Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS1318052 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 7, 1919
Filing dateMay 21, 1918
Priority dateMay 21, 1918
Publication numberUS 1318052 A, US 1318052A, US-A-1318052, US1318052 A, US1318052A
InventorsRussell S Carter
Original AssigneeRussell S Carter
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 1318052 A
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)



APPLICATION man JULY u, 914. nENEwED MAY 21.1'918.


.9 A j ffy lll f l) R. S. CARTER.


APPLICATION m50 mLY|7.1914. RENEv/ED MAY 2x. una.


' eieren srnires einem cientos,



Application led July 17, 1914, Serial No. 851,446. RenewedMay 21, 1918.

T0 all 'whom may concern:

Be it known that. l, RUSSELL S. CARTER, n citizen of the United States7 residing et Hewlett, in the county of Nassau and State of New York, have invented the following-described improvements in Shock-Absorbers.

rTheA improvements relate 'more particulerly to shock absorbers of the kind in which the shook pressures are absorbed or stored by the resistance to movement ot en oscilletory piston meinber Working` in it confined fluid resistance medium, and comprise sev eral features independently and in combina* tion, adapting' such absorbers for more convenient und economic manufacture, for

' greater convenience in application to the ports between which the shock to be :ibsorbed, for prmlucinghi` e difference betweei'i the impact und recoil resistences, or adjusting the lebsorbing action and for improving the `general eliiciency and utility of such nbsorbers. More especially these improvements'nre related to the shock absorber for automobiles sho-Wn in my co-pending Patent No.. 1,171,169, dated February 8, 1916,' and wherein the shock energy is transmitted, to the resistance medium through :i springA yielding member that 'reacts against and modifies the action ofi'r theyehicle springs.

Reference may be hud to such applicationl for such unclaimed metter appearing herein that is common to both deif'ices. Y

In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate the principle of .the present iinprovements and the best mode in which l have contemplated lapplying that prir'lciple7 Figure l :i vertical section of the ini: proved shock Aabsorber g Fig. 2, n central section of Fig. l, with parts in elevation;

Fig. 3, u side elevation detail of the mode of attachment of the absorber;

Figs.- 8 and 9, are sections of n further niodiiiczttion.

in general, the absorber is comprised of e casing o f sector shape adapted to contain Specification of Letters Patent.

Patented (Pct. 7, i919.

serial no. estesi.

sind4 confine the liquid resistance medium, and i blade member dividing the liquid in two portions and edepted to oseillnte rela.- tively lthrough the liquid so es to cause it to iiow from one side to the other thereof, and also suitable connecting ineens whereby the casing on the one hand and the blade ineinber on the other, are attached respectively to the ports between which the-shoclrvuis to be'controlled. The casingcomprises epbody Wall l, of uniform Width, and cast or formed of sheet metal, as desired. ln the present case, it is mode of a short section of rolled seamless tubing of proper diameter pressed into the general sector shupe shown, and is hence not only mede of sheet metal but is also Without seein or joint. The side Well 2 of the casing is tiet-,of sheet instal if desired, and formed with a, chine groore adopted to receive one edge oit the body Well l, while the opposite side well'V is similarly formed vand grooved to receive the opposite edge of seid well, both side Wells being provided with external bolt holes, vby means of which they `are clamped firmly against the body. Wit-h the aid of red leed the joints thus formed may be mede leak-proof with out special machining or the meeting parts.

rllhe side well 3, in the present cese, 1s eX- tended. beyond the aroshaped port of the body Well in the form of a, taper-curved erin. i, by means of which the casing member ofi the device con be connected to one of the parts between which shock is to be ab sorbecL-forr example, to a. clamp 5 on the axle or spring clip of a motor vehicle.- v

Thel blade member is formed ot leuninated springs bolted in a. slot in the hub 7.,.

