US 1317947 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 11. 1911.
1,317,947. Patented Oct. 7,1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
W. SODERLING z m a .0 n a RESPIRATOR.
APPLICATION HLED NOV. 17. 1911.
Patented Oct. 7,1919.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 %13 anon M21 M,W f
WALTER SODERLING, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented Get. a, rare.
Application filed November 17, 1917. Serial No. 202,468.
To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, WALTER Sonnnmne, a citizen of the United States, and a resldent of the borough of Manhattan, city, county,
and State of New York, have invented an Improvement in Respirators, of which the following is a specification.
' This invention relates to respirators and more particularly to that type of respirator adapted for use in filtering" air laden with dust or other particles.
Among the objects of this invention may be mentioned the provision of a simple, practical and durable respirator of highly eflicient action, and of relatively inexpensive construction. Another object is to provide a respirator of minimum size and weight and of such flexibility of construction, that any or all parts are readily and conveniently taken apart for inspection, cleaning, replacement or repair of the parts. This invention aims also to provide a rigid and durable filter mounting or retainer in which the filter medium is securely mounted for most efiicient action, and of such character that the medium may be readily and conveniently replaced or renewed. Among the objects also may be pointed out to provide a respirator adapted to be applied to the face and having such novel featuresas to insure maximum comfort to the wearer under all conditions of use. Another object is to provide a simple and practical construction to minimize the exposure of metal parts to the moisture inside the device and thus to decrease the corrosive action thereon.
In the accompanying drawing, in which is shown oneof various possible embodi' the respirator body to show the construction and action thereof more clearly.
Figs. 7 and 8 are rear views of the respirator body portion, illustrating certain features, and
Fig. 9 is a partial cross section showing a modified form of filter mounting and showin certain features of the invention.
eferring now to the drawings there is shown a respirator comprising a body portion 10 upon which is mounted, by means to be hereinafter described, an air transmitting medium or filter retainer '28. The respirator with the parts in assembled relation, as shown in the drawings, may be applied to the face and held in operative position thereon by means of the straps 12 and 13 secured to the body portion 10 by means of the double-headed buttons 14: and 15 fastened in suitable openings in the body 10, and passing around to the back of the neck lwhere they are hooked together by suitable means, such as the hook 16 and the eye 17. The straps are preferably of an elastic construction, and in order that the pressure with which the respirator is heldin contact with the face may be varied at will, the tension of the elastic straps may be adjusted by means of the buckle 18.
The body ortion 10 is. composed of a relatively flexible material, preferably rubber, and is made of such size and shape as to closely incase the nose and mouth of the wearer, so that the air space surrounding these parts is a minimum. Accordingly, the
innermost end or face-contacting end of the body 10 is made of sufii'cient size to encompass the nose and mouth of the wearer and the body 10 is then gradually diminished in cross section to terminate at its outermost end preferably in a ring 19, provided at its outer surface with a head 20. Upon this ring,v and held in position by the bead 20, is mounted the filter retainer in a manner to be hereinafter described.
Referring to Fig. 4, it will be seen that' the thickness of the material forming the body 10 is gradually reduced as it approaches the face-contacting ortion thereof. This material, being preferably of rubberand' being relatively flexible, is made at the outermost end of the body 10, asfor example in the portions adjacent the ring 19, of a thickness sufiicient to insure the proper rigidity of the structure. The material composing the body 10 immediately adjacent the face-contacting edge 21 is gradually reduced in thickness, as is more clearly shown in Fig. 5, to produce a circumferential. face-contacting portion havin a gradually tapering or feather edge. his
reduction in thickness of the portion of the,
body 10 adjacent the face results in the production of a thin face-contactingedge of great resiliency and flexibility, by which material advantages are gained, as will be pointed out hereinafter.
The body 10 is provi of the uppermost or nose-incasm portion with knobs 2223 respectively, w ich may be made integral with the body 10. Secured in suitable openings in the knobs 22-23 is a substantially V-shapedwire 24 preferably of a steel composition. The ends of this wire pass through the knobs 2223 and may be bent over as is more clearly shown in Fig. 3.
