Reinforcing element fob
US 1317824 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. C. BOYSE.
BEINFORCING ELEMENT FOR CONCRETE.
APP Al HLED IIAY n ms L 6 1,317,824, Patented Oct. 7,1919.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GBOVEB C. BOYSE, OI TAGOMA, WABEIINGTON.
BEINIOBCIHG ELEMENT FOB CONCRETE.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I Gnovnn 0. Refer, a citizen of the United States, residing at Tacoma, in the county of Pierce, State of W ashin n, have invented certampew and useful In rovements in Reinforci Elements for oncrete; and I do hereby eclare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
My invention relates to remforcm elements for concrete construction, an has particular reference to reinforcing bars for use in any loose rod system of concrete reinforcement.
The primary ob'ect of my invention is to provide a rein orcing bar for concrete construction which will possess a maximum of reinforcing efliciency, both from the standpoints of bonding efi'ect andtensile strength, with a minlmum of required weight of metal.
It is furthermore an object of the invention to provide a reinforcing element of the deformed bar type, which can be constructed with a minimum of labor, and in which a large part of .thetensile stre h is due to the working of the metal by t e rolls, and in which the deformations are so constructed and arranged that the bar may be used in.
any class of work where the loose rod system is used without special positioning of the rods or bars with regard to the deformations.
In the various forms of deformed reinforcing bars, which are known to me, certain disadvanta s to the practical universal use of the ars are a parent. Either the amount of metal whic is necessary to the requisite strength of the bar, or for the formation of the deformities, makes the cost of the bars prohibitive, or else, the bars do not combine the requisite properties of bond and tensile strength, due to some lack of proper proportion. For these and other reasons, the square twisted bar has been found to be the most practical of all deformed bars to my knowledge.
However, the twisted bar above mentioned also possesses certain disadvanta s, the principal one arising from the fact t at there is always a tendency. where the bar is gripped at one end. for it to twist or turn and therefore cause the concrete to crack.
It is one of the principal objects of my in- Specification of Letters Patent.
Application filed Bay 17, 1816. Serial No. 98,098.
Patented Oct. 7, 1919.
vention to avoid such a twisting tendency by certain of the peculiarities o construction embodied in my invention. It mi ht be mentioned that the square twisted ar requires a rehandling in its manufacture to provide the twist, an item which does not appear in the manufacture of the bar of my invention.
In providing. a deformed bar in which the bond and tensile strength are properly proportioned, I have, as another object of m invention, to provide a construction in whic the bar possesses a constant sectional area, the provision of such a constant sectional area arising from the suitable and peculiar disposition of lugs or webs, which extend in directions to brace the body of the bar from all angles, so that, in efi'ect, the body hecomes practically a trussed bar.
The peculiar arrangement of lugs or webs above mentioned also affords a great resistance to the bending of the bar even when the latter is not used as a reinforcing element, and furthermore permits the construction of a bar which requires. a relatively small amount of space in a concrete mass when considered in connection with the bonding properties of the bar.
It is to be noted, in connection with the following description, that my improved bar ma be constructed for use in any kind of rein orcing concrete construction without requiring the use of an ater number of sizes than is required 0 t e plain bars now in ordinary use. a
With the above, and other objects in View, as will hereinafter appear, my invention will now be fully set forth and described, reference being had to the accompanying drawmg.
In said drawin s, Figure 1, for the sake of clearness is ca led a front elevation of a section of a bar forming the subject matter of my invention,
Fig. 2 is a rear elevation,
Fig. 3 is a plan view,
Fig. 4 is a bottom view of the bar as the latter is viewed when held in the same position as Fig. 1,
Fig. 5 is an.e1evation of the bar when the latter has been turned on its axis to another position,
Fig. 6 is a rear elevation,
Fig. 7 is a bottom view,
Fig. 8 is a plan view of the bar when held in the same position as Fig. 5,
Fig. 9 is a section on line 99 of 2,
Fig. 10 is a section on line 10-10 of Fig. 3,
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the ar, and
Figs. 12 and 13 are cross sectional views of the modifications of the construction illustrated in the foregoing figures.
Referring more articularly to said drawings, a represents t 1e body of the bar, which is provided with a plurality of longitudinal wings or ribs 12. In Fi' 1 to 11, the body a is shown provided wit four equally spaced ribs b, and in the modified forms of Figs. 12 and 13 respectively, the body is shown-provided with two win and three wings.
In the preferred cm of Figs. 1 to 11, the ribs or wings 1) project at equal distances apart from the bod a, and are widened at their bases so that t ey merge into the body portion a of the bar.