which is journeled at the axiolfcenter of the sector-shapedV casing. The Width of lthe blade lsubstznititilly equals that fifths casing, fitting it. snugly, `end the portion of the hub beyond the ends ot the blade slot therein are received in circuler bosses struck up `from pose .the coi/er pistes or side Walls'for the pur- @ne end ot the hub', of reduced diem#4 eter., projects through the boss in the side through the boss and is grooved toreceivc screw 16. After the blade overrides the hole 20tlie liquid yet remaining can escape only past the end of theblade and-on the return stroke all oi: the displaced liquidl must pass-in the opposite direction-past the end oft" the flexed blade because the pressure closes the upper end ot the wall. 17 against its seat, as `will be evident.

The passage between the supplemental Wall 17 and the casing Wall thus foi-ins a by-pass for the liquid which springdoaded to liquid flow in one direction and permits no lio-W at all in the opposite direction, thereby producing a low resistance to the initiall part of the down-stroke of the blade, a greater resistance to the reniainiler of that stroke and to all ot' the lip-stroke, 1n the pre-sent case the down-stroke conforms t0 the compression of the vehicle springs and the approach of the axle and frame ot the vehicle, and it may be termed u l the impact stroke ot the absorber. 'llie upstroke resulting from the relative separation of the aXle and trarne may be similarlyY termed the recoil stroke of the absorber, but the arrangement of the resistances as just described may be reversed if .desired and according to the character o the vehicle springs.

It will be observed that adjustment of the screw 16 Awill vary the area of the flow passage around the piston member or spring blade 6, in greater degree at its point of connection with the elastic Wall 17 than elsewhere, and the said screivis located at a mid-point in the stroke of the blade, so as during their minor vibrations.

to be capable of providing the Widest pas- Sage at about that point. This gives`- a midregion in which the vibration of the blade is rela-tively unrestrained and is desirable in order to relieve the vehicle springs of the retarding'inliience of the shock absorber According to the structure of the Wall 17 and the disposition of its seating means Q'this vadjustable region of relatively unrestrained vibration inc y be made of large or small extent, as preferred, so that a. desirable portion at the end of each stroke Will be let't to provide the principal resistance.

1n the inodilied forni of Fig. 7, the niov- 4able chamber walll, fits the easing at both ends and is iinperforate, save for a negligible opening at the point-ot its attachment with the screw i6. Except as modified by other agencies, the liquid resistance in this form is the saine in both impact and recoil,v

no by-pass being present. Variation of curvature *of the Wall will therefore control merely the flow Ipassage around the flexing end et' the blade, providing more or less resistance to the minor vibrations of the vehicle springs. This torni of the appaiatus having the auxiliary wall member, without limitation to the ley-pass 1n rear thereof,

forms the subject of another application, Serial No. 76,103, filed February Ll, 1916.

1n the form ot' Figs. 8 and 9, the casing is shown as a` casting with an offset by-pass chamber at its arcuate end et less Width than the width of the casing and of less length than the height of the chamber. An elastic valve plate covering such chamber, is held to the casing by the edges of its 'Wider portion which lit in two slideway grooves Q3, being capable of adjustment therein so as to cover more or less of the chamber. A screw 2l, entering the end of the chamber and connected with an outturned ear 25 at the end ol' the elastic bypass wall, serves to advance or withdraw the saine over the chamber as circumstances may require. In the down stroke, the liquid.` is forced past the screw 2l into and through the by-pass chamber, 'lifting the end oft the elastic wall After passing the entrance to the 'by-pass, chamber, the blade 6 encounters increased resistance, in the case of Fig. 1, and during its return stroke the resistance is still increased, since the prsui'e closes the Wall 22 against its seat. HOW- evei', such return resistance .may be Varied by operating the screw 2l to Withdraw the blade from the end of the chamber, leaving a restricted reverse flow for the liquid, but the full liquid resistance will be ellective, in all adjustments, toward the end of the stroke in one direction. y

As a. further means of increasing the difference in resistance ot' the absorberin the strokes in opposite directions, the lamina-v tions, of the blade 6 arranged so as to permit the longest leal' 30, which is rela tively thin, to flex more readily upward lishtailiiig of the several lea ves not only provides a uniform flexing curve ot' the blade as a whole, but in the present case provides 1elatively.wide edv'es to the blade-'in proportion toits elasticity and a correspondingly wide crevice between it and the cover- `plates 2 and This wide crevice tends to prevent the liquid from flowing around the edges of the blade and compels it to pass troni one side to tlieother through the passage space provided for it.