The mounting for the filter comprises a ring-shaped sheet metal member 25 provided with a cylindrical portion 26, and an annular end portion 27 adapted to engage the ring 19 and to be held in place thereon by the bead 20, as is shown in cross-section in Fig. 4. The circular opening in the end portion 27 is made substantially of the same diameter as the outside diameter of the ring 19, immediately adjacent the head 20. The body 10, bein of a, relatively flexible material, is readi y collapsed or folded in at its reduced or attenuated. portion and passed through the opening of the end portion 27. Upon the return to normal of the rin portion of body 10, the ring member 2 will be securely mounted upon the ring 19 and rigidly held in positionby the bead 20 at the same time forming a substantially airtight joint therewith.
The filter 28 is preferably circular in form, and is mounted upon the cylindrical portion 26 of the ring-shaped member 25 by means of a fastenin member 29. The fastening member is su stantially ring-shaped and comprises a cylindrical or band portion 30 adapted to fit over the cylindrical portion 26 and the superposed filter thus securely retaining the latter in operative position. In order to insure great rigidity to the ring member 29, a bead 31 isprovided at the outer end of the cylindrical portion 30. The
curved outwardly and away from the medium 28 as is clearly shown in cross section in Fig. 4:. By reason of such construction of the fastening member 29, maxlmum rigded 0'11 up two sides.
idity of the filter mounting is attained witl1 out impairment of the eificiency of operation of the filtering medium 28.
. The. preferably of a metal, for example alumithe construction herein described provides for 2.. 11111111111111]. interior exposure of such parts to the moisture contained in the ex-- In the embodiment herein shown, this medium is a dry filter adapted to be used in atmospheres laden with dust and other particles, and is preferably provided with a substantially smooth exterior surface, In this manner the dust and other particles, prevented from passing through the medium upon an inhalation, are caught upon the exterior surface thereof and, upon the succeeding exhalation of air, are blown off, leaving the pores of the medium free and unobstructed. Breathing tatecl with least inconvenience and with minimum efi'ort. It is to be noted, however, that this medium may be chemically treated and otherwise modified to adapt it to be used for purifying gas-laden atmospheres by chemically or otherwise neutralizing ious gases therein. I
It isfurther to be noted that the construction is such that the respirator closely incases the nose and month. In this manner the air space is made a minimum and the amount of dead air remaining within the respirator is reduced to a .minimum. This construction insures the inhaling of a maximum amount of fresh or purified air drawn directly through the filter by diminnishing the amount of dead. air remaining within the respirator.
Upon being applied to the face, the. faceparts 25-29 of the mounting are I r num, which is not readily susceptible to cor-" rosion or oxidatidn, and it will be noted that I the obnox-' respirator a suitable air is thereby facilicontacting portions of the respirator, which as reviously described terminatein a gradual y tapering edge, contact with the face substantially as shown in Fig. 5, the contact being practically a line of contact,
Upon adjusting the tension of the straps 1'213, by means of the buckle 18, so that the respirator will be securely held against the face, the contacting portions ofthe body 10 will take, in general, the form shown in cross-section in Fig. 6. The edge portions of the body 10,1being gradually tapered, have a greater degree of flexibility and resiliencythan the body portion proper and are readily curved outwardly as in Fig. 6, due
to the pressure'applied to the respirator by the straps. The contact with the face .thereupon becomes a peripheral surface of contact, as will be obvious from Fig. 6, and by reason of the great flexibility and resiliency of the face-contacting portions of the body 10, these portions readily conform to the irregularities of the contour of the face, without impairing the surface of contact therewithv or the air-tightness thereof. The action of the face-contacting portions as just described, results in the production of a contact with the face, the air-tightness of which is greater I and more reliable than if the contact were not distributed over a surface. The degree of air-tightness is a function of the area of-the surface of contact, the eater the surface the greater the air-tig tness. By increasing the pressure by which the respirator is held in contact with the face, the surface of contact can be increased in area, as will be obvious from Fig.. 6, and the air-tightness correspondingly increased. The pressure may be adjusted by varying the tension exerted-by the straps 12-13, whence the surface 7 of contact is correspondingly adjusted. I e
The action of the face-contacting edge of the respirator body will be as hereinbe fore described and substantially uniform througho'utthe entire periphery, excepting in the parts of the periphery on either side of the which contact with the face in the depression adjacent the nose and the eye. 'In order to maintain substantial uni formity of action throughout of the edge ortions tocontact with the face in a surace, the wire attachment 24 provides for adjusting the body portion 10 to insure proper action of the tapered edge. This attachment, in the embodiment herein shown,
comprises the steel wire 24 which, when manually adjusted and set, adjusts the width of the body portion 10 to accommodate it to noses of various widths, thereby to so posltion the edge portions thereof with respect to the depressions adjacent the nose, as to cause the contacting edge to assume the proper form, to contact in a surface.