Disposed between the wlngs or ribs b and rising from the body a, are sets of we s or lugs, said lugs being arranged, practically, in two groups, the ugs g and d appearing on opposite sldes of the wing or rib b in Fig. 1 representing one group and the lugs or webs e and f, rising on opposite sides of the rib b in Fig; 2 constituting the second group. It will be noted that the grou c, d appears on the opposite side of the or from the group 8, f
. The extreme outline of the bar, in cross section, as best seen in Figs.- 9, 10, 12 and 13 is circular, since the webs or lugs c, d, c and f have their free edges rounded and their extremities so merged into the ribs 12 that the bar, in effect, 15 circular in cross section.
As noted in Fig. 1, the lugs or webs c and d form substantially a continuous web through the rib b, all of said continuous webs thus formed extendin diagonally in one direction and in paral elism, and the lugs being spaced apart longitudinally a distance equal to the greater diameter of the rod.
As shown in Fig. 2, the lgroup: of lugs e and f which appear u on t e opposite side of the bar also constitute substantial con tinuous webs extending through the opposite corresponding rib b, the continuous webs on this side also extending in substantial diagonal arallelism, but in the opposite diagonal irection from that in which the group a, d is positioned.
As hereinabove mentioned, it is a prlmary object of my invention to provide a reinforcing bar of constant cross sectional area, and the disposition of the lugs c, d, e and f, and the groups of lugs 0, cl, and e, f possess a, function to this end.
As above described, the lugs on one side of the bar, asillustrated in Fig. 1, run in one direction, while those on the opposite side of the bar run in the opposite d agonal direction, and furthermore, the lugs on both sides, which form the two groups referred to, meet in a common point, and appear to form a continuous ridge throu h the rib on the corresponding part of the r.
Referring now to Figs. 3 and 4, it will be noted that the webs a and the webs e which appear in the front elevation of the bar range in o posite directions from the side rib b whic appears in this elevation, and that the webs or wings d and f which ap ear on the opposite side or rear elevation o the bar also range'in o posite directions from the corresponding si e ri'b, but that they also extend in the opposite direction from the webs c and e which appear in the front elevation.
The group a, d of webs which appears upon the upper side of the bar, is staggered 01' shifted lengthwise of the bar oneuarter of the diameter of the latter, with re erence to the group 0 and f which appears upon the lower side of the bar. This staggered relation of the groups is illustrated in Figs. 3 and 4, where it will be noted that the webs c and (i do not converge to a common point upon the corresponding ribs b with the webs or lugs e and f. a
The above combination and arrangement of ribs and lugs provides the constant cross sectlonal area of the bar.
Fig. 9 is a cross section through the bar at one point, and shows, aside from the symmetrical arrangen'ient of ribs 6 and the cirullar contour of the webs c, d, e and 7, an offset or projection f, which is a section through the middle point of one of the webs Fig. 10 is a section through the bar at a difl'erent point, so that the intersecting plane, instead of cutting merely one of the webs or lugs, intersects two of the lugs, as e, d, so that projections e and d are formed, but it will be noted that the area of the proeetion f in Fig. 9 is equal to the combined areas of projections e and d in Fig. 10. Therefore, since the cross sectional area of the rod (1 is constant throughout the latter,
this area added to the sectional areas of the 1 lug or lugs c, d, e or 7 which occurs at any particular point along the bar is a uniform quantity. i r
Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8 are views taken with the short diameter of the rod in elevation, in this position, the lugs or webs c, d, e and f appearing to project above the body of the bar. The directions in which the various lugs extend, and the relationship of adjacent groups and series of lugs are clearly disclosed.
The channels formed between the ribs 11 are spanned by the webs or lugs which extend in one diagonal direction in one channel and in an' opposite diagonal direction in an adjacent channel, when viewed in the light of the last mentioned fi res, and serving not only to provide an increased bond, but act to greatly increase the strength of the bar, so that allsurplus weight of metal in the bar is avoided, and all of the metal in the bar is employed to resist any tensional strain on the latter. In such deformed bars with which I am familiar, the sole function of lugs is to provide greater bond, and any metal used in this manner is a surplus, and the engineer is required to select bars of suflicient sectional area, aside from the area of the lugs, to resist the tension to which the bars would be subjected. Since steel is sold by weight, it will be readily recognized that the saving of weight which is accounted for by my im roved construction will constitute a consi erable item in making estimates for any particular piece of work.
