipment of an army, a plurality of parts each representing a fighting unit, a part to envelop the fighting units so as to screenthe strength of the piece and a boX representing a train piece to inclose the whole substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
THOMAS JOSEPH EDIVARDS.
Witnesses HERBERT ARKnLL, WILLIAM J. PERKINS.
Copies of this patent may be obtained for five cents each, by addressing the"Commissi0ner of Patents,
Washington, D. G.