This ad ustment may be so made thatthe proper surface of contact with such depresslons is attained even before pressure is applied to the body proper. In this manner the part of the body portion 10 immediately surrounding the nose may be given any desired degree of contraction commensurate with the degree of contact desired at these parts. It will be obvious that means may be used other than the wire 24 for varying the contraction of the body portion 10.
I The construction of agradually tapered face-contacting edge, acting as described to, contact with the face in a surface throughuncomfortable intensity of pressure upon.
the face by reason of the distribution of the pressure throughout a surface. Furthermore, constant irritation and sores and other discomfort are efl'ectually done away with by the yielding or resilient engaging surface.
It has'beenfound that resplrators, particularly when used in atmospheres of low temperature, are affected by the condensation of the moisture in the exhaled air upon the interior walls of the respirator body. In cold atmospheres this condensation and resultant accumulation of moisture, may be considerable, and result in much discomfort to the wearer.
In order to' effectively prevent such objectionable accumulation, a lining '33, as shown in Fig. 7, is provided for the interior of the respirator body 10. This lining may be constructed of a suitable cotton or flannel material, and is so shaped as to substantially cover the interior surface, leaving the periphery or face-contacting edge free to function in the manner heretofore described. The lining 33 overlaps at its ends 38, which are suitably sewed together and is preferably secured to the body 10 by means of the buttons 14 and 15, which likewise serve to attach the fastening straps 12 and 13 respectively to the respirator body. It is to be understood, however, that this invention also contemplates securing the lining in other of various possible manners. In Fig. 7 the lining 33 is shown encompassing the interior surface excepting that portion thereof immediately adjacent the nose. This construction is not undesirable, since the maXimum amount of condensation occurs in the major portion of the respirator which is therefore lined as shown in Fig. 7. It is to'be understood, however, that this lining sorbed by the lining 33 so that the disadvantages resulting from condensation of moisture are effectively removed. The lining 33 is readily removable and may be replaced without inconvenience and without detract- .ing from the sanitary features of the recontemp spirator as a whole.
It has also been found that the accumulation of moisture resulting from condensation or from pers iration in the peripheral parts contacting wlth the face, works out from beneath the edge and gathers dust particles which result in great irritation when such conditions exist in atmospheres laden with chemical dusts which readily react With.
' the body, as is clearly indicated by the broken line 39 in Fig. 8. As shown in Fig. 8, this extensionis combined with the linlng heretofore d'escribed for preventing the condensation of the moisture on the interior surface of the respirator body, and is likewise made readily detachable by fastening to the buttons 14 and 15.
I The lining 34: serves to insulate the con-' tact with the face from the moisture resulting from condensation or perspiration, by
effectively absorbing the moisture within itself. In this manner a contact with the face is produced which is free from moisture and hence does not produce'disagreeable irritations resulting from chemical reactions of the dusts with free moisture. The lining 34 is likewise reatlilydetached and replaced whenever sanitary conditions require, and at no time interfereswith the functioning of the feather face-contacting edge as heretofore described in detail.-
In Fig. 9 is .shown a modified form of respirator, comprising the improved body portion 10 terminating" in a ring 19 provided at its outer surface with a bead 20 as heretofore described. The filter mounting is provided with a ring-shaped sheet metal membe! having a flared annular end portion 27' terminating at its outer end in the cylindrical portion 26. vAt its innermost end and smaller diameter, the sheet metal. member is provided with an annular flanged portion 35, so formed as to receive and substantially incase the bead 20 on the ring 19 of the body .portion 10. This construction results in a mounting, the inner surface of which is substantially continuous and unbroken, the end face of the ring 19 and bead 2O substantially merging into the flaring surface of the portion 27. The filter medium 28' is mounted upon the cylindrical end portion :26 by means of the fastening member 29 in the manner heretofore described.