By reason of the circular contour which is provided by the arrangement of ribs and lugs, my improved, bar construction provides, with a minimum of metal or weight of metal, a maximum shear area, and it will be furthermore noted that whatever appearance one side of my ar resents, the opposite side will present an identical but opposite arrangement of parts, so that when the bar has been embedded in a piece of concrete, there is no tendency for the bar to break out of the concrete by reason of horizontal, vertical or daunting action. Any stress coming on the lugs on one or more sides of the bar that would tend to turn or move it in any direction is counteracted by an equal force of stress upon the lugs on the opposite side. Furthermore, all sharp edges or cornerswhich are common in twisted bars are avoided in the present construction, so that the tendency of concrete to crack along such sharp edges is avoided. By reason of the construction above defined, I have found my reinforcin bar to be valuable in reinforcing the undersides of concrete floor slabs or girders, since the lugs run at such an angle that even where concrete has been loosened b the heat of a fire, a comparatively smal part of the concrete will fall away from the bars because the lugs and ribs provide a firm lock for the concrete.
It has been stated that my improved bar is intended to possess a maximum of tensile strength with a minimum of metal, and this is accomplished also by the particular arrangement of the lugs between the ribs, so that, no matter what position the bar may .assume in a concrete construction, proper rovision is made for bracing the bar against bending in any of the four directions between the four points of ribs 15 of the bar,
'since the lugs not only span the ribs and merge with the body a, but also arch outwardly'to provide a circular contour. In this sense, the bar is reinforced or strengthened much in the same manner that a trussed girder is strengthened.
What is claimed is 1.. A metallic bar for use as reinforcement in concrete construction having a uniform body portion longitudinally of the neutral axis, which body portion in cross section is formed with concave faces and the metal between the marginal portions of said faces forms radial ribs extending parallel with but remote from the neutral axis to increase resistance to collapse by bending for any given weight of metal, and -a plurality of isolated lugs extending diagonal y across the concave faces from rib to rib, said lugs overlapping each other longitudinally of the bar and bang of a cross sectional area which varies inversely throughout the overla ping portions whereby a uniform distribution of metal in the lugs is effected throughout the length of the bar and the combined cross sectional area of the body and lugs is substantially a constant.
2. A metallic bar for use as reinforcement in. concrete construction having a uniform body portion longitudinally of the neutral axis, which body portion in cross section is formed with equally spaced concave faces and the metal between the marginal portions of said faces forms equally spaced radial ri bs extending parallel with but remote from the neutral axis to increase resistance to collapse b bending for any given weight of metal an a plurality of isolated lugs extending diagonally across the respective concave faces and at their ends merglng into the edges of the ribs, said In overlapping each other longitudinally of t e bar and being of a cross sectional area which varies inversely throughout the overlapping portions whereby a uniform distribution of metal in the lugs is effected throughout the length of the bar and the combined cross sectional area of the body and lugs is substantially a constant.
3. A metallic bar for use as reinforcement in concrete construction having a bod portion which in cross section is form with diametrically opposite concave faces and the metal between the mar inal portions of said faces forming longitudinal ribs remote from and radial with respect to the neutral axis to increase resistance to collapse by bending for an given weight of metal and lugs integral with said body extending across the concavities from rib to rib, the lugs on diametrically opposite faces being arranged in parallel planes inclined to the axis of the bar and the lugs being overlapped longitu- 4 term faces with the faces of each 'r diametri' cally opposed and the meta between the marginal portions of said faces forming longitudinal ribs remote from the neutral axis to increase resistance to colla by bending for any given weight of meta and lugs integral with said body extending across the concavities from rib to rib, the lugs on diametrically opposite faces being arranged in parallel planes inclined to the axis of the bar, the planes of inclination of the lugs on one pair of faces intersecting the planes of inclination of the lugs on the other pair of faces, said lugs being overlapped longitudinally of the bar and varied inversely in cross sectlonal area to effect a uniform distribution of metal and form a bar of substantially constant cross sectional area.
5. A. metal bar for reinforcement in concrete construction polygonal in cross section, each face being concave transversely of the bar and a series of lugs extending across the coneavities in planes inclined to the neutral axis of the her, said lugs overlapping each other to maintain the constant, sect1on of the bar and having their outer edges curved in arcs having the neutral axis of the bar as a center and their inner rtions made to conform to the curve of t e concave faces of the bar.
In testimony whereof I afiix my signature in the presence of two witnesses.
GBOVER C. ROYSE.
E. W. SrnwAn'r, JOHN AsrrroN.