.is a further nieans of stitl'ening one stroke and modifying the spring resistance of the other, the slot in the hub T is cut away on the upper side so that during the iinp'act the blade may bend on a longer radius but on the recoil will bend over the edge 38 of the washcrplatc 7a representing the center of a shorter radius, the spring blade being 'thus made virtually longer and more yieldinc on one stroke than on the other. The blade may normally sweep nearly the whole arcuate distance between top and bottom walls of the casing, but as precaution against injuryv from contact between blade and casing on an cxtreme vibration, the convergence ot' the top and bottom walls is made at such an angle as will cause the tip or more slender part of the blade to strike the `wall tirs-t, as diagrammatically indicated by dotted lines in F ig. l, and thus cushion the blow by the resilience of the blade itself.

As will be observed in Fig. 3, the connection arm 12 is provided with a longitudinal slot 12 extending the greater' part of the length thereof and dividing the said arm into two grelatively slender limbs. This divided formation provides a greater degree of lateral, flexibility in the said arm than would otherwise be present and greater than is present in the other connection arm 4, thus permitting it-to flex laterally and twist when accommodating lateral displacement of the chassis frame WithoutJ straining the various connections', but it is otherwise adequately rigid in the vertical direction.

lt will be evident that various changes may be made in the size, proportion and general arrangement of the parts above de-v scribed, and also that. various other forms of elastic chamber walls may be substituted for the speciic Wall above described, and that various other modifications may be made Within the scope of the folloivin claims and without departing from the principle of the invention.

I claim:

l. The combination with the springs of a 1l'ehicle of a shock absorber, a liquid confined therein and means for imparting the .shock pressure to such liquid to cause it to liow from one side to the other of the casing, comprising a laminated spring blade mein-l ber, the leaves thereof being arranged tol permit the member to bend more readily. in one direction than in the other. 4

2. The combination with the springs of a vehicle ot' a casing, a resistance liquid therein, and means for imparting the shock pressure to the liquid comprising an os-y cillating spring blade, thev mounting for said bla-de providing supporting abutments therefor disposed on opposite sides thereof Aand at different' distances from the free end of the blade. I

3. 1n a, shock. absorber, the combination of a casing containing a resistance liquid, 'a

vLaramie having parallel side Walls, a' laminated spring blade filling the Width between such Walls and composed of a main leaf and fishtailed side leaves of graded length.

In a shock absorber, the vcombination of a liquid chamber, a hubffnounted piston member adapted to cause the liquid toilow from one part of the chamber to another, and an elastic wall adjacent the free end of 'the piston member, forming a by-pass 75 through which the {iow of liquid exes said Wall.

(3. Ina shockabsorber, the combination of an oscillating piston, aA chamber therefor containing liquid which receives the shock` pressure from the piston, the Wall of such chamber adjacent the swinging end of the piston being elastic, and forming a by-pass liquid passage behind it and means for varying the resistance opposed by the Wall to the passage of liquid moving through the byass, l p 7. A vehicle shock-absorber comprising a main casing, a hub-supported oscillating` blade. therein, a supplemental Wall in the1 'asing adjacent the free end of the bladlf said Wall having an opening and ormingr' a by-pass passage between it and the Wall of the casing.