In order to diminish the exposure of the metal parts to the moisture-laden exhaled air, the annular washer 36 is provided and adapted to fit into the ring-shaped member 26 to substantially cover the interior surfaces thereof. This washer is preferably made of a felt material, and its outside diameter is made slightly larger than the inside diameter of the cylindrical portion 26'.
The diameter of the opening in the washer 36 is made substantially equivalent to that of the opening inthe ring portion 19 of the body 10. The washer 36, being of a greater diameter than that of the cylindrical portion 26', will assume a position and form, when inserted in the filter mounting, substantially as shown in Fig.- 9, and will conform to the flaring annular, end portion 27. The opening in the washer will register with the opening in the body l0, and willv the filter mounting prolonged; It is to be a noted that the washer 36 is not confined in its application to the modificationshown in Fig. 9, and that it is readily ada table to other constructions, such as is s own in Fig. 4, for example.
It will be seen that this invention provides a simple and practical respirator of light weight and of relatively inexpensiveconstruction. It is noted also that there is provided a respirator of eat convenience and of a minimum discomfio rt to the wearer, and that it is of such construction as to leave a free nd unobstructed line of vision. These features combine to allow the use of goggles or .glasses with this respirator without combining such goggles therewith to form a cumbersome mask.
It may be set forth also that this invention provides a respirator that may be readily adapted to various conditions of use, such as in dust or gas-laden atmosphere, in connection with surgical work, and others.
It is also to be pointed out that a respirator is provided which is readily taken apart and reassembled and that therefore the parts maybe readily replaced. This is I particularly true of the filter medium which may have to be frequently renewed. Furthermore, the construction provided for allows the respirator to be readily taken apart for inspection, cleaning orsterilization. In
the latter case sterilization is completely ac-c complished since each part of the respirator is readily operated upon individually.
This invention also provides, it Will be noted, a filter mounting of great simplicity and of great durability, combining great strength, rigidity and simplicity Without impairment of eflicient action of the filtering medium itself. 4
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention and as various changes might be made in the embodimentabove set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a lim iting sense.
I claim as my invention:
1. A respirator comprising a face engaging member of flexible molded material and spring means located outside of said face engaging member and engaging spaced portions of said member and adapted to press said portions yieldingly toward each other to effect conforming contact of said member with the nose and face of the wearer.
2. A respirator comprising a face engaging member having U-shaped spring means attachable externally and adjustable to retain said member yieldingly in face conforming shape.
3. A respirator comprising filter retaining means, a face engaging member having a face engaging attenuated edge, and a laterally yielding U-shaped spring engaging the face engaging member at a less attenuated portion to hold the attenuated edge in conforming contact with the nose and face of the wearer.
4. A respirator comprising filter retaining means including a filter supporting ring, and a face engaging member having a relatively rigid ring supporting portion provided with means to prevent accidental detachment of said ring from said rigid portion in a for- Ward direction and a relatively flexible and resilient portion normally larger than the opening in said ring but adapted to be yieldingly distorted and passed through said opening to engage the ring on the relatively rigid portion of said face engaging member and When in normal distended condition of use to prevent accidental detach ment of the ring in a rearward direction.
5. A respirator comprising a face engaging member offiexible material, a filter sup ported in effective air. filtering relation to said *face engaging member, and spring means located outside of said face engaging member and engaging spaced portions of said member and adapted to press said portions yieldingly toward each other toeffect conforming contact of said member With the nose and face of the wearer.-
6. A respirator comprising a face engaging member having U-shaped spring means attachable externally and adapted to retain said member yieldingly in face conforming shape and a filtering member arranged in effective air filtering relation with respect to said face engaging member.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification this 15th day of November, 1917.
WALTER SODERLIN G.