8. A; vehicle shock absorber comprising a sector-shaped casing, a hub-supported spiingyielding blade therein, an elastic Wall in the casing opposed to the swingingedge of the blade and forming a by-pas's between itself and the casing Wall, and means in the lo() latter wall for controlling the flexure of the said elastic wall.

9. A vehicle shock-absorber comprising a liquid-containing casing, a Vhub-supported springyielding blade adapted to .impart 1435I shock-pressures to the liquid, a bypass passage having an entrance which is overridden by the blade in its stroke in one direction and a' means for preventing'iow t n'ough the bypass on the return stroke.

10. A vehicle shock absorber comprising a chamber containing liquid, a spring-yielding blade adapted to impart shock pressures to the liquid to Cause it to lilow around the flexing end thereof, a spring-yielding Inernber forming a by-pass passage" through which the liquid may iow in one direction, said member being arranged to resist such iiow; Y

1l. A. vehicle shock absorber comprising a 120 liquid-confining casing, a. hubsupported springyielding blade therein by means of which the liquid is caused to flow around the flexing end of' such blade, a spring-loaded by-pass for such liquid operative during ,part of one stroke, and means for preventing by-passage of liquid through it during the return stroke.

l2. A vehicle shock absorber comprising a liquid-confining casing, a spring blade 13u -by-pass-passage in caused to flow around `the flexing end/of such' blade, a spring-loadedby-pass for the liquid and means exterior` ofthe casing for changing the said spring-load;

13. A `shock-absorbenv comprisingfapiston mounted on a hubiand oscillating.giEv a. l v

am 1er.: thinlnibsradapting said arm to tws't'or'flex' chamber containingvliquid, said chl, having an elastic Wall lcoextensive withth normal 'stroke voi the piston, and forming-a. rear 'of said Wall con-A trolled,thereby.v 14. A shock absorber lcomprising a gener'ally'seotor-shaped liquid containing cham bei', a hub-mounted pistonadapted to oscillatethe'rei'n and havin yielding abutmentA Contact withsaid cham its free end'.

lfIn'"zt-'shock absorber, the combination vith/a liquideontaining easing of an osoil. latory lpiston theiein, a hub for such piston' ]ourna din the' 'easing and projecting to the 'exterior thereof, a stub-arm non-rotatably fixedlon the hub and provided with a circular boss ozf'hearing, vand Van operatino` arm for said plston Journaled on the sai bearing aid adinstably oonnectible to the' stubarm indi erent angular relations.

16. A shock absorber comprising a casing e521, A l v fr, '17, A shock absorber comprising a'iiquid-4 confining" chamber, and' Ja., zhub-mounted er by a, point neat" having sheet-metal side walls, an attachnlent arm extended from one of said side Walls, and a body of liquid confined in said casing,

in combination with a hub journaled in said -easing, la `piston on'the hub Within the Casin and an attachment arm secured to 'said hu and formed 'of two vertically superposed,

spring-yielding piston therein', iih'e. ,termina1 Wall-surface of said chamber being" disposed in position ada ting it -forcontactwith vvthe free end of sai piston on extreme strokes.

18. vA shock absorber comprising aliquidcontaining v chamber,

RUSSELL s. CARTER. Witnesses:

G. W. Moiamsgm` EDGAR Dnvrs.

l a ,p'iston Inem'ber therein, an velastic-cl1anr1ber wall subJect to4

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5279000 *Nov 12, 1992Jan 18, 1994Mercier William HAutomatic toilet seat lowering hinge assembly
US5405159 *Jun 30, 1994Apr 11, 1995Klein Bicycle CorporationHigh efficiency bicycle suspension
US5570640 *Dec 27, 1994Nov 5, 1996Railway & Industrial Services, Inc.Yaw damper for railway cars
WO1994006672A1 *Sep 17, 1993Mar 31, 1994Klein Bicycle CorpA high efficiency bicycle suspension
U.S. Classification188/307, 188/310
Cooperative ClassificationF16F9/145